|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 39, 26 February 1993
RUSSIA US-RUSSIAN SUMMIT ANNOUNCED. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher and his Russian counterpart Andrei Kozyrev held three hours of talks in Geneva on 25 February. In the press conference that followed, Christopher and Kozyrev announced that a US-Russian summit meeting would be held on 4 April in a third country. They also confirmed their countries' commitment to seeking a peaceful settlement to the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and to promoting the Arab-Israeli peace process by restarting talks, Russian and Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow REFERENDUM ISSUES. At its 25 February session, the Russian parliament voted to delay until 4 March a decision on whether to convene the Congress of People's Deputies over the issues of constitutional reform. Parliamentary speaker Khasbulatov suggested 9-10 March as a possible date for the Congress. The deputies also voted against discussing President Yeltsin's proposals for a constitutional agreement. The same day, the parliamentary opposition faction, "Russian Unity", which opposes holding a referendum on the new constitution, announced at a press conference reported by ITAR-TASS that it had sent a draft resolution to the parliamentary presidium suggesting two versions for the Congress of a resolution for the constitutional crisis: the "soft option" envisaged early presidential and parliamentary elections; the "harsh option" suggested ousting Khasbulatov and the resignation of the president. Meanwhile, Mikhail Poltoranin, head of the Federal Information Center and a close Yeltsin ally, speaking in Omsk, said that the decision to hold a referendum was "final and irreversible." He also said that the "all powerful" Congress was "not an effective instrument of power, but a mechanical conglomeration of local interests," according to ITAR-TASS. Wendy Slater RUBLE SLUMPS. On the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICE) on 25 February the exchange rate for the ruble fell to 593 rubles to the dollar, down from 576 rubles on 23 February, Biznes-TASS reported. Turnover was $72 million. Meanwhile, Western agencies have procured the text of a draft document submitted to parliament which suggests the reimposition of a fixed rate of exchange for the ruble after seven months of free floating. The draft, drawn up by the Russian Central Bank (RCB), argues that the MICE is too vulnerable to speculation. The RCB "is ready to propose the introduction of a fixed ruble rate from 1 April 1993." Keith Bush REORGANIZATION OF PRESIDENTIAL STAFF. In a presidential decree signed on 22 February, Boris Yeltsin dissolved his Presidential Consultative Council and replaced it with an enlarged Presidential Council. The new Presidential Council will include representatives of political parties and informal organizations, who will work on an unsalaried basis and meet at least monthly. Members of the former consultative council, the composition of which had been radically changed earlier in February and currently includes former Russian prime minister, Egor Gaidar, might be co-opted onto the new council. According to a presidential spokesman, the functions of the Presidential Council will be "to elaborate suggestions for internal and foreign policy directed towards the implementation of reforms in Russia." The decree was reported by ITAR-TASS on 25 February. Wendy Slater COUNCIL OF HEADS OF ADMINISTRATIONS ESTABLISHED. Yeltsin has also created another consultative council, the Council of Heads of Administrations, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 February. The council will be chaired by Yeltsin and include the prime minister, the secretary of the Security Council, and the chairman of the State Committee for Nationalities Policy. The council is to ensure interaction between the federal authorities and the bodies of executive power of the krais and oblasts and the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The new council is a companion to the Council of the Heads of the Republics established earlier, and may partially satisfy the wishes of the krais and oblasts to be given the same status as the republics of the Russian Federation. Ann Sheehy RUSSIA DELAYS CUTTING OFF GAS SUPPLIES TO UKRAINE. Rem Vyakhirev, acting chairman of Russia's monopoly gas concern Gazprom, told ITAR-TASS on 25 February that Russia has postponed halting supplies of gas to Ukraine. The delay is intended to give Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma an opportunity to negotiate a settlement with the Russian government. Gazprom claims that Ukraine owes it 165 billion rubles in arrears. Erik Whitlock LOOKING FOR A FEW GOOD MEN: THE RUSSIAN MVD AND ARMY. ITAR-TASS reported on 25 February that the Russian government has decided to allocate to the Internal Affairs Ministry (MVD) an extra 1 billion rubles for the recruitment of contract servicemen. According to the report, some 40,000 men are expected to be recruited on a contract basis over the next few years. The same report quoted Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai as saying that the staffing of the MVD forces was now a priority task. On the same day, the Russian Defense Ministry held what was described by Russian TV as its first conference on personnel matters. According to the report, participants lamented the fact that the army is rapidly losing many of its best young officers, including some 35,000 between the ages of 23 and 30 over the past year alone. Both the MVD and the armed forces continue to receive conscripts from the military draft and, as they move toward greater reliance on contract service, will be competing for professional recruits as well. Stephen Foye GROWING REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN LIVING STANDARDS. The difference between the rich and poor regions of Russia is becoming more apparent, according to an article in Izvestiya on 13 February. Average incomes depend largely on the type of production situated in the region, since differentials in branch earnings are now substantial. In the Tula oblast, for example, workers in nonferrous metallurgy earn 62-66,000 rubles a month, but in forestry and wood processing - 7-8,000 rubles. Average per capita income in the Far East region is almost double that in the North Caucasus. The lowest incomes were found in the North Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkariya, Mordoviya, the Moscow and Penza oblasts; and the highest levels in the Sakha and Komi republics, the Kamchatka, Magadan, Murmansk, Sakhalin, and Tyumen oblasts, and the city of Moscow. Sheila Marnie. COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED TV CENSORSHIP. On 25 February, according to Russian TV newscasts, the Russian parliament established a commission to investigate alleged censorship of Ostankino TV. In the course of the session, the speaker, Ruslan Khasbulatov, stated his opinion that the parliament should approve presidential appointments for the heads of both Russian radio and TV companies, otherwise, Khasbulatov was quoted as saying, "intriguers," such as the director of the Federal Information Center Mikhail Poltoranin, would enforce their own views on the state-owned electronic media. Julia Wishnevsky RUSSIAN DEFENSE PLANS FOR NORTH CAUCASUS. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev met with military and civilian leaders in the north Caucasus on 25 February to begin preparing for the arrival this year of some 9,000 officers and warrant officers. According to Russian TV "Vesti," Rostov oblast alone is planning to spend some 6 billion rubles on housing construction for the officers, many of whom are apparently being re-deployed from Germany. Grachev has spoken in recent weeks of the strategic importance that Moscow now assigns to southern Russia, and the large movement of troops to the area is reportedly a result of this reordering of priorities. "Vesti" quoted Grachev as saying that Russia "must create a combat district [in the north Caucasus] before 1995. If there is any danger, it is coming from the south." Stephen Foye PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN INGUSHETIA. There will be no polling stations in the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, but the 644,000 Ingush refugees from North Ossetia now in Ingushetia will be able to take part in the election of the first Ingush president on 28 February, since they have satisfied the residence qualifications, according to Moskovsky komsomolets of 25 February. North Ossetia had objected strongly to the decision of the Ingush electoral commission that the elections should be held in Prigorodnyi raion as well as in Ingushetia. To avoid complications, strict controls are in force on the North Ossetian-Ingush frontier until 2 March. The sole candidate is Gen. Ruslan Aushev, the former head of the temporary administration in Ingushetia, who resigned in protest against Moscow's handling of the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict. Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CIS PEACEKEEPERS EXPECTED IN TAJIKISTAN. Four battalions of CIS peacekeeping forces are scheduled to arrive in Tajikistan by 26 February, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 February. Tajikistan's head of state, Supreme Soviet Chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, told an emergency session of the Supreme Soviet Presidium and Council of Ministers that the CIS troops would be sent to the Tajik-Afghan border. Rakhmonov also contradicted several weeks of positive government statements about government control of former opposition strongholds, saying that, after local authorities in raions east of Dushanbe had promised to support the government, they had continued to assist the opposition and had even hung Islamic flags on the buildings of the raion governments. Garm Raion, one of the most important opposition strongholds, had even declared itself an autonomous Islamic republic. In Kofarnikhon Raion, supposedly subdued by government troops in January, groups of what Rakhmonov called "bandits" are said to be operating in armored vehicles. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. Major US dailies on 26 February say that airdrops to blockaded areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina that cannot be reached by land convoys may start as soon as 28 February after 600,000 leaflets are dropped. President Bill Clinton called it a "temporary measure" undertaken "without regard to ethnic or religious affiliation " of the intended recipients. Defense Department spokesmen said that the project is meant to complement, not replace, land convoys, and would "show that the whole world is ganging up on the miscreants" who use "the denial of food and medicine for the purposes of ethnic cleansing," the Washington Post reports. The paper also mentions "veiled threats" by Serbian officials against the flights, although Tanjug on 25 February quoted Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as saying that he guarantees the planes' "safety." The Washington Post article adds that the US has "fended off offers [of help] from Turkey, Pakistan, and Germany for fear of tainting the operation's neutrality. -Patrick Moore HUNGARY ALLOWS US OVERFLIGHTS. The government on 25 February gave its agreement "in principle" to allow US planes transporting humanitarian aid to Bosnia to fly through Hungary's airspace, MTI reports. The decision, made after receipt of an American request on 24 February, is in conformity with UN Security Council Resolution 770; Austria acceded to a similar request earlier. According to Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, Hungary will continue to exercise great caution in the Yugoslav crisis and refrain from participating in any UN peacekeeping force; it will also not support any plan to close the Hungarian-Serbian border. -Alfred Reisch OTHER BOSNIAN DEVELOPMENTS. The 26 February Los Angeles Times reports that Bosnian fighters stand to lose control of Tuzla in northeastern Bosnia; "Bosnian regional commanders at a recent meeting in Tuzla broke down in tears when they explained how their strongholds were doomed to fall to [the Serbs]." The collapse of Tuzla would send tens of thousands of refugees and defeated soldiers fleeing. The New York Times notes that the Serbs on 25 February allowed an aid convoy to proceed to Gorazde in eastern Bosnia after blocking it for three days. Outside Sarajevo, a French convoy was allowed to pass into the city only after "donating voluntarily" six truckloads of food and clothing to the Serbs. Finally, Czech foreign minister Josef Zieleniec said in Slovenia that his country would like to join the international war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. CTK ran the report on 25 February. -Patrick Moore COSIC IN BUCHAREST. The president of the rump Yugoslav federation, Dobrica Cosic, held talks in Bucharest on 25 February with Romanian President Ion Iliescu. The two discussed the conflicts in former Yugoslavia and other issues of mutual interest such as Romania's enforcement of the UN sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro and the Yugoslav attempts to block river traffic on the Serbian sector of the Danube. Iliescu told reporters after the meeting that Romania opposes any outside military intervention and pledged that Romania will rigorously apply UN sanctions, but added that his country is not happy having to do so. In a hint at the embargo's high costs for Romania-which he put at some $7 billion-Iliescu said the sanctions are "an embargo against us too." Cosic, in turn, hailed Romania as a "reliable friend," and called Romania's stance toward Serbia and Montenegro a "miracle" rooted in history. -Dan Ionescu UKRAINE OPPOSES UN SANCTIONS AGAINST CROATIA. In an interview with Reuters on 25 February Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko disagreed with the idea of "balancing" UN sanctions against Serbia by introducing them against Croatia. The Ukrainian position differs from that of Russia, which recently put forward an eight-point plan pressing for sanctions against Croatia if fighting there is not ended. -Roman Solchanyk SANDZAK MUSLIMS APPEAL TO UN. The 26 February Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports that the Muslim National Council of the Sandzak has sent a declaration to the Security Council protesting "quiet ethnic cleansing" in the area. They charge that this takes place with the complicity of the Serbian and Montenegrin authorities. On 18 February, the Muslims allege, the village of Kukurovici was shot up, nine houses were burned, chetniks occupied the village, and three people were killed. The Muslims offered this as an example of what they say is repeatedly happening in the Sandzak, an area that few foreign correspondents visit. -Patrick Moore CRIMINALS ON THE OFFENSIVE IN MONTENEGRO. Belgrade media report that a crime wave in Montenegro has reached "uncontrollable proportions." According to Studio B TV and Politika, organized crime is on the verge of successfully dividing the republic's cities and towns into special interests zones and are pushing Montenegro closer to warfare. A report by Podgorica's Forum for Human Rights and Interethnic Relations states that organized crime and "small gangs of psychopaths" are arming themselves with sophisticated weapons, and the police are not or will not cope with the crime wave. Figures for 1992 show a 50% increase in crime over the previous year. The public prosecutor of the town of Bijelo Polje remarked "the worst thing is that we have grown accustomed to living with criminals." -Milan Andrejevich CROATIA MAY LOSE LAST INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER. The second largest daily in Croatia continues to resist attempts by President Franjo Tudjman and his Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) to launch a takeover. The government is using privatization legislation to try to give the Split daily Slobodna Dalmacija a management closely linked to the HDZ, as are most other major Croatian periodicals. Croatian opposition parties, the paper's staff, Western diplomats, and international journalists' organizations have protested the attempt. A government-appointed privatization board has a running feud going with the paper's staff, who have charged it with making ham-fisted attempts at controlling editorial policy. The staff have not only taken an independent line in their reporting but have also used satire to make implicit comparisons between the Tudjman leadership and those of Tito and Hitler. Slobodna Dalmacija and Western media have reported recently on the takeover, and the Washington Post ran a story on 20 February. -Patrick Moore & Barbara Kroulik BELGRADE MEDIA TOE THE LINE. Borba reported on 24 February that Belgrade TV's "Second Journal" news program continues to hew closely to the political line dictated by Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic. The daily said that Belgrade TV is ignoring reports of rifts in the government of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina and continues to edit video reports from Sarajevo to leave out footage embarrassing to Bosnian Serbs while emphasizing "protocol visits" by foreigners to create the impression that the regime has "numerous friends in the world." Borba also announced it may soon have to cease publication temporarily because of financial difficulties. According to independent Belgrade Radio B92, a daily newspaper now costs as much as two loaves of bread. -Milan Andrejevich CZECH PARLIAMENT REJECTS LAW ON PROVISIONAL SENATE. On 25 February, the House of Representatives rejected a draft constitutional law on the creation of a provisional senate. Under the law, the 81-member senate would have been created by transferring some members of the former federal parliament. The opposition parties as well as the Civic Democratic Alliance, a member of the ruling four-party coalition, have been opposed to the creation of the provisional senate by transferring the former federal deputies, arguing that an upper house should be established through elections. The provisional senate would perform the duties of the senate until it is formally established through elections. In its absence, the House performs its functions. -Jiri Pehe HDF ON THE "HUNGARIAN PATH." The presidium of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum issued a statement on 24 February declaring that the Hungarian Path Foundation spearheaded by Istvan Csurka, a member of the HDF presidium and leader of the forum's populist-national wing, is a legal entity independent of the HDF. According to the statement, as reported by MTI, the movement financed by the Hungarian Path Circles foundation may not use HDF facilities to carry out its activities or recruit supporters. HDF parliamentary leader Imre Konya recently warned that the Hungarian Path Circles could "break the party structures of the HDF." The main fear of the HDF centrists, led by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, is that Csurka and followers will use HDF party organizations to spread radical nationalist ideas, thereby tainting the party's centrist image. -Edith Oltay HUNGARIANS DEBATE LAW ON NATIONAL MINORITIES. Representatives of Hungary's six parliamentary parties agreed on 25 February that ensuring cultural rights is a key question in preserving the identity of national minorities, MTI reports. Consequently, they proposed that the draft law on Hungary's national minorities should state that local governments can make decisions concerning minority education, culture., media, use of language, and preservation of traditions only with the consent of the local minority self-government bodies. -Alfred Reisch BULGARIAN TRADE UNIONS CLASH. On 25 February Sofia dailies reported increasing tension between the two major trade unions, the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria and Podkrepa. Following charges by Podkrepa on 23 February that the CITUB is taking part in the "restoration of the former communist nomenklatura," CITUB spokeswoman Diana Damyanova at a press conference accused the rival organization of trying to seize key positions in the economic sector. Both unions initially agreed to cooperate with the new government of Lyuben Berov, but the Podkrepa leadership now threatens to withdraw. Other points of disagreement with the government include the cabinet's recent decision, without prior consultations with the unions, to raise fuel prices by an average of 45%. -Kjell Engelbrekt ZHELEV IN POLAND. Polish President Lech Walesa and Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev signed a bilateral treaty on friendship and cooperation in Warsaw on 25 February. Education and culture agreements were also signed. Zhelev commented that the new agreements were proof that "in destroying the old structures, the CMEA and the Warsaw Pact, we did not give up on bilateral contacts." Zhelev met for almost two hours with Walesa, who stressed the need to rebuild trade links between the two countries. The Bulgarian president also met with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, Poland's foreign and trade ministers, and the Sejm and Senate speakers. Zhelev pledged to begin repayment of Bulgaria's 500 million transfer ruble debt to Poland, PAP reported. -Louisa Vinton SOLIDARITY DIVIDED. After a stormy two-day session, Solidarity's national leadership voted on 25 February to reprimand the 15 members of the union's parliamentary caucus who disregarded explicit instructions to vote against the government's proposed 1993 budget. Dissident ballots from the Solidarity caucus provided the government's margin of victory in the budget vote. Though harshly worded, the resolution was not as tough as some proposals, including a demand by Warsaw union leader Maciej Jankowski that the dissenters be forbidden from using the name Solidarity. The resolution required caucus members to sign new loyalty oaths. Rzeczpospolita reported on 25 February that caucus leader Bogdan Borusewicz threatened to resign should the union assume a fundamentalist profile and ignore its responsibilities to support reform. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S BORDERS UNDER SIEGE. The commander of Poland's border guard told reporters on 24 February that limitations on the entry of "potential illegal immigrants" were necessary, preferably in the form of registered invitations for citizens of Bulgaria, Romania, and the former Soviet Union. Jan Wojcieszczuk reported that 33,500 people (23,500 of them Romanians) had been apprehended during illegal attempts to cross the Polish border in 1992. Some 18,500 of these were caught on the border with Germany. He called for changes in Poland's law on foreigners to criminalize illegal border crossings, as the border guard now can do little more than stamp an expulsion visa in the passports of the people it catches. Deportation is too expensive. Col. Wieslaw Adamczyk commented that "even if we had a division of soldiers on the Western border, we would be powerless because 100,000 potential illegal immigrants are entering Poland legally." More than 154 million people crossed Poland's borders legally in 1992. -Louisa Vinton KUCHMA CONCLUDES CENTRAL ASIAN VISIT. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma has concluded a week-long visit at the head of a governmental delegation to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, Ukrainian Radio reported on 25 February. A main objective was to secure alternative supplies of oil and natural gas for Ukraine. Talks in Turkmenistan, Kuchma's last stop, were reportedly quite difficult because of the "burden of distrust," as Ukrainian Deputy Prime Minister Vasyl Yevtukhov called it, stemming from previous disputes between Kiev and Ashgabat over the price of Turkmen gas. An agreement was nevertheless reached whereby Ukraine will receive almost 29 billion cubic meters of natural gas this year (total requirements are about 115 billion m3). Yevtukhov also accused Moscow of complicating matters, claiming that the Russian Bank has held up Ukrainian payments meant for Turkmenistan. -Bohdan Nahaylo BELARUS TO CUT DEFENSE SPENDING. "Informed sources" told Belinform-TASS on 24 February that Minsk intends to cut military spending in 1993 by one-half. Total defense spending will reportedly be 56.5 billion rubles, or 6.3% of the total budget. According to the report, border, railroad, and civil defense forces will also be financed from the same military budget. -Stephen Foye SOVIET SOLDIERS' REMAINS IN RIGA NOT TO BE REBURIED. Meeting with Russian journalists and the "peace marchers" who came to Latvia to mark the former Soviet armed forces day on 23 February, Deputy Ojars Blumbergs said that despite allegations in the media to the contrary, the remains of Soviet servicemen in Riga's Cemetery of the Brethren will not be reinterred, BNS reports. Blumbergs explained that reburial of CPSU functionaries and their relatives at that cemetery is planned in order to retain the original purpose of the cemetery as a final resting place for soldiers who fought for Latvia's independence. -Dzintra Bungs BRAZAUSKAS INAUGURATED. On 25 February Algirdas Brazauskas was formally inaugurated as Lithuania's president in ceremonies covered live on Radio Lithuania. The Seimas subsequently annulled his election as a deputy to the Seimas and announced that new elections for his seat in Kaisiadorys Raion will be held soon. The Seimas elected Ceslovas Jursenas, who had been its acting chairman, as its chairman over Social Democratic Party chairman Aloyzas Sakalas by 64 to 11 in a secret vote. On 26 February Brazauskas accepted the resignation of Bronislovas Lubys as Prime Minister and presented the Seimas Adolfas Slezevicius as his replacement. Slezevicius, a member of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party Council, served as deputy agriculture minister under the Prunskiene government. -Saulius Girnius MINIMUM WAGE INCREASES IN LITHUANIA. The government announced that from 1 March the minimum subsistence level in Lithuania will be raised from 1,920 to 2,210 coupons and the minimum wage from 2,040 to 2,350, Baltfax reported on 25 February. The increased figures will, however, still be significantly below the actual cost of living, estimated at 8,124 coupons per month. On 24 February the government also raised the salaries of budget organization employees by 15% and pension payments by 20%, also effective 1 March. -Saulius Girnius POPULATION DECLINE IN HUNGARY-.-.-. The Statistical Office reported on 23 February 1993 that Hungary's population decreased by more than 20,000 between January and October 1992. The decline was 60.9% more than the drop in the same period of 1991. The decrease for the whole year of 1991 was 17,606. The number of abortions continues to be high: 72 per 100 births. Hungary's loss of population started in 1981. Demographic forecasts predict that Hungary's population, which was 10,337,000 at the end of 1991, will drop below 10 million in 2010. -Karoly Okolicsanyi .-.-.-AND LATVIA. BNS reported on 22 February that in 1992 Latvia's population decreased to about 2,606,000 owing to emigration and a drop in the number of births. Throughout the country the population declined by 51,000 (in Riga-by 23,000). In 1992 the number of deaths exceeded the number of live births by 3,500. Of the 47,000 persons who left Latvia, 95% moved to former republics of the USSR. Meanwhile, Latvia's chief gynecologist Silvija Kaleja reported that in 1992 40,494 abortions were performed while only 32,099 children were born, Baltfax reported on 16 February. She noted that although numerous family planning facilities and modern contraceptive means are available-and despite the health risks-many Latvian women apparently still rely on abortion for birth control. -Dzintra Bungs & Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull CORRECTION: THE LAST SENTENCE OF THE 25 FEBRUARY ITEM ENTITLED PROBLEMS OF CONSULAR WORK IN "NEAR ABROAD" DISCUSSED. should read: In contrast, according to the head of the consular department of the Russian embassy in Minsk, Pavel Shestopalov, in Belarus, where the one and a half million ethnic Russians "do not feel political, economic and legal pressure," only ten people received Russian citizenship in the last three months. THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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