|The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound|
No. 38, 25 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA RUSSIAN PLAN FOR SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA. Russia's ambassador to the United Nations, Yulii Vorontsov, presented an eight-point plan at consultations in New York on 24-February. Among other things, the plan called for the end of fighting in Croatia and a reminder that, should fighting continue, Russia would continue to press for sanctions against Zagreb. The plan specified that if Serbia signed the package of agreements in the Vance-Owen plan, sanctions should gradually be lifted and Serbia should be allowed to participate once again in international organizations. Point 5 reads: "Russia is for the creation of a multinational force under the UN to help realize the Vance-Owen plan after its approval." Russia also stated its willingness to participate in such a force, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 February. Suzanne Crow CONCERN OVER CONTROL OF RUSSIAN MILITARY TECHNOLOGY. In testimony before the US Senate governmental affairs committee, new CIA Director James Woolsey said that Russia had yet to create an effective system of control for the export of sensitive military-related technologies. According to the Washington Post on 25 February, Woolsey affirmed that the Russian government supported such controls, but he expressed concern that the "lure of large, illegal profits," along with "legal, personnel and funding problems," might undermine its efforts in this area. He said that while the CIA has received no "credible" reports that nuclear arms or significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear materials have, in fact, been exported, the intelligence community nevertheless remains concerned over the safety of nuclear weapons that are to be dismantled over the next ten years. -Stephen Foye GAS SUPPLY TO UKRAINE AND/OR WESTERN EUROPE THREATENED? A RUSSIAN GAS INDUSTRY OFFICIAL TOLD REUTERS ON 24 FEBRUARY THAT SUPPLIES OF NATURAL GAS TO UKRAINE MAY BE GRADUALLY TURNED OFF, STARTING ON 25-FEBRUARY, BECAUSE OF PAYMENTS DEFAULT. Yet a Ukrainian official maintained in Nezavisimost on the same day that Ukraine has already paid its debts to Russia incurred through 1 March. The Russian and Ukrainian prime ministers are scheduled to discuss the matter on 26 February. Meanwhile, Germany's largest natural gas importer, Ruhrgas AG, has expressed concern that the Russian-Ukrainian dispute could disrupt deliveries of Russian gas to Germany. Supplies of gas to France, Italy, and the former Czechoslovakia are also believed to be at risk. -Keith Bush NEW PLEDGES ON THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND INFLATION. The Russian government has approved the action plan for economic reform in 1993, ITAR-TASS reported on 24-February. The 40-page document was drawn up by a group headed by Deputy Premier Vladimir Shumeiko and has been under discussion for the past two weeks. Two of its principal goals are to keep the combined budget deficit below 5% of GDP and to restrain the growth of the money supply to 7-10% a month. The Gaidar administration in July 1992 pledged to reduce the monthly inflation rate to below 10% and to limit the combined budget deficit to 5% of GDP during the second half of 1992. The final figures were closer to 30% and 15% respectively. -Keith Bush CIVIC UNION SEEKS WAY OUT OF THE CRISIS. The head of the centrist parliamentary faction "Smena," Andrei Golovin, told the RFE/RL Research Institute on 24 February that the Civic Union group, which plans to hold its general meeting on 28 February in Moscow, will reject the constitutional agreement proposed by President Boris Yeltsin. Golovin, whose faction is part of the group, said that Civic Union is against holding a referendum on the constitution, against early presidential and parliamentary elections, and against adopting a new constitution at this stage. He stated that the Civic Union will appeal to the president to hold round table discussions with all major political forces in the country in order to agree on a new economic strategy. -Alexander Rahr DEMOCRATS MEET IN NIZHNII NOVGOROD. The "Democratic Russia" Movement will meet on 27-28-February in Nizhnii Novgorod to work out a new political strategy and elect a new leadership, democratic activist Galina Starovoitova told the RFE/RL Research Institute on 24 February. Starovoitova herself is one of the candidates for a leadership post in the Movement. The democrats will be hosted by the liberal-oriented governor of Nizhnii Novgorod, Boris Nemtsov. While democrats are meeting in Nizhnii Novgorod, the Civic Union plans at the same time to hold a conference in Moscow. -Alexander Rahr MORE ON CONTROVERSY OVER OSTANKINO INFORMATION POLICY. All but two of Moscow's newspapers have published front page articles on the resignation of Igor Malashenko as deputy chairman of Ostankino TV company, Ostankino TV's "Press-Express" reported on 24 February. The program's presenter sided with Malashenko's complaint that the current "democratic" information policy did not allow Russian TV to broadcast true information, just as the communist party regime prevented it from doing in the past. In a possible illustration of this tendency, later that day Ostankino aired a program entitled "Public Opinion," seemingly propagandistic in tone, during which representatives of the "Democratic Russia" movement opined that Yeltsin should introduce "direct presidential rule" by decree, (which contradicts the provisions of the Constitution); that the country needs "strong, iron rule" during the period of economic reform; and that there should be a special information campaign to ensure the success of the 11 April referendum. -Julia Wishnevsky STANDING COMMISSION FOR RUSSIAN AFFAIRS TO BE CREATED IN COUNCIL OF NATIONALITIES. The Council of Nationalities voted on 24 February to set up a standing commission for the affairs of Russians and other ethnic groups native to Russia (Rossiyane), ITAR-TASS reported. This step was taken, it was stated, to meet the frequently expressed wishes of the Russian public and the populations of the other republics of the former USSR. The question had arisen in connection with an appeal to the Russian parliament from the presidium of the Lviv Russian Society about the dispersal by a Ukrainian nationalist organization of five Russian informal groups in Lviv, Chernivtsy, and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts. Ann Sheehy PROBLEMS OF CONSULAR WORK IN "NEAR ABROAD" DISCUSSED. The problems of consular work in the "near abroad" were discussed in the Russian Foreign Ministry on 24-February, ITAR-TASS reported. The head of the consular service Vasilii Vinogradov said that the lack of decisions on many questions and in particular on the defense of the rights of the Russian-speaking population in the "near abroad" was allowing opposition forces to use the issue for their purposes. There were also complaints of inadequate premises and understaffing. It was stated that about 29,000 people resident in Estonia had already received Russian citizenship, and 300-400 applied for it every day in Tallinn. In contrast, in Belarus, where the one and a half million ethnic Russians are under less pressure, only ten people received Russian citizenship in the last three months. -Ann Sheehy SHIFT IN CONVERSION POLICY? DURING A ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION ON CONVERSION IN MOSCOW, REPORTED BY ITAR-TASS ON 23 FEBRUARY, THE PRESIDENTIAL ADVISER ON CONVERSION MIKHAIL MALEI APPEARS TO HAVE SIGNALED A SHIFT IN POLICY. Russia should not, he averred, equate itself with America. Conversion was an expensive business and could be afforded only by prosperous countries. Instead, the Russian military- industrial complex should be geared up for export. Until now, conversion per se has been the main goal, and arms sales have been seen as the principal source of convertible currency funding for the conversion process. -Keith Bush GRACHEV ON START, MILITARY REFORM. In addition to defending the armed forces against charges of corruption, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev used a series of interviews on 22 and 23 February to address a number of more purely military issues. In a Russian TV interview on 22 February he again emphasized his strong support for reductions in strategic arms (claiming even to favor the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons), and implied that the START-2 Treaty redressed some imbalances in the START-1 agreement. In an Izvestiya interview the following day, Grachev said that Moscow no longer considered either NATO in the west or Japan and South Korea in the east to be its enemies. He suggested instead that the most likely source of conflict for Russia was the south, and said that Russia was moving particularly to build up its forces in the North Caucasus Military District. In a Radio Rossii interview on the same day, Grachev said that he was dissatisfied with the deferment provisions written into the recently passed law on military service, and said that all young men should serve before the age of 25. Over 15,000 men were now serving under contract in the Russian army, he said. He claimed that his office had, in nine months, reduced the number of servicemen lacking housing from 220,000 to 150,000, and said that the entire budget allocation for social needs for 1992 and 1993 was to be devoted to housing construction. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NEW LIBERAL NEWSPAPER FOUNDED. Well-known editors and journalists from one of Russia's major liberal-oriented newspapers, Nezavisimaya gazeta have founded their own newspaper, Segodnya (Today). The new paper will be financed by Russian commercial structures, such as the concern "Most" and most of its revenue is expected to come from advertising. The first issue of Segodnya was published on 23 February. It will appear as a weekly for the next two months and eventually become a daily. Circulation is expected to rise from 200,000 to 300,000 copies. The paper wants to concentrate on reporting political, economic and scientific developments, and stands for liberal ideas. Its first issue contains an interview with Russia's former prime minister, Egor Gaidar. -Alexander Rahr and Barbara Kroulik CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FIGHTING CONTINUES IN TAJIKISTAN. Quoting "confidential but absolutely trustworthy" sources, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 February that the armed opposition is still putting up stiff resistance to Tajik government troops in the mountainous areas east of Dushanbe which the government claimed to have captured a few days earlier. The same source said that government Field Commander Faizali has been sent to the region; Western journalists have characterized Faizali as particularly harsh in dealing with those suspected of supporting the opposition. ITAR-TASS also reported that opposition leader Davlat Khudonazarov has appealed to the population of his native Badakhshan (the eastern region of Tajikistan) to end their resistance to the Dushanbe government and to support the government's efforts to end the civil war. -Bess Brown MORE ON PROPOSED US AIRDROPS TO BOSNIA. International media reported on 24-February that Washington intends to use unarmed planes without fighter escort, and will drop leaflets prior to the aid packages to allow the intended recipients to prepare. A UN official said that some shipments will nonetheless undoubtedly land "on people's heads and people's houses," and a retired high-ranking US army officer told Reuters that at "ten thousand feet, two miles up, they'll be lucky if they hit Yugoslavia." President Bill Clinton meanwhile stressed that "this is not a political issue with us" and that the missions will be humanitarian shipments intended for all parties, the 25 February Washington Post said. The New York Times, however, reports that Europeans tend to see political and military dimensions to the American proposal, noting that "the Americans are now in the game; American prestige is engaged." One diplomat added: "The Serbs know now that the Europeans are not going to get involved militarily-.-.-. but the Serbs don't know what the Clinton administration might do." Meanwhile in eastern Bosnia, Serbian forces on 24 February blocked a UN overland convoy bound for Gorazde on the grounds that it might be carrying weapons, an idea that UN officials called "simply crazy." -Patrick Moore SERB REACTIONS. The General Staff of the Yugoslav Army issued a statement on 24-February criticizing the plan as a prelude to Western military intervention. According to Radio Serbia, the statement denounced the airdrop as a "ruthless imperial ultimatum" that would draw the US into the war. The military's statement predicted that Serbs will receive none of the dropped aid and condemned the "almost incredible desire for American cargo planes to be shot down" and says Washington is hoping for "the possible death of American pilots, which would create conditions for a deeper and wider US military involvement" in Bosnia and as a pretext to intervene on the Muslim side. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic described the plan as "a highly uncalled-for, very risky, and dangerous decision." Moving to quell Serbian anxieties, the Clinton administration said on 24 February that the relief planes will not be escorted by warplanes and aid also will be dropped over Serb- and Croat-held territory. Bosnian Serb commanders, who fear that airdrops could be used to deliver arms or ammunition to outgunned Bosnian government forces, appeared reassured after hearing that all ethnic groups would get a share. Gen. Ratko Mladic, commander of the Bosnian Serb army, stated "the only thing the Serbian side will not tolerate is the delivery of weapons or fuel under the guise of humanitarian aid." Radios Serbia and Croatia carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich OTHER DEVELOPMENTS. Western news agencies on 24 February said that UN forces commander Gen. Satish Nambiar of India will be replaced by Swedish Lt.-Gen. Eric Wahlgren this coming weekend when Nambiar's one-year appointment to head UNPROFOR runs out. In New York the UN Security Council called for a speedy resumption of the Bosnian peace talks, which may begin again on 1 March. On 24 February the New York Times reported that the US is taking diplomatic steps to prevent a possible sale of arms by Serbia to Somalia for goods in violation of UN sanctions. Finally, in Geneva, Kosovo Albanian leader called on the UN to send peace-keeping troops to that province, where the more than 90% Albanian majority lives under a tight Serbian regime, Western news agencies said. -Patrick Moore COSIC AND THE WAR. From Belgrade, Reuters reports that rump Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic responded to Czech president Vaclav Havel's call for armed intervention against Serbia by calling Havel "a cosmopolitan militant-.-.-. [with a] warrior spirit," adding that "the basic difference between him and me is that Mr.-Havel loves power." Some observers have noted that Cosic in recent weeks has returned to the militant nationalist line of Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. Cosic travels to Romania on 25 February to meet with Romanian President Ion Iliescu. In an interview with Adevarul Cosic said that a mediator in the war is "absolutely necessary, and Romania is the country that deserves to play that role." Earlier this week, Iliescu said he will tell Cosic of the problems the embargo against Serbia and Montenegro has caused Romania. Iliescu also pledged to tackle the issue of the evasion of UN sanctions by Yugoslav vessels on the Danube. In another development, a Romanian official at the Iron Gates Two" lock announced that two Yugoslav convoys, which had been denied passage on 23 February, are blocking the Danube, preventing all river traffic in the region. -Patrick Moore and Dan Ionescu MECIAR ON GABCIKOVO. The Slovak Prime Minister, on a two-day visit to Brussels, met with EC and NATO officials, including EC commission head Jacques Delors. Meciar told the European Parliament on 24-February that Slovakia cannot yet seek a final settlement with Hungary on the controversial Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam project on the Danube, but must first determine Slovakia's role in fulfilling the treaty on project between Hungary and former Czechoslovakia. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava after his return, Meciar said that the dispute with Hungary should be solved by the two countries' prime ministers. Meciar said that he had rejected Hungary's offer of financial compensation for not producing electric power in Gabcikovo. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PRESIDENT CONTRADICTS MECIAR. Slovak media report that Michal Kovac, who is to be officially inaugurated as president on 3 March, visited the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 24 February, where he met with Foreign Minister Milan Knazko. After the meeting Kovac told reporters that he was satisfied with Knazko's performance and was pleasantly surprised, because he met "many experts" at the ministry. At the beginning of February Prime Minister Meciar accused Knazko, his chief opponent in the leadership of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, of incompetence and called for his resignation. Kovac declined to answer whether he would recall Knazko if Meciar asked for such a step. He said, however, that any minister who fulfills his duties and performs well in his job "can count on his support." Kovac, who until his election on 15 February was a member of Meciar party's leadership, gave up his party membership after the election to be able to function as a nonpartisan president. Slovak media also report that on 24 February Kovac appointed Jan Klepac, leader of the Christian Social Union, as his foreign-policy adviser. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN LIBERAL PARTIES TO COOPERATE. On 24 February the leaders of the Alliance of Free Democrats and the Alliance of Young Democrats signed an agreement to cooperate in the runup to the 1994 elections, MTI reports. The two parties agreed to consult monthly, and their campaign chiefs are to work out a framework for electoral cooperation. The agreement obligates the two parties to consult and seek consensus on major legislation, and to inform one another in advance about intentions to conclude an electoral agreement with a third party. AYD parliamentary leader Viktor Orban has recently accused the AFD leadership of moving toward an election deal with the Hungarian Socialist Party, the former reform communists, and is demanding that the AFD make up its mind which party it prefers as a possible coalition partner. -Edith Oltay GENERAL STRIKE IN LODZ. A 48-hour general strike declared by Solidarity began at midnight on 25 February in Lodz, PAP reports. By 6:30, 28 major plants had officially reported their participation, and twice that number were believed already to be on strike. Solidarity officials say that 150 plants in all are scheduled to strike in the next two days, and that rail traffic will be halted in the five surrounding voivodships, and that city buses and taxis will stop running on 26 February. The strike was called to protest the government's failure to appoint a plenipotentiary for regional restructuring and to demand compensation for cost-of-living increases. It has the support of the Lodz city council. -Louisa Vinton PROTEST IN POLISH ARMS INDUSTRY. More than 90,000 workers in the armaments industry held a two-hour work stoppage on 24 February. They demanded debt-relief for their firms and higher wages. Many Polish arms factories have not received payment for exports to the Soviet Union made in years past. At a conference held the same day at the central planning office, government officials quoted by Polish TV said that Poland's arms industry will have to be cut by one-half or even two-thirds in the next few years. The army is only half the size it was five years ago and the defense budget has shrunk even faster. Domestic purchases cannot support an arms industry of the current size, nor will export trade help much. Officials nonetheless expressed confidence that conversion of arms plants to civilian production would move swiftly in Poland because of their highly qualified work force and relatively modern technology. -Louisa Vinton WORKERS DEMONSTRATE IN BUCHAREST. Some 1,000-1,500 workers from state-run industries marched through Bucharest on 24 February demanding higher salaries and protesting sinking living standards. The protest was organized by the Alfa Trade Union Cartel, an organization claiming 1.1 million members. A delegation was received by Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and other high-ranking officials. A government spokeswoman said after the meeting that week-old negotiations between unions, employers and the government over a higher minimum wage and better social security were not making progress. She blamed the union leaders, saying that they do not understand that salaries are dependent on production and Romania's industrial production is currently a bare 54% of the 1989 level and unemployment topped one million (9% of the work force) by mid-February. -Dan Ionescu VACAROIU BACKPEDALS ON IMF DEAL. Romanian Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu told Godard Posthumus, executive president of the International Monetary Fund, on 23 February that his government can no longer abide by the conditions of the 1992 deal inaugurating IMF loans to Romania. Rompres and Reuters reported from Bucharest that Vacaroiu told Posthumus, who is visiting Bucharest, that Romania's economy has deteriorated to a point where the state must loosen the austerity policies favored by the IMF. The crisis, has forced Romania to use financial resources for consumption instead of investments. Romania received an IMF credit package of $500 million under the 1992 standby deal, about $75 million of which is still untouched. Vacaroiu and Finance Minister Florin Georgescu expressed hope for further IMF help despite these problems. Michael Shafir WORLD BANK TO SUPPORT BULGARIA. A top World Bank official visiting Sofia told a press conference on 24 February that once a reasonable rescheduling deal has been concluded Bulgaria will be eligible for assistance to repay its $10 billion commercial debt. Michael Wiehen, a regional director of the World Bank, also confirmed that Bulgaria can continue to apply for financial and technical aid in connection with concrete projects. Bulgaria has so far been granted one $167-million, and another $94-million loan for investments in the energy sector is being negotiated. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN TV DIRECTOR OUSTED. The General Director of Bulgarian National Television, Asen Agov, has been removed from his post, BTA reports. On 24-February Agov was voted down by a vote of 123 to 81 in Parliament. The former TV journalist has many supporters among media colleagues, but also enemies. Under his leadership some 500-600 jobs in television were cut and the organization thoroughly reshaped. Agov sympathizes with the Union of Democratic Forces, the only faction which opposed his removal. He has been temporarily replaced by Militsa Traykova, head of BNT's financial department. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT MARKS WARTIME SAVING OF JEWS. On 24 February the Bulgarian National Assembly marked the 50th anniversary of the reversal of plans to deport 8,500 Jews to concentration camps at the request of the Nazi regime in Germany, a decision that may have saved the lives of up to 50,000 Bulgarian citizens. In 1943 a group of 43-deputies, with strong backing from trade unions and the Orthodox Church, intervened on behalf of the Jews. Addressing a special session of the assembly, Israeli speaker of parliament Chevach Weiss praised Bulgarian resistance against Nazi pressure as "a noble act." BTA carried the report. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINE RESPONDS TO RUSSIAN POSITION ON ASSETS. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs held a briefing for journalists on 23 February at which First Deputy Foreign Minister Mykola Makarevych explained Ukraine's position on the question of former Soviet assets, DRPress reports. Makarevych told reporters that Ukraine sent a note to 160 countries stating that: (1) Ukraine is one of the successor states to the Soviet Union; (2) it does not recognize Russia's exclusive claim to the foreign assets of the former Soviet Union; and (3) it does not recognize Russia as the sole successor to the Soviet Union. The note requests that foreign countries not permit Russia to act in a unilateral fashion in matters regarding the assets of the former Soviet Union. -Roman Solchanyk RUSSIAN ARMY MANEUVERS HELD DESPITE PROTESTS. On 19 February Russia's 14th Army in Moldova completed five days of maneuvers. According to Tiraspol media cited by Basapress on the 20th, "Dniester" units, commanded by officers transferred to them from the 14th Army, participated in the maneuvers, which were held despite repeated Moldovan protests to Russia. In statements reported by Basapress, Moldova's Ministry of Foreign Affairs dismissed as untrue the claims by anonymous officials of Russia's Foreign Ministry to ITAR-TASS that advance notice of the maneuvers had been given and that Moldova's protests had not been received. In a cable to UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali, Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu protested the maneuvers as a serious violation of Moldovan sovereignty. Vlad Socor RUSSIA REACTS TO ESTONIAN BORDER STATEMENT. Russia's chief negotiator for talks with Estonia says the current administrative border between Russia and Estonia must remain where it was established by the former USSR. Vasilii Svirin told RIA, quoted by BNS on 23-February, that the law on the state border, adopted by the Russian parliament on 19-February, is a "new strong statement" in talks with Estonia. He said talks now should aim to mark the borderline and not try to negotiate further over the borderline itself. On 22-February, in a speech before the Estonian parliament, Estonian Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste outlined a plan to ask the CSCE to mediate the territorial dispute with Russia. Estonia recognizes the interstate border set out in the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty, whereas Russia argues that the border runs along the line established after the RSFSR unilaterally annexed some Estonian lands in 1945. Riina Kionka LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT ON NATURAL GAS. Ada Macezinskiene, director of the Economics Department of the Energy Ministry, said that an agreement has been signed with the St. Petersburg concern Lentransgaz to purchase 4 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 1993, Baltic media reported on 24-February. The gas will be paid in hard currency at a rate of $82 per 1,000 m3. Lithuania has agreed to repay its debt of about 20 billion rubles to Lentransgaz by April. Lithuanian enterprises will be allowed to pay for the gas they receive in either hard currency or in Lithuanian coupons. Saulius Girnius BALTIC DEFENSE AGREEMENT. On 24 February the defense ministers of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania met in Tallinn and agreed to hold their first joint training exercises in May, BNS reports. The Baltic countries plan to provide the international community with peacekeeping troops. The ministers also discussed common efforts in crisis management, maintaining safe lines of communication, and finding means for the control and defense of common air space and sea borders. To facilitate cooperation the ministers expressed the need for adoption of NATO standards for documentation and topographic maps. Saulius Girnius LATVIAN FOREIGN TRADE MINISTER RESIGNS. Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis finally accepted the resignation of Edgars Zausajevs. The acting minister, Visvaldis Kristaps was deputy minister of foreign trade. Zausajevs had wanted to resign since last May and will now take a position with Dambis, a private firm, Radio Riga reported on 23 February. Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.26 February 1993 1 26 February 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 39 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 39
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