|If we are to live together in peace, we must first come to know each other better. - Lyndon B. Johnson|
No. 37, 24 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA ARMY DAY DEMONSTRATORS DEMAND YELTSIN'S OUSTER. Hard-line communists, ultra-nationalists, and disgruntled military officers turned the first Russian "Defenders of the Fatherland Day," celebrated on 23-February, into a noisy anti-government demonstration. Western and Russian press accounts, which put the number of participants at between 20,000 and 40,000, reported that five of the leading plotters from the 1991 attempted coup marched at the head of the rally. A number of speakers reportedly called for the violent overthrow of the government and in particular for the ouster of President Boris Yeltsin and Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. There were also calls for the creation of a national salvation government; among those proposed as its leaders were Generals Albert Makashov and Vladislav Achalov (the latter arrested for his role in the coup, but in August 1992 named an aide to parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov). Perhaps the most worrying consequence of the rally, which was attended neither by Yeltsin nor by Khasbulatov, was the implicit threat that the Russian army could become even more involved in politics. -Stephen Foye DEPUTIES PREPARE TO CONVENE CONGRESS. A petition to convene an extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies (Russia's highest legislature) in early March has been signed by 222 people's deputies, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 February. 208 signatures are sufficient to call the Congress into session. The initiators of the move, deputies from Moscow oblast, represent the Radical Democrats, the Workers Union and the Democratic Russia factions. At a press conference announcing the success of their petition, the deputies said that the parliament's 25 February session would debate the call to convene Congress, which, they said, in a brief session should examine two points: the constitutional accord under negotiation by representatives of President Yeltsin and parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov; and a moratorium on the 11 April referendum and early elections. They voiced fears that to hold the referendum might impair Russia's statehood. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN SIGNS DEFENSE LAWS. In what will be interpreted as an effort to shore up his support within the armed forces, Boris Yeltsin on 23 February signed laws on military conscription and service and on pensions for servicemen and their families. According to ITAR-TASS, the latter piece of legislation provides for the indexing of pension benefits and insures that the minimum pension for serviceman cannot be lower than the minimum old age pension. -Stephen Foye DEFENSE MINISTER DEFENDS MILITARY LEADERSHIP. In interviews broadcast by Russian TV and published by Izvestiya on 23 February Pavel Grachev rejected charges leveled by critics at both ends of the political spectrum that the army command is corrupt and that it opposes reform. On the former issue in particular, Grachev claimed that his office had disciplined over 3,000 officers, including 46 generals, for their illegal involvement in commercial activities. He dismissed charges that the high command has illegally privatized dachas, saying that all such transactions have been entirely legal and that the dachas are a justified reward for long years of service. He harshly criticized the reactionary Union of Officers and the convocation of an All-Army Officers Assembly, saying that the activities of both bodies constituted an inadmissible attempt to politicize the army. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA, US SIGN URANIUM SALE ACCORD. ITAR-TASS reports that the Russian Minister of Atomic Energy, Viktor Mikhailov, signed an accord with the US Department of Energy on 19 February, calling for Russia to sell 50 metric tons of uranium extracted from nuclear weapons to the USA for processing and sale as nuclear reactor fuel. The USA will reportedly pay Russia approximately $1 billion over a five year period for the material. The deal comes after several months of negotiations and may be the first step towards a longer-term agreement to sell a total of 500 metric tons over a 10 year period. The report did not indicate whether any of the proceeds of the sale would be shared with Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus. Ukraine has made payment for the uranium in the warheads on its territory a key demand for START-1 ratification. -John Lepingwell SHAKHRAI'S ELEVEN-POINT NATIONALITIES POLICY. Sergei Shakhrai, deputy prime minister responsible for nationalities policy, set out the eleven theses of Russia's nationalities policy at the 22 February parliamentary hearings on Russia's integrity and regional policy, Nezavisimaya gazeta of 23 February reported. Among the eleven theses, which the newspaper lists, are the equality of all peoples of the Russian Federation, federalism, territorial unity and the integrity of the Russian Federation and its subjects, the depoliticization of nationalities policy, reliance on the legally elected bodies of power whether they are to the liking of the center or not, the absolute priority of political methods of solving conflicts, the principle of consistency in small matters, and the need to take into account the complexity of the religious composition of Russian society. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT TO AMEND PRIVATIZATION POLICY? DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER ANATOLII CHUBAIS TOLD A MEETING OF LOCAL HEADS OF GOVERNMENT AND CHAIRMEN OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEES ON STATE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT IN MOSCOW ON 23 FEBRUARY THAT THERE MAY BE SOME AMENDMENTS TO RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION POLICY. In particular, according to Kommersant, the law on privatization checks and the 1993 privatization program may be affected by a forthcoming division of state assets into federal and local property. It is not clear how disruptive such amendments would be to the privatization process in Russia. In a sign of other possible changes, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin at the same meeting said that measures should be taken to prevent privatized enterprises from cutting production, ITAR-TASS reported. He suggested that the state should play a stronger role in controlling privatization. -Erik Whitlock ECONOMIC SITUATION DEEMED "UNTENABLE." In remarks at a recent forum with congressional staff members, the managing director of the International Monetary Fund described the current economic situation in Russia as "clearly untenable," an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 23 February. Michel Camdessus said that a national consensus on economic reform is still lacking in Russia. The Russian Central Bank "has not accepted the hard but indispensable steps" to get inflation under control and to halt the depreciation of the ruble. Camdessus declared that inflation at the current rate of about 30% a month destroys confidence and encourages capital flight, distorts prices, hurts the poor, and threatens social consensus. -Robert Lyle and Keith Bush KUZBASS MINERS VOTE FOR STRIKE. Coal miners in the Kuzbass region have voted overwhelmingly in favor of strike action, according to an RFE/RL correspondent on 23-February. 18,000 out of 20,000 miners voted for the strike, which will begin in March: on 1-March deliveries of coal will be stopped, and on 10-March miners will stop extracting coal. The miners are demanding payment of unpaid wages, a new wage agreement, and state subsidies for the mine. -Sheila Marnie. DRAMATIC RESIGNATION OF OSTANKINO DEPUTY CHAIRMAN CRITICIZED. Kirill Ignatev, an official at the Ostankino TV company, criticized Igor Malashenko's letter of resignation as deputy chairman of the company, Russian agencies reported on 23-February. The appointment of Ignatev, a member of the Democratic Choice group, to Ostankino was cited by Malashenko as an example of the attempt to subordinate the company to the "Democratic Russia" movement and its daughter organizations. Ignatev implied that Malashenko had to resign because he had signed documents which ran counter to existing legislation; specifically, the illegal registration of a joint stock company of which he was head. Ignatev stated that the threat of increasing official control over the media exists, but that it comes from the Russian parliament rather than from the democrats. -Vera Tolz KANGAROO COURT VERDICT ON GORBACHEV. At the end of a "public trial" which opened in Moscow on 18 February, the self-appointed "People's Court," comprising hardliners and communist activists, has sentenced former USSR President, Mikhail Gorbachev, to "eternal damnation and disgrace," the Russian TV newscast, "Vesti," announced on 23 February. -Julia Wishnevsky NORTH OSSETIAN-INGUSH TALKS TO RESUME 2-MARCH. Anatolii Anikiev, chairman of the Russian parliament's Commission on Repressed and Deported Peoples, has rejected media reports that the third round of North Ossetian-Ingush talks in Kislovodsk has been broken off, ITAR-TASS reported. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 23 February, Anikiev said that they would be resumed on 2 March. The talks were, in fact, suspended after North Ossetia objected to Ingush arrangements for the Ingush presidential election on 28-February which, in North Ossetia's view, implied that the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia is part of Ingushetia. As a compromise it was greed that the talks would resume after the election. - Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE CALLS FOR WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS FROM ABKHAZIA, ADZHARIA. On 23 February the Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent a note to Russian Ambassador Vladimir Zemsky protesting at the Russian airraid on Sukhumi on 20-February in which one Georgian was killed, ITAR-TASS reported. Addressing a session of the Georgian parliament on 23 February, chairman Eduard Shevardnadze accused the Russian military leadership of seeking an armed conflict with Georgia, and stated that if Russian troops are not withdrawn from Abkhazia and Adzharia, Georgia may be constrained to announce a general mobilization "to defend the country." Meanwhile Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told Radio Moscow that he had given Russian troops in Georgia orders to "shoot to kill" in order to defend themselves against attack by Georgian military formations seeking to appropriate weapons. -Liz Fuller WEAPONS SURRENDER CONTINUES IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's State Prosecutor Makhmadnazar Salekhov has told a Dushanbe correspondent that some 3,000 weapons have been surrendered to the authorities in the government's drive to deprive both its opponents and its supporters of unauthorized weaponry, Khovar-TASS reported on 23 February. The weapons surrendered so far have included 20 tanks and armored vehicles, according to Salekhov. More than 200 criminal cases have been started against persons who refuse to give up their weapons voluntarily. The State Prosecutor's Office has also set up a special team of investigators to look into what Salekhov characterized as serious crimes perpetrated by the democratic and Islamic opposition during the 1992 civil war and to prepare cases against opposition leaders. He implied that they would be charged with responsibility for all the casualties and destruction of the war. -Bess Brown UZBEKISTAN FINDS NEW COTTON MARKETS. A Danish firm, Jahn International, has won a contract to build a jeans factory in Uzbekistan in exchange for 16,500 tons of cotton, AFP reported on 23 February. According to the report from Tashkent, Uzbek kolkhozes have entered into barter deals with cotton importers in the Netherlands, Turkey and several East European countries. An official of the state cotton trading company Uzagroimpex was quoted as saying that the firm is using the index of the Liverpool Commodities Exchange to fix its prices and has chosen a few trading partners which it considers reliable. As a result of its emergence onto the world cotton market, Uzbekistan reduced its supplies to other CIS states by about 40% last year. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE US AND UN AGREE ON BOSNIAN AIR DROPS. International media on 23 February said that President Bill Clinton and Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali met at the White House and endorsed American plans to begin temporary airdrops of supplies to encircled Muslim, Serb, or Croat villages in eastern Bosnia. Washington is expected to launch the operation soon, in which C-130 cargo planes will drop bundles weighing up to about one ton from an altitude of 10,000 feet. Many US allies and UN officials, including the military, have criticized the idea primarily on three grounds. They feel that the high altitude (instead of a more usual 400 feet) may enable the planes to escape rockets and gunfire but would severely affect their ability to deliver supplies safely and accurately. Second, critics charge that the missions would divert attention from the need to resume political negotiations; and third, they feel that to use US aircraft over a war zone is to invite a provocation. President Clinton said nonetheless that the project involves "no combat implications whatever," and, among the allies, at least Turkey has pledged enthusiastic support. -Patrick Moore SERBS CRITICIZE US PLANS, SHELL MOSQUE AT RAMADAN. The 24 February New York Times quotes top Bosnian Serb military officials as calling President Clinton's decision "the most dangerous development yet in the military and political manipulations surrounding humanitarian aid." The Serbs warned of "unforeseen consequences" and "provocations," but did not explicitly threaten to fire on the aircraft. A UN official in Bosnia noted that Serbs who had been obstructing land-based relief operations had undergone "an amazing change of heart" and become cooperative once they learned of the American plans for an airdrop. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Serb gunners broke the ceasefire by firing on the Muslim center in the old town on 23-February, hitting a mosque as believers met for evening prayers to mark the opening of Ramadan. Casualties totaled at least 5 dead and 20 injured. Finally, international media reported on 23 February that the UN Human Rights Commission again condemned the Bosnian Serbs and their Serbian backers for war crimes including rape, ethnic cleansing, indiscriminate shelling of towns, and summary executions. The document also criticized the Croats and Muslims for human rights violations, but singled out the Serbs as the main culprits. -Patrick Moore RUSSIA SLAMS MILOSEVIC. International media on 23 February quoted a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman as saying that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic should not have criticized Moscow's Balkan policy in a recent Pravda interview. The ministry added that Russia will not allow itself to be "slandered" and advised Milosevic to choose his words more carefully. The Serbian leader had said that it was shameful that Russia is backing international sanctions against Belgrade. Meanwhile in that city, Tanjug carried yet another Foreign Ministry protest against Turkish Balkan policy. Serbia-Montenegro charged that President Turgut …zal has sinister motives for his recent visit to four Balkan countries, and that the Turkish press is referring to the Serbian nation as "criminals, murderers, and swine." Tanjug did not further substantiate its charges against the Turkish press. Western countries have generally regarded Turkey as a stabilizing factor in the Balkans and among Islamic countries. -Patrick Moore US SUPPORTS MACEDONIAN RECOGNITION IN UN. US UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright said in Washington on 22 February that the US backs the EC proposal for admitting the Republic of Macedonia to the UN using the name "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," Western agencies report. While Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov has rejected this idea, Security Council Chairman Ahmed Snoussi will begin discussions in Greece and Macedonia on the topic. -Duncan Perry HAVEL ADDRESSES PARLIAMENT. On 23 February, in his first address to Parliament since he became the president of the Czech Republic, Vaclav Havel dealt with a variety of issues ranging from morality in politics to social problems. Havel called on citizens to "breathe a new spirit into politics," claiming that this was the most important factor in resolving the serious problems faced by the young republic. CTK reported that Havel also said that the rise in crime, intolerance, racism, and xenophobia in the country are typical manifestations of a society where totalitarian values have collapsed and democracy has not matured yet. Havel further said that one task that Czech people have not managed to accomplish in the past three years is "to look our past in the face." He argued that it is necessary to address past injustices but also "provide space for forgiveness and repentance." Havel praised the government's foreign policy as sound, but suggested the Czech Republic should become more active in the UN and the CSCE. In commenting on his role in politics, Havel said he saw himself primarily as a guarantor of stability and continuity. -Jiri Pehe CZECH PREMIER WRITES TO ROMANIES. Vaclav Klaus has sent a letter to the Romany Democratic Congress, the largest Romany organization in the Czech Republic, in which he informed the Romanies that he has instructed the Ministry of Internal Affairs to prevent organized violence aimed against Romanies. He pointed out, however, that much of the violence is the work of informal groups not subject to government control. Klaus rejected the RDK's charges that the government has not done enough to protect the Romanies. He also ruled out any changes in the citizenship law: the RDK has demanded that dual Czech and Slovak citizenship be allowed and calls for eliminating a provision in the citizenship law under which only people who have not been sentenced for committing a crime in the past five years can obtain Czech citizenship. Klaus wrote that this provision applies equally to all applicants for Czech citizenship and is not aimed against Romanies. A RDK-sponsored demonstration is scheduled to take place on 24 February outside the Czech government building. -Jiri Pehe CZECH REPUBLIC GIVES UP RESPONSIBILITY FOR GABCIKOVO. The Czech parliament approved on 23-February the government proposal that leaves Slovakia as the legal owner of the Gabcikovo dam project. CTK reports that the vote means that the Czech Republic will have nothing more to do with the project. Czech Foreign Minister told the deputies that their action conforms to the Czech-Slovak agreements on the division of federal property because the entire project lies in Slovakia. Zieleniec also said that should the Czech Republic claim any rights, it could be drawn into a conflict with Hungary, which opposes the project. Slovakia is expected to defend the project at the International Court of Justice. -Jiri Pehe SUCHOCKA IN VIENNA. Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka made a two-day visit to Austria on 23 and 24-February. Suchocka's visit was devoted primarily to encouraging Austrian investment in Poland, which lags far behind that in Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia. Suchocka also discussed the question of refugees and political asylum with Chancellor Franz Vranitzky. "One must convince investors that Poland is economically stable enough to invest in," Suchocka told a press conference on her arrival in Vienna. The Polish prime minister warned against the erection, in the place of the Iron Curtain, of "another curtain that cuts the continent into two regions, one rich and the other poor." She cautioned that western Europe cannot "resolve the problem of immigration and refugees unilaterally and by deferring the responsibility for difficult decisions to the countries of our region," Western agencies reported. -Louisa Vinton SCATTERED STRIKES IN POLAND. Negotiations between the government and Solidarity on public sector wages ended without agreement on 22 February. The dispute is now in arbitration. Solidarity wants the government to rescind an across-the-board 5% cut in the public sector wage fund, which it says means mass dismissals. The cut is part of the 1993 budget and the government says it is legally binding. The education ministry nonetheless announced on 23 February that no teachers will be dismissed. Solidarity in the depressed Lodz region called a 48-hour general strike for 25-February. The union says that the government has failed to follow through on a promise to appoint a special plenipotentiary to oversee regional restructuring. Labor Minister Jacek Kuron told Solidarity officials that restructuring plans are not far enough advanced to appoint a plenipotentiary. Meanwhile, a two-hour strike called by Silesian railway workers for the morning of 23 February drew only a marginal response, according to PAP. Fourteen of 209 passenger trains experienced minor delays. The strikers were demanding wages equal to 118% of the national average for railway workers. Regional police officials in Piotrkow announced plans to impose misdemeanor fines on Solidarity activists who staged a road blockade there on 19 February. -Louisa Vinton EROSION OF BSP MEMBERSHIP. New estimates show that the Bulgarian Socialist Party has a membership of 380,000, Socialist deputy Krasimir Premyanov told a press conference on 23 February. Although this is some 100,000 less than claimed at the 40th BSP congress in December 1991-as well as 40,000 below the figure mentioned in November 1992-Premyanov said membership has now stabilized. He told BTA that the estimate is based on a recent inventory of the entire party organization. Premyanov also acknowledged that only 30% of the present members are below 44 years of age, while as many as 40% are pensioners. -Kjell Engelbrekt ILIESCU ATTACKS "CARPATHIAN EURO-REGION" PACT. At a press conference carried by Radio Bucharest on 23 February, Romanian President Ion Iliescu harshly criticized a plan for setting up a "Carpathian Euro-Region." At a meeting earlier this month, the foreign ministers of Hungary, Ukraine, and Poland signed a declaration of intent for regional cooperation, with Slovakia opting for associate membership. The plan envisages cooperation of local governments from three Hungarian provinces, the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, two provinces in Poland, and seven Slovak districts. Iliescu said the action raises "suspicions," and explained that Hungary is promoting the idea without acknowledging that the bulk of the Carpathian region lies in Transylvania. Iliescu is apparently suspicious that the pact envisages a Transylvanian association, which would highlight the region's distinctness from the rest of Romania. -Michael Shafir ILIESCU, LUCINSCHI, MEET. Petru Lucinschi, chairman of the Moldovan parliament, met in Bucharest on 23 February with President Ion Iliescu and other Romanian officials, Radio Bucharest reports. Lucinschi was on his way to attend a meeting in Istanbul of Black Sea littoral nations. He said Moldova has two priorities: economic improvement and a new constitution. Iliescu told his guest that regardless of how Romania and Moldova develop in the future, their bilateral ties must be close and friendly. Lucinschi said at a press conference after the meeting that the presence of the 14th Russian army in Moldova was not discussed. Rompres says there are plans for a Moldovan parliamentary commission to visit Bucharest and for a meeting between Iliescu and Moldovan president Mircea Snegur. -Michael Shafir 14TH ARMY DIGGING IN. Against the background of deadlocked negotiations on the withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army from Moldova, the Army itself appears to be digging in. It has for the first time held maneuvers on the territory of independent Moldova, ignoring the latter's protests; it continues its integration with local Russian insurgent forces, as evidenced also by the latter's participation in the maneuvers; and it conscripts local residents of Moldova in violation of international law. The 14th Army this month launched its own newspaper, Soldat otechestva ("Soldier of the Fatherland"), a title reflecting the penchant of "national-patriotic" circles to consider the "Dniester republic" an outpost of a revived union or a Greater Russia. The "Dniester republic" and the 14th Army celebrated "Soviet Army and Navy Day" on 23 February under the old title and Soviet symbols. "Dniester president" Igor Smirnov and the Army commander, Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, reviewed a joint parade of "Dniester" and Army units, Basapress reports from Tiraspol. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN LAWMAKERS SPLIT ON RATIFYING START-1. Ukrainian Radio reported on 22 February that the question of the ratification of the START-1 treaty and also of Ukraine's accession to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty has been placed on the agenda of the seventh session of the current parliament, due to begin on 3 March. According to a member of the parliamentary Commission on Defense and State Security, Ihor Derkach, the special parliamentary commission which has been set up to scrutinize these issues remains split between those advocating a nonnuclear status for Ukraine and supporters of Ukraine's retaining a nuclear deterrent. Derkach and a military specialist who was also interviewed during the broadcast stressed that concern for guaranteeing Ukraine's security remains paramount and has not been allayed by Western assurances of diplomatic support for a nonnuclear Ukraine in the event of a nuclear crisis. -Bohdan Nahaylo SAFETY OF NUCLEAR REACTORS DISPUTED. During his four-day visit to Ukraine and Russia, German Environment Minister Klaus Tšpfer has repeatedly aired concern over the reliability of nuclear reactors in these countries, Western agencies reported on 23 February. The minister claimed that the Ukrainian authorities have promised permanently to close down the Chernobyl plant before the end of 1993. But at a news conference in Moscow, Yurii Vishnevsky, the director of the Russian State Nuclear Inspectorate, rejected Tšpfer's criticisms. He suggested that Western spokesmen are bad-mouthing reactors of the Chernobyl type in order to promote their own reactors. -Keith Bush LITHUANIA PASSES 1993 BUDGET. On 23 February the Seimas approved the republic's 1993 budget by a vote of 68 to 37 with 4 abstentions, Radio Lithuania reports. The budget had been discussed a long time and its passage so soon after the presidential elections gives credibility to charges that the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party, which enjoys a majority in the parliament, delayed its passage for the elections. -Saulius Girnius. FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTER VISITS LITHUANIA. On 23 February Pierre Joxe completed a short visit to Lithuania at the invitation of his Lithuanian counterpart Audrius Butkevicius, Radio Lithuania reports. He arrived on 22 February and had dinner with President-elect Algirdas Brazauskas and met with defense officials. Butkevicius said that the visit was "very efficient" and, being the first by a high Western official after the presidential elections, shows the good will of France towards Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius. RUSSIAN PEACE MARCHERS MARK ARMY DAY IN RIGA. A group of Russian veterans and TV journalists, claiming to be peace marchers, arrived in Latvia on 22-February. On the 23rd they joined Russian Ambassador Aleksandr Rannikh, Commander of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces Leonid Mayorov, and leaders of Soviet veterans organizations in laying flowers at Riga's monument commemorating the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany. Later they attended an unauthorized demonstration at the monument to Soviet soldiers. Organized by the Veterans' Defense League, the demonstration attracted about 3,000 participants and onlookers. Despite calls by the Latvian political organization Tevzeme to interfere in such demonstrations, the day passed peacefully, local agencies report. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA PROTESTS RUSSIAN SHIP'S VISIT. Estonia has sent a diplomatic note to Russia protesting the illegal presence of a Russian troop ship in its territorial waters. According to BNS of 23 February, the Shuya entered the port of Paldiski on 22 February without an entry permit and without giving notification before anchoring. The Russian government has not yet commented on the affair. -Riina Kionka [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.