|Великие умы ставят перед собой цели; остальные люди следуют своим желаниям. - В. Ирвинг|
No. 36, 23 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA REFERENDUM ISSUES. Following a meeting with the conciliatory commission, uniting representatives of the executive and legislature and formed in order to find a way out of the present political deadlock, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told Radio Rossii "Novosti" on 22 February that the parliament is likely to reject the constitutional agreement proposed by President Boris Yeltsin. Observers believe that the parliament will call for the convention of an extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies, at which an attempt will be made to declare the referendum illegal. Yeltsin is then expected to continue fighting for the referendum. -Alexander Rahr SPECULATION OVER YELTSIN'S FUTURE. Former Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis visiting the USA told policy-makers that he expects Yeltsin to win the current political battle with parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov. Observers linked his remarks with the replacement on 22 February of Richard Armitage, coordinator of US aid to the former USSR, over a recent prediction that Yeltsin's "days in office were numbered." Also on 22 February, head of the Russian Federal Information Center, Mikhail Poltoranin was reported by ITAR-TASS as saying that Yeltsin's opponents had reduced the president to a figurehead, and that Russia faced fragmentation if his executive powers were not strengthened. Meanwhile, Khasbulatov announced he was curtailing a four-day visit to Finland, according to Finnish media. Commentators suggested that his early return to Moscow was to prepare for the parliamentary debate on the Russian Constitution scheduled for 25 February. -Wendy Slater OSTANKINO DEPUTY HEAD RESIGNS IN PROTEST AT INFORMATION POLICY. Igor Malashenko, the first deputy chairman of Ostankino TV has submitted his resignation to the chairman, Vyacheslav Bragin. At a news conference, broadcast on both Russian TV channels on 22 February, Malashenko said that he opposed the transformation of the state-owned TV network into the mouthpiece of one political grouping. According to Malashenko, Bragin and the head of the Federal Information Center, Mikhail Poltoranin, have engineered the complete takeover of Ostankino by the "Democratic Russia" movement and its daughter organizations. Malashenko voiced his opposition to the appointment of Kirill Ignatev, former Organizational Secretary of the pro-Yeltsin political coalition, "Democratic Choice," as head of the newly-created department responsible for Ostankino's personnel and political policies. He also announced his opposition to what he characterized as Ostankino's propaganda campaign to secure the success of Russia's forthcoming constitutional referendum "at all costs". -Julia Wishnevsky ARMY HOLIDAY MARKED. Celebrations marking "Defenders of the Fatherland" day, formerly Soviet "Army Day," began on the eve of the holiday at the army's central academic theater in Moscow, and continued on 23 February. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, speaking at the theater, suggested that the Soviet army's exploits should once again be recognized in Russia. He also claimed that anti-military tendencies evident since 1985 had corrupted young people and led to the shabby treatment of veterans. Addressing the same gathering, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev criticized those politicians who, he said, strive to involve the army in politics. Among them he numbered the leaders of the All-Army Officers Assembly which met on 20-21 February. Rutskoi's and Grachev's remarks were reported by ITAR-TASS on 22 February. Russian TV reported on 20-February that, according to Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov, the holiday would not be celebrated in Ukraine. -Stephen Foye YELTSIN INTERVIEWED BY ARMY NEWSPAPER. A beleaguered Boris Yeltsin used the occasion of the "Defenders of the Fatherland" day to praise the military virtues of Russian servicemen in peacetime and in war. In more substantive terms, Yeltsin lamented the endurance of violence in Russia's conscript army and called for swifter military reform. He said that Russia's military doctrine is still being elaborated by the Security Council, but emphasized that Moscow does not consider any country or coalition of countries to be its adversary, and that it rejects the use of force as a means of achieving political goals. Yeltsin said that the threat of large scale war had been replaced by that of local conflicts, a change that obliged Russia to build compact and highly professional armed forces which are mobile and equipped with the most modern weaponry. He emphasized that Moscow was working to protect the living standards of servicemen, and listed measures taken by the government to raise pay and build housing for them. He made a special plea for the proper treatment of Afghan veterans. The text of the interview, published in Krasnaya zvezda on 23 February, was released by ITAR-TASS a day early. -Stephen Foye PARLIAMENTARY HEARINGS ON PRESERVING INTEGRITY OF RUSSIA. At parliamentary hearings on "the integrity of the Russian Federation and regional policy" on 22 February, the chairman of the Council of Nationalities Ramazan Abdulatipov noted two tendencies in regional policy, ITAR-TASS reported. On the one hand there was supercentralization, and on the other the crumbling of the state through the transfer of many powers to the subjects of the federation. Abdulatipov maintained that at least 100 pieces of legislation would be necessary to implement the federal treaty, and that 25 laws adopted in the last two years would have to be amended. Further information was provided by the head of the Interior Ministry's Main Administration for Ensuring Public Order, Maj. Gen. Vyacheslav Ogorodnikov, who indicated the Tatar Public Center in Tatarstan and the "Ural" organization in Bashkortostan as examples of groups seeking independence outside the Russian Federation. ITAR-TASS and other agencies quoted Ogorodnikov as saying there were similar dangerous trends in Siberia's republics of Khakasiya, Tuva and Sakha as well as some parts of the Northern Caucasus. (In Siberia, the strongest separatist groups are to be found in Tuva, whereas in Khakasiya and Sakha such groups seem to be marginal.) -Ann Sheehy and Vera Tolz WARNINGS FROM MINISTER OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS. At the same hearings Russia's Minister of Foreign Economic Relations Sergei Glazev said there could be no integral Russia if there were different customs dues, different procedures for issuing licenses, and different regimes for regulating foreign currency in the various regions. Glazev described as "very dangerous" the actions of some republics which are receiving foreign credits against guarantees on their local resources. He said there were many cases where Russia had suffered substantial damage because of incompetent foreign trade activity at the local level and suggested that ministers in the republics and the heads of krai and oblast administrations should be made answerable at the federal as well as at the local level. -Ann Sheehy LAWS ON REFUGEES AND INVOLUNTARY RESETTLERS. On 19 February the Russian parliament finally passed laws on refugees and involuntary resettlers, ITAR-TASS reported. Refugees are defined as persons who are not citizens of the Russian Federation, who have been forced to leave their country of permanent residence, and who have come or wish to come to Russia. They must apply for refugee status immediately on arrival. Involuntary resettlers are Russian citizens or other persons permanently resident on the territory of Russia who are forced to leave their place of permanent residence as a result of violence or persecution, or a real danger of persecution, on grounds of nationality, religion, language, membership of a social group, political convictions, mass violations of public order, or other circumstances significantly infringing human rights. -Ann Sheehy CONTROVERSY OVER LAW ON LUSTRATION IN RUSSIA. On 19 February, at the conference on the KGB in Moscow, former presidential advisor on nationalities issues and a leading member of the "Democratic Russia" movement, Galina Starovoitova, reiterated the movement's suggestion that all former high-ranking officials of the KGB and the CPSU be barred from government posts, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. According to Moscow News no. 5, "Democratic Russia" adopted a resolution on the issue earlier this year. Speaking at the Moscow conference on the KGB, Starovoitova said the law should not apply to former KGB and Communist Party officials who "clearly abandoned totalitarianism in August 1991." Starovoitova's proposal was strongly criticized by Aleksandr Tsipko, author of the first articles in the official Soviet press to attack Marx' views on communist society as utopian. In Starovoitova's proposal, Tsipko attacked the wording "clearly abandoned totalitarianism" as being vague and liable to lead to arbitrary action. -Vera Tolz TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KYRGYZSTAN EXPLAINS POSITION ON ISRAEL. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev has sent a letter to UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali seeking to clarify his statements during his visit to Israel in January, ITAR-TASS and an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 19 February. Akaev said in the letter that Kyrgyzstan supports the right of the Palestinians to self-determination and state sovereignty, and that the establishment of diplomatic relations between Kyrgyzstan and Israel will depend on the outcome of Arab-Israeli peace talks. Akaev made statements in support of Palestinian independence during his visit to Israel, but the attention of the world press was diverted by his promise to open an embassy in Jerusalem, as few countries have been willing to do. Iran's leadership was so incensed by Akaev's promise that a planned visit to Kyrgyzstan by the Iranian foreign minister was abruptly canceled. -Bess Brown GEORGIA DECREES MOBILIZATION OF YOUNG MEN AGED 18-25. The Georgian government has decreed the callup of all young men aged 18-25 to serve in the armed forces, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 February. The Georgian parliament passed a law in late December, 1992, on compulsory military service for all young men reaching the age of 18. -Liz Fuller NIYAZOV'S PERSONALITY CULT. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov, who has encouraged an extensive personality cult of himself since Turkmenistan became independent, has now asked that the practice of naming farms, factories, streets, military units and major waterworks after him be stopped, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 February. Although Niyazov has argued that the cult is in keeping with local tradition and helps to buttress the population's understanding of Turkmenistan as an independent entity, observers outside Turkmenistan have been critical of the practice, especially in connection with Turkmenistan's dismal human rights record. Niyazov's halt to further manifestations of the cult coincides with the arrival in Ashgabat of former US Secretary of State Alexander Haig on 21 February. ITAR-TASS reported that Haig would be exploring opportunities for US firms to invest in Turkmenistan and that Niyazov plans an unofficial visit to the US in March. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN BACKS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. International media on 22 and 23 February said that the UN Security Council voted unanimously on 22 February to adopt a French proposal to set up a tribunal to investigate war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. Resolution 808 noted that "widespread violations of international humanitarian law-.-.-. including-.-.-. 'ethnic cleansing'-.-.-. constitute a threat to international peace and security." The secretary-general is to submit specific proposals for the group to begin its work, which will deal with crimes committed by and against all nationalities, but the resolution alluded to the special plight of Muslim women raped by Serbs as part of a systematic political campaign. The current project differs from the Nuremberg tribunal in that the war is still going on; the main object of investigation will be the apparent military victors; no suspects have been formally indicted or arrested; those placed on trial will not be able to avoid responsibility by saying that they were only carrying out orders; and the UN is a peace-maker, not a belligerent. -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media reported on 22 February that relief shipments began arriving again in Sarajevo after the city government gave its permission. Meanwhile, Reuters quoted Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as saying in Zvornik that Muslims and Serbs could never live together in Bosnia again "as brothers" following what Serbs said was the mass killing of 38 Serbs by Muslims. Karadzic called the dead "our martyrs killed in a horrifying way," while the local Orthodox bishop described them as "warriors who died in defense of their religion and the Serb nation-.-.-. Serbs will never be slaves to Turks [Muslims] or Ustashas [Croats]." -Patrick Moore CZECH PREMIER VISITS SLOVAKIA. Vaclav Klaus arrived in Bratislava on 22 February for a one-day visit, the first official trip since the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Klaus met with Premier Vladimir Meciar and other members of the Slovak government. CTK reports that among the issues discussed during the meetings were questions of the division of former federal property, including the assets and debts of the Czechoslovak State Bank. Citing the continuing migration of people in Europe as a reason, Klaus told the Slovak cabinet that the Czech Republic will have to set up formal controls along its border with Slovakia. Klaus further said that the Czech-Slovak customs union will remain the main pillar of bilateral relations. Speaking at a joint press conference with Meciar, Klaus said that Slovakia is expected to obtain the sole right to represent the former Czechoslovakia in the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam dispute. He suggested that the Czech parliament will yield its rights in the dispute soon. Meciar suggested that Slovakia restrict its imports because its hard currency reserves are falling fast. Meciar said that restrictions, in the form of import duties, would apply only to goods being purchased with hard currency, and not to imports from the neighboring Czech Republic. -Jiri Pehe POLAND SEALS "PACT ON STATE FIRMS." As Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka looked on, representatives of the government, the unions, and the employers' confederation signed the tripartite "pact on state firms in transformation" on 22 February. Solidarity and the former official trade unions signed in separate ceremonies, one hour apart. Negotiations on the pact were begun in July and completed in November but the signing was delayed because of the December miners' strike and tension over the terms of the 1993 budget. Labor Minister Jacek Kuron hailed the pact as "a step in the direction of a social order based on social contracts" while Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski said it would improve both "social dialogue" and economic efficiency. In other economic news, President Lech Walesa signed the 1993 budget into law on 22 February. -Louisa Vinton THE PACT: WORKERS' CONSENT A PREREQUISITE. The "pact on state firms," a package of draft legislation that must still make its way through the parliament, is designed to win workers' assent to rapid privatization and restructuring. It gives firms six months to decide on a privatization plan, after which the government has a free hand to order structural changes; offers the work force 10% of the shares in their firms at no charge and control over one-third of the board of directors; simplifies debt-relief and employee leasing operations; and expands the issues subject to collective bargaining. Firms that move rapidly to privatize and settle their debts will be released from the excess wages tax. Workers are required to settle on a single body to represent them and accept wage limits negotiated centrally. The unions have agreed to limit consumption increases to one-half of the economic growth rate; the remainder is earmarked for investment. Some economists and members of the business community have criticized the pact as "remedial basket-weaving" for state workers, but its signatories hail it as a reasonable compromise that takes into account Poland's sociopolitical realities and shifts workers' attention from making demands on the state to taking an interest in the fate of their own firms. -Louisa Vinton LIBERAL FORMATIONS MERGE IN ROMANIA. The National Liberal Party-Youth Wing and the National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention were merged in line with a decision adopted by congresses held by both on 19 February. The new party will be called the Liberal Party. It will also be joined by a dissident group recently expelled from the National Liberal Party. On 20 February the Liberal Party elected Vintila Bratianu president of its National Council and Horia Rusu executive president of the party. -Michael Shafir BULGARIA-ISRAELI HISTORICAL COMMISSION REPORT. The Bulgarian government led by Bogdan Filov (1940-43) was responsible for genocide, a joint Bulgarian-Israeli historical commission said on 22 February. Throughout World War-II Bulgaria resisted Nazi pressure to surrender its 50,000 Jews, but Filov's cabinet organized the deportation of 11,363 Jews from Macedonia and Thrace-then occupied by Bulgaria-to concentration camps in Germany and Eastern Europe. The deportations were carried out by German troops in March 1943. A member of the commission told BTA that some of the officials involved were tried and convicted by the People's Court set up by the communist regime. -Kjell Engelbrekt "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" REWARDS LEADING RUSSIAN SUPPORTERS. The presidium of the "Dniester republic supreme soviet" has awarded a personal Nagan revolver to Russian Supreme Soviet Vice Chairman Nikolai Ryabov "for his considerable contribution to the strengthening of the Russian Federation's cooperation with the 'Dniester republic'," Basapress reported on 20 February, citing the Tiraspol media. Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, on 18 February was handed the keys to Bendery at a ceremony in that right-bank city controlled by Russian and left-bank forces. As reported by Basapress citing "Dniester" media, the award was for Lebed's merits in "introducing 14th Army units in Bendery prior to the arrival of the peacekeeping forces." This acknowledgment confirms the intervention of 14th Army units in driving Moldovan forces from Bendery last June. -Vladimir Socor RUSSIA ASSERTS INTERESTS ON LOWER DANUBE. On 19 February an unnamed "representative" of Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs told ITAR-TASS of the Ministry's reaction to a possible use of a West European Union flotilla to monitor shipping in the Danube delta for compliance with the trade embargo against Serbia. The representative said that any such action "in the Black Sea area and adjacent Danube basin requires prior agrement with Russia as a Black Sea power which has direct interests in that region." On 12-February ITAR-TASS had also cited V.-Adm. Eduard Baltin, Russian commander of the Black Sea Fleet, as referring to "traditional Russian interests" in opposing alleged plans by several West European countries to monitor shipping in the Western Black Sea and the lower Danube. The nearest Russian territory lies some 800 kilometers from the delta since Ukraine succeeded the USSR as riparian to the Danube and the Western Black Sea, alongside Romania to whom most of the delta belongs. -Vladimir Socor ANOTHER ROMANIAN-UKRAINIAN TERRITORIAL ISSUE. According to Radio Bucharest Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, accompanying President Ion Iliescu on an official visit to NATO headquarters, updated for La Libre Belgique of 18 February the status of Romania's claim to Serpents' Island in the Western Black Sea (that sea's sole island). Taken by the USSR from Romania in the late 1940s, and lying atop undersea oil and gas deposits, the island has been officially claimed by Romania since Iliescu publicly requested its return from Gorbachev in 1991. Russia, however, is now telling Romania that the issue falls within the competence of Ukraine, Melescanu said. Romanian territorial claims on Ukraine also include northern Bukovina, the Hertsa district, and southern Bessarabia. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN APPEAL ON PROPERTY OF FORMER SOVIET UNION. In the latest move in the ongoing dispute between Russia and Ukraine over the allocation of debts and assets of the former Soviet Union, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry has appealed for external support for its position, Reuters reported on 22 February. An official statement sent to all states that have assets of the former Soviet Union on their territory asserted that "Ukraine does not recognize Russia's claims to be the single state which has rights over the former Soviet Union's property abroad." The statement urged the foreign states to reject Moscow's attempts to take over the property until the dispute is resolved. -Keith Bush "INTERFRONT" MOVEMENT CRYSTALLIZING IN CRIMEA. Russian procommunist forces in Crimea seeking the restoration of the USSR have formed a "Edinstvo" (Unity) bloc, Ukrainian TV reported on 19-February. The founding organizations are the Union of Communists of Crimea and the Sevastopol and Saksa branches of the Socialist Party of Ukraine (formed by former members of the banned Communist Party of Ukraine). Meanwhile, on 20 February, the founding conference of the Russian Party of Crimea was held in Simferopol, Ukrainian and Russian media reported. Its aim is to campaign for Crimea to become part of Russia. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN DEMOCRATIC COALITION HOLDS FORUM. On 21 February, the newly-formed broad Ukrainian democratic coalition, "The Anticommunist, Antiimperial Front," held an "All-Ukrainian Forum" in Kiev, in which representatives of about 30 political parties and organizations took part, Ukrainian media report. The coalition's aim is to protect Ukraine's independent statehood and democracy against what it perceives as threats from the resurgent procommunist forces in Ukraine and pressure on Ukraine to integrate more fully in the CIS. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINE BOLSTERING ECONOMIC TIES WITH CENTRAL ASIAN STATES. Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma is continuing a week-long visit to the Central Asian states aimed at strengthening economic cooperation with them, and in particular, securing supplies of oil and natural gas, Ukrainian media report. On 19-February Kuchma met with Uzbekistan's president Islam Karimov and on the following day signed a number of bilateral cooperation agreements, including one providing for Ukrainian participation in the development of Uzbekistan's natural gas and gold mining industries. On 22 February Kuchma signed agreements with Kazakhstan, including one on cooperation in the development of Kazakhstan's oil and gas industries. During his visit to Alma-Ata Kuchma also proposed close cooperation in space research between Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia. He apparently has also managed to secure half a million tons of oil and half a million tons of grain from Kazakhstan as emergency supplies. -Bohdan Nahaylo SITE FOR KLAIPEDA OIL TERMINAL DECIDED. After almost 18 months of discussion, the Lithuanian government has given its final approval for the oil terminal needed for importing oil, BNS reported on 22 February. The site will consist of three parts: fuel oil reservoirs to replace the current oil terminal in Klaipeda, reserve facilities to be constructed at Melnrage, south of Klaipeda, and the main reservoirs to be situated in Kopustai, 10-km. from the coast in the direction of the oil refinery at Mazeikiai. The construction will cost about $300 million and take about four years. -Saulius Girnius SEIMAS APPROVES PRESIDENT'S FLAG. The Seimas approved on 18 February Lithuania's presidential flag, purple in color with the country's coat of arms carried by a griffin and a unicorn, Radio Lithuania reports. The flag is to be raised over the left wing of the parliament on 25 February when Algirdas Brazauskas is sworn in as president. Questions have been raised whether the parliament should have been concerned with the flag when other more important issues, such as the budget for 1993, the vote of nonconfidence in Bank of Lithuania chairman Vilius Baldisis, and the appointments of the eight remaining judges to the Constitutional Court have not been settled. -Saulius Girnius COMMUNISTS FROM LATVIA TO ATTEND CPSU CONGRESS. Igor Lopatin, member of the bureau of the League of Communists in Latvia, told the press that five members of his organization will attend the 29th CPSU Congress in Moscow scheduled for 25-26 March, BNS reports. Lopatin, who is also one of the organizers of the CPSU congress, said that the recent Russian Communist Party congress was a first step toward the restoration of the CPSU as a union of communist parties of independent states that emerged on the territory of the former USSR. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN DEPUTIES, ZOTOV ON TROOPS IN BALTICS. After visiting units of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces in Latvia on 17-20 February, a group of Russian deputies led by Vitalii Urazhtsev told the press of widespread discontent among the troops and corruption at all levels. They warned of possible unrest among Russian military personnel-which they estimated at 200,000 in the Baltic States-especially if they are withdrawn to Russia without adequate attention to their welfare, Baltic media reported on 22 February. Sergei Zotov, leader of the Russian delegation for talks on troop pullouts from Latvia, said that at the next round of talks, scheduled for 17-19 March in Moscow, he wants to focus on accords related to the social security for servicemen being withdrawn, civilian employees at military facilities, and their families; the signing of such accords is a condition for resuming troop withdrawals, suspended in accordance with Russian President Boris Yeltsin's directive of 29 October 1992. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA ASKS CSCE HELP IN BORDER DISPUTE. Estonia plans to ask the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe to mediate an ongoing territorial dispute between Russia and Estonia over areas annexed by the Russian Federation in 1945. According to BNS of 22-February, Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste discussed the plan during a parliamentary hearing on the topic that day. Velliste said Russia is refusing to return lands amounting to 5% of the territory and 6% of the population of the interwar republic, whose boundary with Russia was set out in Tartu Peace Treaty of 1920. Estonia will reportedly ask the CSCE to appoint a special official to moderate the dispute. -Riina Kionka COST OF LIVING KEEPS RISING IN LATVIA. Data from the State Statistics Committee in January shows that the minimum consumer basket, calculated for the goods and services that are least expensive and most in demand, was 6,872 Latvian rubles, of which 3,333 rubles went for food. The average wage in state and municipal industrial enterprises was 7,998 Latvian rubles, in state offices-6855 rubles, and private offices and enterprises-8570 rubles, Baltic media reported on 20 February. -Dzintra Bungs EASTERN ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTERS PLEDGE COOPERATION. Environmental ministers from 21-former Soviet republics and East European states have registered their deep concern about environmental degradation in their region and pledged cooperation in combating it, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 22 February. The ministers drafted the statement at the end of a three-day conference in Florida, hosted by private American organizations. They agreed to enhance the reporting of pollution and illegal trade in hazardous wastes, and to harmonize environmental legislation, standards, and norms. The ministers appealed for Western assistance to fight the harmful legacy of their former Communist governments. -Mort von Duyke and Keith Bush [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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