|If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart is no island cut off from other lands, but a continent that joins to them. - Francis Bacon|
No. 35, 22 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA KHASBULATOV ATTACKS YELTSIN. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov told a gathering of legislators in Novosibirsk on 19 February that the Russian Congress of People's Deputies remains the supreme power in the country and implied that it was not he but rather President Boris Yeltsin who had caused the present political crisis by constantly attempting to extend his powers at the cost of the legislature. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai told Ostankino TV "Itogi" on 21 February that Khasbulatov heads a collective body and is not entitled to conduct an independent policy. He called on the parliament to clarify its position on the constitutional agreement proposed by Yeltsin on 18 February and warned of the danger that the conservative Congress could bury the agreement. Alexander Rahr OFFICERS' ASSEMBLY CONVENES. Serving and retired officers from the armed forces, the Security Ministry, and the Internal Affairs Ministry gathered in Moscow on 20-21 February, purportedly under the auspices of the All-Army Officers Assembly. Stanislav Terekhov, who heads the militantly nationalist Officers Union, and who was the primary force behind convening the assembly, was elected its chairman. The meeting was held in secret, and reports from Moscow by Mayak Radio, Russian TV, and RIA provided only partial accounts of the proceedings. It appears, however, that the meeting was not endorsed by the Coordinating Council of the CIS All-Army Officers Assembly, an official body created in January 1992, and that the number of participants may have been quite small. Speakers, who included Albert Makashov (described by the Officers Union as potential president of a future national salvation government) and a number of leading Russian Communists, called for Defense Minister Pavel Grachev to resign. According to Russian TV, the assembly also voiced opposition to reductions in military spending and the size of the army, and to conversion. Terekhov claimed that officers in the Russian General Staff and security organs supported the Assembly's program. The Defense Ministry opposed the convening of the Assembly. -Stephen Foye PLANS FOR "ARMY DAY." The Officers' Assembly also called for the "Soviet Army and working people to launch an offensive" on 23 February, which formerly marked Soviet "army day" and is now designated "Defenders of the Fatherland" day. In 1992 the holiday was also used by conservative forces to protest against the breakup of the army and the consequences of political liberalization as a whole, and was the occasion of violent clashes between demonstrators and security forces in Moscow. Stephen Foye GAZPROM PUTS PRESSURE ON UKRAINE. The giant Russian natural gas monopoly is threatening to stop shipments to Ukraine, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 February. Acting Gazprom Chairman Rem Vyakhirev told a press conference in Moscow that Ukraine has not been paying its bills since the first of the year and supplies will be cut off this week. Vyakhirev also said that a telegram has been sent to 17 of Gazprom's main European customers, stating that Russia intends to maintain full deliveries to them, but warned them to take measures in case Ukraine disrupts supplies in transit. On 18 February according to the Financial Times, Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma accused Russia of trying to bring about "a full paralysis" of the Ukrainian economy. At the weekend he embarked on a trip to the Central Asian states to secure oil and gas supplies. -Erik Whitlock and Bohdan Nahaylo LEADING PARLIAMENTARIAN URGES RETURN TO STATE ORDERS. Aleksandr Pochinok, chairman of the Russian Parliamentary Committee on the Budget, Plan, Taxes and Prices, has called for the reinstatement of state orders to add some stability to the Russian economy, according to Russian TV "Novosti" on 19-February. Speaking at a meeting of state officials in Novosibirsk, Pochinok criticized presidential decrees liberalizing free trade and said that broadening the use of state orders would soften the current investment crisis and strengthen state budget revenues. At present, state orders and contracts are largely limited to the purchase of military, energy, and agricultural goods. Pochinok also confirmed parliament's intention to draft a law reestablishing the state liquor monopoly. Erik Whitlock REVENUES FROM ANTIMONOPOLY POLICY. Leonid Bochin, chairman of the Russian State Committee for Antimonopoly Policy told a press conference in Moscow on 19 February that fines on monopoly producers for charging exorbitant prices produced 2.7 billion rubles of revenue for the state budget in 1992, according to ITAR-TASS. Total budget revenue in 1992 was about 4.6 trillion rubles. Bochin also said that the committee was preparing a federal program for supporting entrepreneurship. Erik Whitlock CONFERENCE ON THE KGB IN MOSCOW. A conference on the KGB, organized by former Soviet dissidents in Moscow on 19-21 February, issued a resolution calling for the abolition of all former KGB structures which have been preserved in the present Ministry of Security. The resolution said that a new secret service should be established, which should not employ former KGB officials. Principal speakers at the conference included former KGB General Oleg Kalugin, former KGB chief Vadim Bakatin, heads of various parliamentary investigative commissions on KGB activities, and several well-known human rights activists. The Ministry of Security itself was represented by Col. Aleksei Kandaurov who faced tough questions from the audience. Subsequent conferences on the KGB are planned for May and autumn 1993. Alexander Rahr YELTSIN DECREE ON ARMS EXPORTS. President Yeltsin has issued a decree establishing guidelines for the export of military hardware and expertise, as well as outlining procedures for the transfer of raw materials, equipment, and dual-purpose technology to any foreign state, including those of the CIS, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 February. The text of the decree was not available. The measure is reportedly aimed at ensuring compliance with UN weapons embargoes and at protecting Russia's national interests. The vague wording of the report suggests that inter-departmental or ministerial disagreements over such issues are to be resolved in the Security Council, while final authority for making decisions on embargoes is vested in the President's office. Stephen Foye MOSCOW ON SANCTIONS AGAINST RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. The Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 19 February regarding possible policing action to enforce UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. "Any actions involving Western European Union warships in the Black Sea and the adjacent Danube basin or any other actions of that nature" should be approved in advance "by Russia, as a Black Sea state which has direct interests in this region," the statement said, as reported by ITAR-TASS. On 21 February in an interview with ITAR-TASS, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev declared Russia's support for the strict observation of sanctions. Despite pressure from the Russian parliament for Moscow to start supplying humanitarian aid to rump Yugoslavia, Kozyrev stated that Russia would not make unilateral moves in this direction because such actions would run counter to UN decisions. Suzanne Crow MINERS: STRIKE ACTION STILL THREATENED. The 500 miners at the Vorgashorskaya mine in Vorkuta, who had joined an underground sit-in in protest at the arrest of their leader, Ivan Guridov, ended their protest on 17-February after Guridov was released on bail. The miners have again voted overwhelmingly to have him as director of the mine, but his appointment still has to be confirmed by the Ministry of Fuel and Energy. Work at the mine was resumed on 20 February, but the miners threaten to resume the strike if Guridov's appointment is not approved. Meanwhile, an RFE/RL correspondent reported that miners in the Kuzbass region have been voting on whether to strike. A decision is expected on 23-February. President Yeltsin is reported to be preparing a decree to meet the miners' demands, the main ones being that their wages be linked to inflation, and that renovation of the mines begin. Sheila Marnie TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Azerbaijani Defense Minister Rahim Gaziev offered to resign at a closed session of the Azerbaijan Milli Mejlis (People's Assembly) on 19-February at which he was blamed for recent military setbacks suffered by Azerbaijani troops in Nagorno-Karabakh, Western agencies reported. His offer was accepted the following day by Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey, who on 21-February appointed Afghan veteran Maj.-Gen. Dadash Rzaev to replace Gaziev; Rzaev is the fifth Minister of Defense since the post was created 18 month ago. Both the Italian Foreign Ministry and the Azerbaijani President's office have expressed concern that the new Armenian offensive may jeopardize the next round of Karabakh peace talks due to open in Rome this week. Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE ANGERED BY RUSSIAN AIRRAID ON SUKHUMI. Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze flew to the Abkhaz coastal town of Sukhumi on 21 February following an overnight airraid by Russian warplanes on the town in which one person was killed and eight injured, Western agencies reported. A Russian Defense Ministry spokesman said that the raid was aimed at military targets in retaliation for Georgian shelling of a Russian unit the previous day. Shevardnadze condemned the raid as "barbarous" and vowed that Georgia would make "an adequate response." Liz Fuller MORE ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS IN EREVAN. Tens of thousands of Armenians demonstrated in Erevan on 20 February, protesting against appalling economic conditions, made worse by an attack on the main gas pipeline through Georgia on 19-February which cut supplies for the third time within a month, and calling for the resignation of Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan. A second demonstration on 21 February called on the Armenian government to recognize the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR). Participants also protested against US criticism of the recent Armenian offensive in Karabakh, according to ITAR-TASS. Ter-Petrossyan has stated that Armenia will recognize the NKR only after another foreign state has done so. Liz Fuller TAJIK GOVERNMENT FORCES TAKE OPPOSITION STRONGHOLDS. ITAR-TASS and Western journalists reported on 21 February that Tajik government troops had taken control of several strongholds of the pro-Islamic opposition the previous day. These included Garm, Komsomolabad, Tadzhikabad and Tavildar Raions and the Romit Gorge in the mountains east of Dushanbe. The Gorge has been the site of several weeks of fighting between pro- and anti-government forces. Tajik head of state Imomali Rakhmonov appealed to the population of the captured regions to work with the government to restore the country's economy. On 20-February Khovar-TASS reported that 5,000 Tajik refugees have returned from Afghanistan, but some 50,000 remain. The same day Rakhmonov met UN representatives to discuss efforts to repatriate the refugees who fled to Afghanistan in December and early January to escape reprisals by pro-government troops. Bess Brown CENSORSHIP IN TAJIKISTAN. The government in Tajikistan has opened an attack on opposition publications, Russian TV reported on 18 February. Quoting Moskovskiye novosti, the TV report said that nine opposition newspapers and journals have been closed. Five journalists have been killed and ten have disappeared without trace. The deaths and disappearances of the journalists probably occurred during the fighting and are unlikely all to be due to the present government. However, many journalists have had to leave Tajikistan, and the chief of Tajik Radio and TV under the Communist-opposition coalition government of 1992 has been arrested along with four of his subordinates. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN ACTIVITIES IN YUGOSLAV CRISIS. A UN relief convoy reached the besieged eastern Bosnian town of Zepa on 21 February after waiting to pass through Serb checkpoints since the 17th. International media also report that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees said on the 21st that her agency will resume relief shipments, which she ordered halted the previous week. Elsewhere, eastern Bosnian officials appealed to the Bosnian government to lift its ban on further aid shipments to Sarajevo until the UN succeeds in supplying eastern Bosnia as well. Finally, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from the UN on 20 February that the Security Council has authorized that body's military contingents in Croatia and Bosnia, UNPROFOR, to use "necessary defensive means" under certain circumstances. The Council also warned Croatia that it faces UN sanctions if it does not stop its current offensive against Serbian-held parts of Croatia. -Patrick Moore PARACHUTE DROPS FOR BOSNIA? MAJOR US DAILIES ON 22 FEBRUARY REPORT THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WILL SOON ANNOUNCE PLANS FOR A PARACHUTE DROP OF SUPPLIES INTO EASTERN BOSNIA. The Bosnian authorities have long called for such a measure, but some also fear that Washington may limit its new initiatives to the air drop, which they regard as insufficient by itself. Some media accounts question whether such shipments could be delivered safely or accurately, or whether political problems might arise if the Serbs were to accuse the aid missions of supplying the Bosnians with weapons. -Patrick Moore TURKISH PRESIDENT WARNS OF BALKAN CONFLAGRATION. International media on 20-February said that Turgut …zal ended his Balkan diplomatic mission that took him to Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, and Croatia. …zal said that he continues to be "worried that the increase of pressure from Serbian chauvinism-.-.-. will set the Balkans on fire," but added that he and his hosts hope that regional cooperation can prevent the conflict from spreading. The Turkish president still feels that military intervention under UN sponsorship is necessary to solve the problems in Bosnia, however, noting that the chances of ending that conflict otherwise are "meager." -Patrick Moore YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT POSTPONES TRIP TO ROMANIA. A spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry announced on 19 February that President Dobrica Cosic of rump Yugoslavia was postponing a visit to Bucharest scheduled for the weekend. The rump Yugoslavia's embassy said Cosic had health problems. The visit has been rescheduled for 25 February. The visit will be one of a series of high-level contacts between Romania and Balkan countries, all apparently connected with the conflict in former Yugoslavia. -Michael Shafir UN SANCTIONS BITE SERBS. According to reports on Radio Serbia on 17-18 February, the federal Statistical Office and Belgrade's Market Research Institute released January production data showing overall industrial output in Serbia down almost 37% from a year ago. Some major manufacturing firms registered declines as high as 73%, and no company reported an increase in January output. Surveys of major companies show raw material stocks are either exhausted or seriously depleted. The UN sanctions are being blamed for more layoffs throughout Serbia. Some factories report that 80-90% of the work force has been laid off. Dobrivoje Perovic, deputy mayor and chairman of the Belgrade Crisis Committee, warned that fuel reserves are slowly running out. He added that the shortage of heating oil has forced local officials to close schools throughout Serbia in order to guarantee supply only those amounts needed for public transport and community services. The shortage of medicines and vaccines is blamed for the sharp rise in the death toll among the elderly and newborn. A Pristina daily reports that the Belgrade authorities are closing public health clinics in Kosovo and say there have been 10 deaths from scarlet fever. Radio Croatia and Bosnia have even alleged an outbreak of smallpox there. -Milan Andrejevich ANTI-MUSLIM DEMONSTRATIONS IN MACEDONIA. Violence broke out in two days of anti-Muslim demonstrations in Skopje on 20 and 21 February according to AFP and ORF. Protesters, supporters of two xenophobic nationalist political parties-the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity and Movement for Pan-Macedonian Action-oppose construction of a camp in the Gjorgje Petrov section of the city meant to house refugees from the Bosnian conflict. Demonstrators fear that additional Muslims in Macedonia will tilt the ethnic balance in the country in favor of Albanians and other Muslims against Christian Orthodox Macedonians, who constitute about two-thirds of the population. Police used tear gas against several hundred rock-throwing demonstrators on 21 February and about a dozen police, firefighters, and protesters were hurt in the weekend's violence. -Duncan Perry POLISH BUDGET AWAITS WALESA'S SIGNATURE. The Senate voted on 19 February, 54 to 19 with five abstentions, to accept without amendment the 1993 budget approved by the Sejm a week earlier. The Senate vote concluded the parliament's work on the budget; only the president's signature is now required. Most of the senators from Solidarity were absent during the vote, perhaps fearing the grilling that Sejm colleagues who supported the budget are now facing from angry union members. Despite the atmosphere of urgency surrounding the budget, the president seemed in no hurry to sign it into law; a spokesman told PAP on 20-February that Walesa has thirty days to sign, "so we should wait patiently." In other parliamentary business, the Senate voted to restore the possibility of joint taxation for married couples, satisfying the chief demand of the Silesian coal miners who struck on 18-February. In a more controversial decision, the Sejm voted on 19 February to impose a complete ban on cigarette and alcohol advertising in Poland, while the Senate decided to count beer among the alcoholic beverages requiring a license to sell. -Louisa Vinton POLAND LOWERS INTEREST RATES, SIGNS "ENTERPRISE PACT." The Polish National Bank cut interest rates by three to four percentage points on 20-February, PAP reports. National Bank chief Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz said that positive economic results in 1992 and declining inflation made the reductions possible. Further interest rate cuts can be expected about every two months in 1993, provided positive economic trends continue, she added. In other economic news, PAP reported that the trade unions, the government, and employers' organizations will sign the tripartite "pact on state enterprises" negotiated last fall on 22 February. The pact is designed to win workers' support for the accelerated privatization and restructuring of state firms. -Louisa Vinton NIXON IN PRAGUE. Former US President Richard Nixon arrived in Prague on 20 February for a short private visit. He met with President Vaclav Havel, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, and other Czech officials.Following their meeting, CTK reports, Klaus quoted Nixon as saying that the Czech Republic has made the biggest progress of all postcommunist countries and an aide to the Czech president said Nixon hailed the reforms being implemented in the Czech Republic. Nixon told reporters in Prague that the main objective of this and similar trips is to call attention of the American public to Eastern Europe. He said he opposes the policy of concentrating only on American domestic problems. Nixon argued that the post-communist countries of East-Central Europe should become part of European economic and security structures as soon as possible. -Jiri Pehe IMF-SLOVAK TALKS REPORTEDLY BREAK DOWN. Reuters quoted Western sources in Bratislava on 20-February as saying that talks between International Monetary Fund and government officials have broken down in a dispute over the devaluation of Slovak currency. International experts have been urging Slovakia to devalue its currency to make its goods more competitive and protect its hard currency reserves. According to Reuters' sources, the IMF found the officials "unwilling to make the political step of devaluation." The IMF team was in Bratislava to discuss the possibility of giving Slovakia a $100-million standby loan. On 21 February Premier Vladimir Meciar said on Slovak TV that the fact that two weeks after the Czech-Slovak currency separation the Slovak currency has not been devalued "is a success." Meciar said the discussion surrounding the question of devaluation puts "psychological pressure on citizens and entrepreneurs." -Jiri Pehe HUNGARY TO INCREASE LEVEL OF DANUBE. Gyurko Janos, the environmental protection minister-designate, said in a radio interview on 19 February that Hungary will act unilaterally to increase the water supply in the old bed of the Danube. Slovakia diverted the river into Slovak territory at Cunovo in October 1992 to supply the Gabcikovo hydroelectric canal and dam system. Bilateral negotiations to frame a joint appeal to the International Court of Justice for arbitration were unsuccessful. Gyurko said that Hungary is planning to activate the completed but unused weir at Dunakiliti in order to address the environmental catastrophe now facing the old Danube area because of the lack of water. Slovakia currently diverts 80% of the Danube water into the new channels. -Karoly Okolicsanyi RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE CHIEF IN HUNGARY. Yevgenii Primakov, the head of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, visited Hungary on 19 February 1992, MTI reports. He had talks with his Hungarian counterpart, Tibor Fuzessy, and Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. Topics of the talks included joint actions against terrorism, illegal drug trafficking, and organized crime, and ways to prevent smuggling of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Political issues of the region were also discussed. -Karoly Okolicsanyi FUNAR BANS FOREIGN FLAGS AND ANTHEMS. Gheorghe Funar, the Romanian nationalist mayor of Cluj, has banned foreign banners and anthems in the city, Western agencies quoting the local radio station reported on 20 February. The move, the latest in a series of anti-Hungarian measures, is likely to increase tensions between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians. Radio Cluj quoted Funar as saying that "the obstinate way" Hungarians express their ethnic identity "through the symbols of the Hungarian state jeopardizes the unity of the Romanians." -Michael Shafir ROMANIA ADOPTS DRAFT BUDGET FOR 1993. On 19 February the government adopted the budget for 1993, Radio Bucharest announced. The budget must be approved by the parliament. Finance Minister Florin Georgescu said the budget includes what he called a "healthy deficit" aimed at renewing state investment to create jobs. He added that the draft budget has been discussed with IMF experts, "who gave their agreement in principle to the deficit level." The deficit is targeted at about 4% of GDP-up from 2.3% in 1992. Minister of State Misu Negritoiu, who heads the Council for Coordination, Strategy, and Economic Reform, said at the government's press conference on the same day that living standards will not rise in 1993. Unemployment will keep rising and its level might reach 15%, he said. (According to data released by the National Statistics Board on 19 February, unemployment is now 8.8% of the active population). Negritoiu also said the government will stick to its plans to remove all remaining subsidies on consumer goods and energy on 1 May 1993. According to forecasts, inflation in 1993 will be 80%-less than half last year's rate. -Michael Shafir BULGARIA TO REJECT DEBT DEAL. Bulgaria will not accept a new debt proposal as outlined by foreign creditors, Finance Minister Stoyan Aleksandrov told Reuters in Sofia. Returning from Washington on 21-February, Aleksandrov said officials of both the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank consider the current proposal "unserviceable." The next round of negotiations with Bulgaria's commercial creditors is due in Frankfurt on 1 and 2 March, but important elements of the proposed deal have been provided beforehand. Commenting his contacts with the IMF, Aleksandrov said he hoped a new one- or two-year agreement could be signed in March or April. Earlier the Bulgarian Finance Minister had indicated he might want to do without IMF support in case it raises objections to a larger budget deficit, tentatively set at 8%. -Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVAN-UKRAINIAN MILITARY AGREEMENT SIGNED. Drafted and initialed in January, a Ukrainian-Moldovan agreement on military cooperation was signed by the defense ministers, Generals Konstantin Morozov and Pavel Creanga, in Chisinau on 19 February. According to the communique cited by Moldovapres, the agreement provides for the creation of a common air defense system of the two countries; exchanges of intelligence; joint maneuvers, drills, and tactical studies; cooperation in the training of military personnel; mutual support in repairing and servicing military equipment; and sharing experience in the creation of national armies. Most of these cooperative activities would in practice amount to a one-way street of Ukrainian assistance to Moldova. President Mircea Snegur, who conferred with Morozov, predicted that "this agreement will help ensure stable peace in this region of Europe." The known provisions of this agreement are much more far-reaching than the known provisions of the Moldovan-Romanian military agreement signed in December 1992. -Vladimir Socor PRIVATIZATION BEGINS IN LVIV. The first sale of state shops and restaurants began on 20-February, Reuters reports. The International Finance Corporation helped organize the sale of 70 small businesses by auction, and prices are reported to have soared far beyond their assessed value. A hardware store, for example, had been valued at 150,000 karbovantsi, but was bought for 48 million karbovantsi by the staff collective. It is planned to privatize 60% of all small state enterprises in Lviv by the end of 1993. -Sheila Marnie NEW CHAIRMAN OF LITHUANIAN DEMOCRATIC LABOR PARTY. On 19 February the Council of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party elected the party's first deputy chairman Gediminas Kirkilas as the party's acting chairman, replacing Algirdas Brazauskas, who was required to resign after being elected president, Radio Lithuania reports. Kirkilas, born in 1951, graduated from the faculty of journalism of Vilnius University in 1978 and served in various party posts since 1982. He was defeated in the Seimas elections in Vilnius, but gained a seat from the party list. The new party chairman will be elected at the party Congress to be held in Vilnius on 17-18 April. -Saulius Girnius SAEIMA DEPUTY COUNT SET. The Latvian Central Electoral Commission announced that 24 deputies from Riga, 26 from Vidzeme, 20 from Latgale, 14 from Kurzeme, and 16 from Zemgale will be elected in the parliamentary elections scheduled for 5-6 June, Diena reported on 19 February. The Saeima will consist of 100-deputies. -Dzintra Bungs SWEDISH-ESTONIAN RELATIONS WARM. During a 20-February meeting in Stockholm, Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt told his Estonian counterpart Mart Laar that Sweden is willing to help train Estonian defense, border, and police forces, BNS reports. Bildt also said Sweden will help Estonia clean up mines and explosives left by withdrawing Russian troops by training sapper units, and would support efforts to clean up environmental hazards at Sillamae and Paldiski. Bildt also proposed two programs for loans and export credits for Estonia, saying that Sweden is satisfied with Estonia's economic policy. -Riina Kionka ESTONIAN MONOPOLY ON METALS EXPORTS. The Estonian government on 19 February imposed a state monopoly on the buying, export, and reexport of scrap ferrous metals, BNS reports. The government is reportedly planning to cut taxes on metal imports and exports, hoping to cash in on customs duties from metal trade that heretofore went undeclared. -Riina Kionka [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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