|Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man. - Leon Trotsky|
No. 34, 19 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN ON CONSTITUTIONAL CRISIS. In a TV broadcast on the evening of 18 February, Russian President Boris Yeltsin laid out his proposals for a solution to the country's constitutional crisis. The parliament had received the proposals on 17 February. Yeltsin said that there were two ways to resolve current "political tension," which he blamed on the principle of "all power to the soviets" inherited from the former regime. The first was a referendum; the second, "difficult, tense negotiations to reach agreement." Yeltsin appealed for public support for the plebiscite, suggesting that it was an effective means of forcing the legislature to negotiate. To the proposals detailed the previous day by Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, Yeltsin added that the Constitutional Court should monitor observation of the constitutional agreement with powers to demand the resignation of the President or the dissolution of parliament should either side infringe the agreement. He also reiterated his call for early presidential and parliamentary elections in 1995 and 1994 respectively. The text of the speech was carried in full by ITAR-TASS. -Wendy Slater RUSSIAN DISSATISFACTION WITH CIS ECONOMICS. At a meeting of the presidium of the Russian Council of Ministers on 18 February there were new calls to alter economic relations within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), ITAR-TASS reported. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin urged market prices for trade within the region. Vladimir Mashchits, chairman of the State Committee on Economic Relations with the CIS, reported that, in addition to the banking and customs battles that continue to hamper trade among the republics, Russia was losing the "price war". He claimed that, although all products traded in the CIS were in general priced lower than world levels, Russia was selling her goods especially cheaply. He claimed that last year Russia had lost 2 trillion rubles in revenue by not selling its exports at world prices. He added that no CIS state, with the exception of Belarus, had agreed fully to coordinate with the Russian Central Bank in an effort to stabilize monetary developments in the region. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT FOR SANCTIONS ON CROATIA. On 18 February the Russian parliament voted 162-4 with 2 abstentions (well over half the deputies) in support of a resolution calling on the Russian government to press the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions on Croatia and lift them from Serbia and Montenegro, Western and Russian agencies reported. The vote reflects the long-standing sentiment in parliament that Russia should work to reduce international pressure on Serbia. -Suzanne Crow PRESIDENTIAL ADVISOR CALLS FOR MORE ARMS EXPORTS. Boris Yeltsin's advisor for defense conversion, Mikhail Malei, says in the latest issue of Moskovskie novosti that Russian arms exports cannot be significantly increased until individual firms are given greater freedom in dealing with foreign clients. As reported by ITAR-TASS on 18 February, Malei opined that Russia's potential earnings from arms exports could reach $10-12 billion per year. He said this income, which he estimated at some twenty times the amount to be invested by the government in conversion in 1993, could then be directed toward the modernization and conversion of the Russian defense industrial sector. He spoke disparagingly of the fact that arms sales are currently conducted by only five firms, and argued that significant profits would result even if Russia sold arms at prices far below those generally seen on the world market. -Stephen Foye PEACE-KEEPING FORCES STILL A FICTION. The Chief of the CIS armed forces General Staff was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 18 February as saying that CIS leaders have failed to work out a concrete mechanism for the creation of peace-keeping forces. Col. Gen. Viktor Samsonov maintained that their creation remains only a declaration of intent. Samsonov, speaking in the wake of a meeting of CIS chiefs of staff, also said that four CIS battalions scheduled to be sent to Tajikistan have not yet been formed. -Stephen Foye PARLIAMENT CONTINUES LEGAL REFORM. Russian TV reports on the 18 February session of the parliament said that it had excluded four articles concerning certain forms of severe punishment from the Russian Criminal Code. Henceforth, internal exile, banishment and two articles used to replace suspended sentences and early release with terms of compulsory labor will no longer be applied to convicts. A group of liberal deputies led by a former Soviet dissident, Boris Zolotukhin, are credited with the change. Earlier in 1993, the same group of lawmakers succeeded in introducing a provision for life imprisonment into the Criminal Code, a move which is expected sharply to reduce the number of death sentences passed in Russia. -Julia Wishnevsky PARLIAMENT TO BRING LEGAL ACTION AGAINST YELTSIN'S ASSOCIATE. At its 18-February session, broadcast on Russian TV, the parliament voted to bring a legal action against Mikhail Poltoranin, the head of the Federal Information Center and Yeltsin's long-standing associate. The vote followed Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov's report on the investigation his office undertook in connection with Poltoranin's interview with the Italian communist daily, l'Unita. In the interview, which was translated into Russian and reprinted in some local newspapers in January, Poltoranin claimed that parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov along with members of the Chechen "mafia" had prepared a coup against Yeltsin and that Poltoranin had prevented it. According to Stepankov, the office of the Prosecutor-General concluded that Poltoranin had libeled Khasbulatov. However, Stepankov added, Khasbulatov refused to sue Poltoranin himself, and asked the parliament whether the lawmakers felt that Poltoranin had offended the whole institution. 133 lawmakers voted for the resolution to sue Poltoranin for libel, 9 voted against it, and 5 abstained. -Julia Wishnevsky KANGAROO COURT TRIES GORBACHEV. Russian TV newscasts gave much prominence to the so-called "public trial" of former USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev which opened in Moscow on 18 February. Organized by activists of communist rallies, the trial was attended by the leader of the newly revived Russian Communist Party, Gennadii Zyuganov, and other prominent hardliners. Gorbachev did not attend the performance. In his address to the gathering, former deputy USSR Prosecutor-General Viktor Ilyukhin claimed that Gorbachev bore sole blame for the collapse of the Soviet Union, for arms reduction treaties disadvantageous to the USSR, and for currency violations incurred by the Gorbachev Foundation. Gorbachev's greatest sin, Ilyukhin opined, is [his adherence to] pluralism. Ilyukhin found Gorbachev to be guilty of high treason under Article 64 of the Russian Criminal Code but did not specify which punishment he demands for Gorbachev. The self-appointed "people's tribunal" is expected to pronounce its verdict on Saturday, 20-February. -Julia Wishnevsky RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WAR? The newspaper of the "spiritual opposition" in Russia, Den, which is published by the writer Aleksandr Prokhanov, quotes extensively from what it claims to be a recent meeting of Russia's "shadow government" in its issue for 7-13-February. The "shadow" foreign minister is quoted as saying that the situation with Ukraine is growing ever more dangerous, and that "we as professionals should study the possible scenarios of an unexpected nuclear war with Kiev, which, should it break out, will be conducted in the absence of any canons and rules turned out by geopolitical thought in the period of [nuclear] parity." -Roman Solchanyk TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHAKHRAI, ABDULATIPOV MEET WITH GEORGIAN OFFICIALS. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai and the chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Ramazan Abdulatipov, traveled to Tbilisi on 18 February for talks with Georgian Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua and parliamentary speaker Vakhtang Goguadze, ITAR-TASS reported. The Georgian side called for the creation of conditions which would enable Georgian refugees from South Ossetia to return to their homes, and for Russia to take steps to prevent volunteers from the North Caucasus participating in hostilities in Abkhazia. Shakhrai stated that the Russian parliament will not ratify the Russian-Georgian friendship agreement until a settlement of the Abkhaz conflict has been reached. -Liz Fuller RUSSIA DENIES AIDING ABKHAZIAN FORCES. On 17 February Krasnaya zvezda rejected Georgian leader Eduard Shevardnadze's charges that the 128th Motorized Rifle Regiment from Gyumri has been assisting Abkhazian forces. It also denied reports that the 145th Motorized Rifle Division based in Batumi was defending the borders of the Adzharian autonomous republic. The First Deputy Commander of Russian forces in the Transcaucasus, Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Gerasimov, claimed that Georgian leaders were trying to get the division removed from Batumi, where it reportedly enjoys friendly relations with the local government. Russia and Georgia recently signed an agreement allowing Russian troops to stay in Georgia until 1995, despite the ongoing tensions over their role in the region. -John Lepingwell NEW ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATION IN EREVAN. Some 8,000 people participated in a demonstration in Erevan on 18 February organized by the Union for National Self-Determination to call for the dissolving of the present parliament and the convening of a Constituent Assembly to adopt a new constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. Twenty participants were later detained by police, of whom four were later released. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT WANTS NEW CRIMINAL CODE. Kazakhstan's independent-minded Constitutional Court has asked President Nursultan Nazarbaev to exercise his right to initiate legislation in order to submit a draft of a new criminal code to the country's Supreme Soviet, ITAR-TASS reported on 18 February. In the court's opinion, Kazakhstan needs a new code to bring the laws into accord with the country's new constitution. Since its creation, Kazakhstan's Constitutional Court has been very active, declaring a decree of Nazarbaev unconstitutional and rejecting the government's efforts to influence it. The court does not have the right to initiate legislation, hence the request to Nazarbaev. -Bess Brown NEW TAJIK DEFENSE MINISTER OUTLINES SECURITY POLICY. Tajikistan's recently appointed Defense Minister Aleksandr Shishlyannikov says in the Tajik Narodnaya gazeta of 18 February that the Russian 201st division remains the guarantor of stability in Tajikistan. He said that the republic is currently forming Ground Forces and an Air Force, with Air Defense Forces to follow. There is no draft evasion in Tajikistan, he said. Shishlyannikov, a 42-year-old Russian Colonel, was appointed Defense Minister at the end of January. On 27 January Pravda quoted the permanent CIS military representative in Tajikistan as saying that Shishlyannikov had been nominated because of his presumed neutrality: he had never served in Tajikistan. According to the same report, Shishlyannikov fought in Afghanistan and, more recently, served in the Turkestan Military District. -Stephen Foye CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE THE UN MOVES ON WAR CRIMES. International media report on 19 February that the United Nations Security Council will probably vote unanimously next week to begin setting up a war-crimes investigation tribunal on the Nuremberg model, the first such body since the end of World War II. It would consider all war crimes, although Serbian atrocities in Bosnia would probably take center stage. The Washington Post says that defendants would not be allowed to avoid responsibility by saying that they were simply following orders, and that France, Italy, and Sweden have concrete proposals for setting up the tribunal. The paper adds that diplomats are acting "to allay fears expressed by Muslim leaders that the creation of the tribunal could be a prelude toward declaring a general amnesty." -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN UPDATE. The 19 February Los Angeles Times reports that UN High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata's decision on 17 February to end Bosnian aid shipments is being "defied" by UN agencies and peacekeepers. They were apparently "caught off guard by [her] sudden decision" and intend to try to get relief shipments through as long as possible. The paper also reports considerable confusion as to whether the ban applies to all of Bosnia. Meanwhile in Paris, the Council of Europe called the use of rape for political purposes as part of ethnic cleansing a "crime against humanity." Reuters on 18 February added that the Council said most rapes were committed against Muslims and that the rapists should be brought to trial. Finally, international media report on 18 and 19 February that Serbian forces may well succeed in staging a breakthrough at Stup, a Croat-held suburb of Sarajevo. Were Stup to fall, the Serbs could bring their decisive advantage in tanks to bear against the Bosnian capital for the first time in the war, since Stup is on the one side of Sarajevo that is not blocked in by mountains. -Patrick Moore ROMANIA, BULGARIA, AND UKRAINE TO ENFORCE UN SANCTIONS. In a memorandum signed in Bucharest on 18 February following consultations among officials from the three countries, Romania, Bulgaria and Ukraine said they are determined to cooperate in enforcing the UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia on the Danube. The memorandum was forwarded to the UN Security Council. In it, the signatories also appeal to the international community for technical assistance in carrying out the sanctions and for compensation for the losses resulting from their implementation. -Michael Shafir MACEDONIAN FOREIGN MINISTER RESIGNS. Foreign Minister Denko Maleski officially resigned on 18 February, according to MILS. It seems he activated a resignation submitted some months ago. Maleski resigned in protest at virulent personal attacks from members of the nationalist opposition. Maleski is a skilled and pragmatic diplomat; his departure is a blow to Macedonia. He will probably be provisionally replaced by one of the national vice presidents, Stevo Crvenkovski. The parliament convened on 19 February to debate the matter. -Duncan Perry TURKISH PRESIDENT MEETS KOSOVAR LEADERS. International media on 18 February said that Turgut Ozal met with Ali Aliu and other representatives of Kosovo's more than 90% ethnic Albanian majority while on a visit to neighboring Macedonia. Meanwhile in Kosovo, Albanian spokesmen said that five leaders of the Muslim Democratic Action Party were detained by police in Pec after a dawn raid on their homes. -Patrick Moore UKRAINE TO POSTPONE START-1 RATIFICATION. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 18 February, Ukraine has decided to postpone consideration of the START-1 treaty because it considers Russian security guarantees inadequate. Russia agreed to provide security guarantees at the 15 January summit meeting between Yeltsin and Kravchuk. However, the guarantees provided so far apparently do not meet Ukrainian requirements that Russia recognize Ukrainian territorial integrity and pledge not to use force against Ukraine. On Russian TV's Vesti news program on 19 February, the Ukrainian ambassador to Russia, Vladimir Kryzhanovsky, denied that maintenance problems with ICBMs in Ukraine threatened a "second Chernobyl" and noted that Ukraine and Russia will sign a treaty providing for Russian maintenance of the missiles. -John Lepingwell KRAVCHUK ON THE CIS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, addressing miners in the Luhansk region, said that Ukraine's integration into the CIS was impossible, Western sources reported on 17 February. Any attempts along these lines would split the country into two warring camps, he argued. According to Kravchuk, Ukraine had proposed the formation of the CIS in order to avoid the kind of situation now experienced by the former Yugoslavia. In spite of its shortcomings, the Ukrainian leader maintained that the CIS had proven its capability of solving major disputes without conflicts. -Roman Solchanyk RUTSKOI OFFERS SOLUTION TO CRIMEAN PROBLEM. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, addressing a meeting of war and labor veterans, said that an international court should decide whether the Crimea belongs to Russia or Ukraine, Western sources report on 18-February. The dispute over the Crimea has recently intensified after Russian lawmakers began examining the status of Sevastopol. -Roman Solchanyk MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT DETAILS WARNING OF IRREDENTIST COUP. Addressing the Moldovan parliament on 18 February, Mircea Snegur elaborated on his warning that militants who favor unification with Romania may be plotting a coup, Basapress reported. Snegur cited as evidence recent inflammatory articles in the Popular Front's press, calls to assassinate the president by militants of the Front's radical wing, aggressive picketing and demonstrations outside the presidential residence, and public threats of violence from two paramilitary groups affiliated with the rump Popular Front. -Vladimir Socor WALESA THREATENS TO VETO BUDGET. An official spokesman told PAP on 19 February that President Lech Walesa might veto the 1993 budget if the parliament failed to take into account the complaints of striking Silesian miners. Polish TV reported that 28 coal mines struck for 24 hours on 18 February, along with smaller numbers of Silesian railway and steel workers. The protesters are demanding revisions to draft tax laws passed recently by the Sejm, including a provision that would eliminate joint taxation for married couples. This change in the tax laws would particularly affect Silesia, as 70% of miners' wives do not work outside the home. The Senate is expected to amend the tax laws on 19-February. Revisions proposed by Senate committees would not only restore the joint taxation provision but bring the law into line with what the government proposed in the first place. Walesa's announcement seems a populist gesture meant to placate the disgruntled rather than a serious threat to block the 1993 budget. -Louisa Vinton POLISH COALITION DIVIDED OVER DECREES. Rzeczpospolita reported on 18 February that the government agreed to postpone Sejm debate on its request for "special powers" because of last-minute revisions proposed by the Christian National Union (ZChN), the conservative party in the coalition. The ZChN proposed thirteen limitations to decree powers, including the requirement that each decree be countersigned by every cabinet minister. This provision would almost certainly gum up the works rather than streamline public administration, and left some government ministers speechless with rage. The ZChN was apparently concerned that its ministers, including the minister of education, would not get decree powers, while ministers from other parties would. The Sejm may return to the issue in two weeks. -Louisa Vinton NEW HUNGARIAN MEDIA CHIEFS TO BE NAMED. State Secretary in the Prime Minister's Office Tamas Katona announced at a press conference on 18 February that the government plans soon to make public the names of its candidates to head Hungarian Radio and Television, MTI reports. Katona said that the government would like to see the new media chiefs appointed by March 6 when the mandates of the current media heads expire. The candidates will have to be approved by the parliament's cultural committee, in which the coalition government has a majority. Katona stressed, however, that the government seeks to appoint media chiefs who are also acceptable to the opposition. The "media war" between the government and the opposition has centered around the appointment of new media chiefs. Katona also announced that the government has agreed to supplement the radio's budget by 350 million forint. In a separate development, the deputy president of Hungarian Radio Laszlo Csucs announced he had appointed new program managers for the three public radio stations, Kossuth, Petofi, and Bartok. They will take over on 22 February. Csucs said that he will withdraw the mandates of the current managers on the same day but does not plan to dismiss them. -Edith Oltay NEW HUNGARIAN MINISTERS APPROVED. The relevant parliamentary committees on 18-February approved five ministerial candidates proposed by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, MTI reports. A hearing for Ivan Szabo, Antall's candidate for finance minister, is scheduled for later because he is currently abroad. Antall will submit a request to President Arpad Goncz to relieve the current ministers and to appoint the new ones. -Edith Oltay SOVIET DOCUMENTS FROM 1956 PUBLISHED. Two new books containing Soviet documents on the 1956 revolution went on sale in Hungary this month, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. One book, The Yeltsin File, is a translation of the 65 documents provided by Russian President Boris Yeltsin during his visit to Hungary last November. The other, Missing Pages, contains 78 documents apparently obtained independently, 26 of them the same as those provided by Yeltsin. Hungarian experts on 1956 say, however, that neither book discloses anything new, or reveals much about the Soviet political machinations at the time. Historian Ferenc Mandi commented that the two books "do not tell what Hungarians want to know about what the Soviets were doing behind the scenes and the Hungarians who worked with them." He presumed that "much more information was available in Soviet military archives in Moscow and in the personal papers of Yuri Andropov, who was the Soviet ambassador at the time." -Edith Oltay NUMBER OF COMPANIES GROWING IN HUNGARY. Hungary's Central Statistical Office reported on 18-February that an average of 1,100 new companies started business every month in Hungary in 1992. The number of individually owned private companies, which currently employ 11% of the work force, rose to 600,000 by the end of 1992, from 320,000 in 1989. The data indicate that the number of corporations more than doubled from the beginning of 1990 through the end of 1992, to more than 70,000. -Edith Oltay UNEMPLOYMENT IN CZECH REPUBLIC INCREASES. Unemployment in the Czech Republic rose 17.3% in the month of January, CTK reported on 18 December. With 158,113 persons unemployed at the end of January, the Czech Republic's unemployment rate rose to 3.01%. Figures from the Czech ministry of Labor and Social Affairs show that the highest relative increase was registered in Prague and Plzen. At the same time, however, Prague remains the city with the lowest overall unemployment rate (0.51%). Only some 45% of the registered unemployed Czechs and Moravians applied for or qualified for unemployment benefits in January. The reported number of job vacancies has also slightly dropped; there are currently 75,000 vacancies, 56,000 of which are for worker's jobs. Experts expect that the unemployment rate in the Czech Republic will increase significantly in 1993, reaching a level of between 5 and 8% by the end of the year. -Jan Obrman BULGARIA'S 1992 PAYMENTS BALANCE POSITIVE. In one of the few pieces of optimistic economic news from 1992, Pari on 18 February reports that Bulgaria's balance of payments ended with a surplus of $451.6-million. According to the Bulgarian National Bank-which compiled the figures-foreign trade revenues account for the bulk of the surplus. Due to the drastic increase in imports during the second half of last year, however, the current trend is negative. In all, Bulgaria imported $4,608 million worth of goods in 1992, and exported $5,093 million. -Kjell Engelbrekt FORMER PRIME MINISTER CALLS FOR NEW ROMANIAN COALITION. Romania's former prime minister, Petre Roman, accused the incumbent premier, Nicolae Vacoroiu, of incompetence, and called for a new "government of national consensus" formed by the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front, his own National Salvation Front, and the Democratic Convention of Romania, Radio Bucharest reported on 18 February. Roman said Vacaroiu's government has shown "nothing but incompetence" in handling the country's severe economic problems. The Democratic Convention of Romania last week urged Vacaroiu's government to fulfill its electoral promise to put the economy right or hand over power to the opposition. Romania's currency, the leu, dropped by 6% to a new low of 530-to the US dollar on 17 February. -Michael Shafir LITHUANIA'S 1992 MIGRATION FIGURES. Lithuania's Statistics Department announced that in 1992 fewer people moved to Lithuania while more departed than in 1991, BNS reported on 17 February. In 1992, 6,639 people immigrated (6,205 from the former USSR; 434-from the West) and 28,854 people emigrated, including 15,757 to Russia, 6,206 to Belarus, 4,236 to Ukraine, and 1,531 to the West, of whom 451 went to Israel. Among the emigrants to the East were 16,198 Russians, 4,475 Belarusians, 3,798 Ukrainians, and 1,366 Lithuanians. In 1991 11,828 people immigrated (10,709 from the former USSR; 1,119 from the West) and 18,025 people emigrated, including 9,746 to Russia, 4,072 to Belarus, 2,745 to Ukraine, and 2,618 to the West. -Saulius Girnius MILITARY PAY TO DOUBLE IN BALTIC EMERGENCY? LATVIAN SUPREME COUNCIL DEPUTY MIHAILS STEPICEVS EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT A RUSSIAN DECREE OF 21 JANUARY THAT WOULD PROVIDE FOR INCREASED COMPENSATION FOR RUSSIAN FORCES STATIONED IN THE TRANSCAUCASUS, THE BALTIC STATES, AND TAJIKISTAN SHOULD ARMED CONFLICT DEVELOP THERE. Expressing reservations about a decree intended to function on foreign territory, Stepicevs said that clarification would be sought via the Latvian and Russian foreign ministries, Diena reported on 18 February. -Dzintra Bungs ELECTION COALITIONS START TO FORM IN LATVIA. Radio Riga reported that five right-wing organizations-Tevzeme (Fatherland), 18 November Society, the National Independence Movement splinter group led by Olgerts Dzenitis, the Radical Association, and the Anticommunist Association-agreed on 17 February to form a coalition for the upcoming parliamentary elections. A formal agreement on the formation of Tevzemei un brivibai (For the Fatherland and Freedom) coalition is expected to be signed in a few weeks, when some other organizations may join the coalition. On 17-February, Alexei Grigoriev told Diena that Latvia's Support Foundation, led by Janis Jurkans, is also seeking to create a democratic coalition. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA TO INTRODUCE A VISA REGIME. Latvian media reported on 17 and 18 February that on 20 March visas will be required of all foreigners entering Latvia. The only exception would be for citizens of countries with which Latvia has an accord on visa-free travel. Details still have to be worked out for the use of "return" visas for permanent residents of Latvia who wish to travel abroad and return to Latvia. -Dzintra Bungs DANISH-LITHUANIAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION. On 18 February Lithuanian Economics Minister Julius Veselka held talks with Hans Jorgen, director of the Danish Industrialists Confederation, which unites enterprises controlling 70% of the country's working capital, Radio Lithuania reports. Jorgen presented a cooperation project whose first phase, to be completed by May, is a Danish evaluation of Lithuania's industry. In the second phase, cooperation would begin between enterprises, mainly small and mid-sized firms, whose structures the Danes consider more rational. On 17-February Ambassador Birger Dan Nielsen and Jorgen told Prime Minister Bronislovas Lubys that Denmark would keep its promise to lend the Baltic States $50 million for duty free goods and $10 million for medicines. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendly Slater and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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