|This communicating of a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects; for it redoubleth joy, and cutteth griefs in half. - Francis Bacon|
No. 33, 18 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA REFERENDUM ISSUES. President Boris Yeltsin has agreed to hold an extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies in order to ratify a future constitutional agreement between the legislative and executive powers, Radio Rossii reported on 17 February. If such an agreement on the division of powers between Yeltsin and the parliament is reached and ratified by the Congress, the President would be prepared to drop the idea of a referendum. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai said at a press conference attended by an RFE/RL correspondent that the constitutional agreement envisages that the government will take full control over economic policy (including the Central Bank) and the deputies will relinquish the right to draw up the new constitution to a constitutional assembly. -Alexander Rahr MORE ON REFERENDUM. Shakhrai also suggested at the press conference that the President might be prepared to yield some of his powers in the areas of foreign policy, defense, and national security to the parliament, various Western agencies reported. Within the next two days, the parliament is scheduled to hear from its speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov on his meetings with Yeltsin and to discuss proposals from the presidential side for solving the constitutional impasse. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN STRENGTHENS CONTROL OVER PERIPHERY. President Boris Yeltsin has decreed that the presidential envoys-an institution which had been formally abolished by the 7th Congress of People's Deputies-are to become part of the local administrations from which they had previously been separated, Rossiiskaya gazeta reported on 17 February. Yeltsin has also created an Administration for Territories in the presidential structures, subordinated to the powerful head of the presidential staff Sergei Filatov, to oversee local leaders. Observers believe that the powers of the presidential envoys have been increased by the new decree. New appointments to the posts of envoys are expected, since many of the present so-called prefects have been accused of corruption. -Alexander Rahr SHAKHRAI ON NATIONALITIES POLICY. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, who heads the State Committee for Nationalities Policy, was reported by ITAR-TASS as saying on 17 February that it was impossible to carry out a nationalities policy successfully as long as the legislative and executive branches did not work hand in hand. Addressing the Russian parliament's Council of Nationalities, he said that the Federal Treaty was the basis of the State Committee's nationalities policy. The impression that the committee did not have a policy was due to shortcomings in the media. Shakhrai said that "the unity and integrity of the Russian state must be preserved at all costs," and that the multinational composition of the Russian Federation must be changed from a weakness into a strength. -Ann Sheehy SIBERIAN ACCORD DEMANDS MORE POWER FOR SIBERIA'S REGIONS. Participants in a two-day conference in Tomsk on 15-17 February held by the Siberian Accord economic organization said that Siberia's regions face an inevitable political battle with Moscow for more economic autonomy and control over their vast natural resources. Siberian Accord, set up two years ago, is the most influential economic organization in the area. Yurii Nozhikov, governor of Irkutsk Oblast, was quoted on 17 February by Russian and Western agencies as saying that, despite its wealth of natural resources, Siberia is often overruled by Moscow on issues of regional economic policy. Vyacheslav Novikov, a representative of Krasnoyarsk Krai, said that Yeltsin has yet to fulfill any of his promises on the redistribution of power. On 16 February, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, visiting Tomsk, warned the meeting against demanding more power for Siberia's regions from Moscow. -Vera Tolz CHERNOMYRDIN RESTRUCTURES HIS APPARATUS. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has completed the restructuring of his government apparatus, Kommersant daily reported on 17 February. The main role in the staff of the Council of Ministers is being played by the General Department, the structure and tasks of which resemble those of a similar department in the former CPSU Central Committee. Valerii Kurenkov, who has worked since 1978 in the Soviet government apparatus, has been named head of the General Department. The leaders of the other nine departments of the government apparatus remain the same as under the former prime minister, Egor Gaidar. -Alexander-Rahr RUSSIA SQUEEZES OIL EXPORTS TO UKRAINE. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin announced on 17 February that, because of the fall in Russian oil production, exports to Ukraine will be drastically cut this year, various Russian news agencies reported. Chernomyrdin, speaking at the Tomsk Oil-Chemical Complex, said that the maximum amount of deliveries to Ukraine may be 15 million tons for the entire year. This is less than the quantity delivered in the first half of 1992 alone. Chernomyrdin implied that the reduction would break an earlier agreement with Ukraine, according to which Russia agreed to export 25 million tons. In a related story, Deputy Prime Minister Shokhin told a press conference on 17 February reported by Kommersant and Western news agencies that Russia may have to increase its natural gas rates for European customers as Ukraine is demanding transit tariffs higher than the international norm. -Erik Whitlock CIS DEFENSE CHIEFS APPROVE DRAFT DOCUMENTS. CIS Chiefs of Staff meeting in Moscow on 17-February approved draft regulations on the organization of classified and coded communications in the CIS joint armed forces, ITAR-TASS reported. Only Moldova failed to sign the agreement. A document on the principles of operational planning which would govern the use of CIS military forces was signed by all attending members except for Russia. Col. Gen. Viktor Samsonov, CIS Chief of Staff, who chaired the meeting, said that Moscow was leaning toward signing the agreement. All documents were said to be advisory and are to be considered later by the Council of CIS Defense Ministers. -Stephen Foye DEFENSE MINISTRY GROUP OPPOSES NEW START PROPOSAL. The Director of the Russian Defense Ministry's Central Scientific Research Institute has labeled as "premature" a recent proposal by two parliamentary committees calling for strategic arms reductions beyond those contained in the START-2 Treaty. Colonel Vladimir Dvorkin told ITAR-TASS on 16 February that Defense Ministry experts believed that attention should first be focused on ratifying and implementing the START-2 Treaty, a view that has also been expressed by representatives of the Russian Foreign Ministry. While Dvorkin embraced the START-2 Treaty, he cautioned that further negotiations might be necessary to limit "destabilizing factors" which, he felt, might emerge following planned reductions in strategic forces. These factors included the deployment of anti-missile defense systems and the creation of a coalition of nuclear states opposed to Russia. -Stephen Foye DEFENSE MINISTRY CREATES NEW TECHNICAL COUNCIL. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has ordered the creation of a Council for Military-Technical Policy to develop the military's procurement policy and to coordinate the activities of governmental agencies and defense enterprises in this same area, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 February. First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin, who liaises between the Defense Ministry and the defense industrial complex, has been named as chairman of the committee. The report did not disclose the committee's membership. -Stephen Foye GORBACHEV FOR PRESIDENT? FORMER SOVIET PRESIDENT MIKHAIL GORBACHEV DOES NOT INTEND TO RUN FOR THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENCY, HIS SPOKESMAN VLADIMIR POLYAKOV TOLD RFE/RL ON 18 FEBRUARY. But Gorbachev may reconsider and stand for election if the "social-political situation" in the country were to require it or if public organizations were to call on him to return to politics when and if people become frustrated with the policies of Boris Yeltsin. Polyakov also said that, at present, Gorbachev wants to devote himself fully to public and research activities within his foundation. Leading democratic activist Arkadii Murashov and centrist politician Dmitrii Ragozin firmly believe that Gorbachev will put forward his candidacy at the next presidential elections. -Georgii Krichevsky and Alexander Rahr VOUCHER RIP-OFF IN ST. PETERSBURG. The authorities in St. Petersburg are investigation the case of some 350,000 citizens who have been defrauded of their privatization vouchers, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 15 February. The employees of two Russian firms are suspected of disappearing with the enormous quantity of vouchers after presumably promising to invest the vouchers on their owners' behalf. The investigation began after the victims of the swindle blocked roads in the city in protest on 12 February. -Erik Whitlock CHECHEN PARLIAMENT REJECTS DUDAEV DECREE. The Chechen parliament on 17-February rejected the decree of Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev ordering a plebiscite on a new constitution on 19 February, ITAR-TASS reported. The parliament also lifted the state of emergency extended by Dudaev a week ago and decreed that a referendum be held on 27-March in which citizens would be asked whether Chechnya needed sovereignty and independence, and which form of rule they would like. Five opposition deputies had accused Dudaev of trying to introduce presidential rule with his proposed new constitution. This was denied by Dudaev, who said on Chechen TV on 17 February that his new constitution only took note of changed circumstances and would, in any case, have to be adopted by the parliament. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIAN OFFICER KILLED IN TAJIKISTAN. A Russian major stationed in Tajikistan with the 201st Motorized Division was abducted from his quarters by unknown persons and has been found murdered in Kofarnikhon Raion, a former opposition stronghold, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 February. Military officials said they believed that the murder had been committed by supporters of the Islamic opposition. The murders of three Russian soldiers outside Dushanbe in December were also credited to the Islamic opposition. Islamic and democratic forces in the Tajik civil war of 1992 accused Russian troops stationed in Tajikistan of at least secretly supporting pro-Communist forces; now, the Russian division officially supports the constitutional, conservative government in Dushanbe, making itself a likely target for opposition attacks. -Bess Brown JAPANESE INTEREST IN KAZAKHSTAN. Japan's Mitsui-Mitsubishi consortium submitted the winning bid to build an oil refinery on Kazakhstan's Mangyshlak Peninsula, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 February, and construction of the necessary infrastructure, including power lines, roads, and housing, is already underway. The first section of the refinery is expected to go into operation less than two years after construction begins. The report noted that Japanese firms are also interested in joint ventures in Kazakhstan to extract and refine minerals, iron, and non-ferrous metals. They have also offered to provide equipment to increase the capacity of the rail border crossing on the Kazakhstan-China frontier. According to Western business reports, Japanese firms also plan to construct a pipeline to ship Central Asian oil to Japan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE GAMSAKHURDIA DENIES HE PLANS TO EMIGRATE. Ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia told an RFE/RL correspondent on 16 February that reports that he is planning to leave his current quarters in Grozny and emigrate to the West are untrue, and that this disinformation has been circulated by the present leadership in Tbilisi in order to discredit him. -Liz Fuller UN AGENCY TO STOP RELIEF SHIPMENTS TO BOSNIA. International media reported on 17 February that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata announced that her organization would suspend further aid operations for Sarajevo and most of the rest of Bosnia. She said that all three sides had been playing politics with the relief work. French General Philippe Morillon, the commander of UN peace-keeping forces in Bosnia, said, however, that his men would keep trying to get aid through to two beleaguered mainly Muslim towns in eastern Bosnia. Elsewhere in eastern Bosnia, Western agencies reported that Serbs claimed that Muslims had brutally killed 20 men, but journalists said that it was impossible to determine exactly what had happened at Kamenica, or who the dead really were. Finally, the BBC quoted UN officials as denying earlier reports that starvation in eastern Bosnia had become so acute that the living were reduced to eating corpses. -Patrick Moore TURKISH PRESIDENT CONTINUES BALKAN DIPLOMATIC TRIP. The 18 February New York Times reports on Turgut Ozal's whirlwind tour that has already taken him to Bulgaria and Macedonia. On 18 February he goes on to Albania, and later to Croatia. The daily sees the initiative as part of a broader development in the Balkans aimed at preventing the spread of the Bosnian war across the rest of the peninsula. According to the Times, "the trip is clearly intended to put Europe on notice that Ankara has a strong interest in Macedonia and other Balkan countries.... This is Turkey's link with Europe, and the Turks are telling both Serbia and Greece 'hands off.'" Turkey is now Macedonia's most important trading partner. Reuters on 17 February quoted a senior European diplomat as saying that "the crumbling of the Soviet empire has opened a vast area of instability from the Adriatic to the Chinese border. In between, there's only one country we can rely on-Turkey." -Patrick Moore BELGRADE CRITICIZES OZAL. The federal foreign ministry of the rump Yugoslavia issued a statement on 17 February sharply criticizing Turkish President Turgut Ozal. According to Radio Serbia, the foreign ministry said that Ozal's anti-Yugoslav statements and his personal campaign against the Serbian people threaten normal bilateral cooperation between Turkey and Yugoslavia. The ministry also cautioned that Ozal's speech last weekend in Istanbul can only serve to "pour fuel on the fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina." The ministry's statement described Ozal's speech and Turkey's advocacy of a military solution in Bosnia as "hostile in spirit and word" and representing "an unheard of and impertinent challenge to peace." -Milan Andrejevich KOSOVO ALBANIAN LEADER SEEKS TO STOP CONFLICT FROM SPREADING. The 17-February Washington Post says that Ibrahim Rugova, the president of the self-proclaimed Kosovo Republic, has told his American hosts that foreign troops are needed there to prevent the Serbs from transforming the current "quiet ethnic cleansing" into a Bosnian-type war. The paper quoted a State Department official as saying that developments in Kosovo are "an issue of continuing concern," but "not yet a trigger for US action." An RFE/RL news correspondent also noted that an official of that agency said that Washington would respond forcefully to Serbian aggression against Kosovo, where the more than 90% Albanian majority is ruled under a tight regime from Belgrade amid a virtually total absence of human and civil rights. -Patrick Moore BULGARIA BACKS US POSITION ON BALKAN WAR. In a statement issued on 17 February, the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry welcomed direct US involvement in attempts to resolve conflicts in former Yugoslavia. While reaffirming the need for international organizations-primarily the UN, NATO, and CSCE-to assume responsibilities, the document says Bulgaria shares the US view that Russia should be persuaded to take a more active role in multilateral peace efforts. The statement also expresses Bulgarian appreciation for the stationing of UN forces in Macedonia in order to prevent the conflict from spreading to the east and south. In talks with US Ambassador Hugh Kenneth Hill, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev said he hopes the new US position will speed up the resolution of the crisis in former Yugoslavia. -Kjell Engelbrekt MACEDONIA REJECTS NAME COMPROMISE. In an address to parliament on 16 February, President Kiro Gligorov rejected the UN compromise proposal to use the name the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" in order to gain admission to that world body. He also rejected a French arbitration offer. Gligorov is caught between vocal opponents of a naming compromise and its supporters. In an editorial entitled "Ignoring Reality," Nova Makedonija cautioned that compromise is necessary and that leaders must "put party interests aside." Greece's foreign ministry charged on 17 February that Gligorov's decision demonstrates the new republic's "disdain for the international community," according to AFP. Greece now "declares itself obliged to take all appropriate measures to defend its national and historic rights and the security of the country," the report said. -Duncan Perry ILIESCU AT NATO. Romanian President Ion Iliescu said his country was determined to enforce the UN embargo against former Yugoslavia but that Romania "cannot intervene by force" to halt Yugoslav ships, because this would cause an environmental catastrophe on the Danube and risk widening the Balkan conflict. Meeting with NATO officials in Brussels, Iliescu said that Romania wants to build closer ties with NATO and aspires eventually to join the alliance. Radio Bucharest reported on 17 February that Iliescu emphasized that Romania is an island of stability and closer ties with NATO would "protect the security and peace interests of the Romanian people and the whole region." NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner praised Romania's "constructive approach" in backing the sanctions and said NATO would offer encouragement to help Bucharest apply them. He also praised Romania's progress toward democracy and a market economy. Iliescu also met with EC Executive Commission President Jacques Delors and European Parliament President Egon Kleps. -Michael Shafir DANUBE SAGA. Officials from Romania, Bulgaria and Ukraine meet in Bucharest on 18-February to discuss enforcement of the UN embargo on the Danube. Western sources report that customs and border guard officials will discuss specific joint measures. An RFE/RL correspondent reports from Washington that the US has offered patrol boats to Romania and Bulgaria to help stop ships from violating the sanctions on rump Yugoslavia. -Michael Shafir EC-BROKERED TALKS FAIL TO BREAK GABCIKOVO DEADLOCK. EC-brokered talks between Hungary and Slovakia have failed to break a deadlock over the future of the controversial Gabcikovo dam project, agencies reported on 17 February. The EC's external political relations commissioner Hans van den Broek was quoted as saying that the talks "proved conducive to defusing tensions," but that more efforts are needed by both sides to resolve the dispute. Van den Broek called on Hungary and Slovakia to agree without delay to submit the case to the International Court of Justice. Hungary and Czechoslovakia jointly launched the Danube dam project in 1978 but Hungary withdrew unilaterally in 1989 over fears of severe environmental damage. -Jan Obrman SILESIAN MINERS BACK ON STRIKE. A Silesian regional strike committee set up during the December miners' strike decided on 17 February to "revoke the suspension" of that strike and called a "strike action." PAP reported that 25 coal mines were on strike by the morning of 18 February. Railway workers in Silesia staged a limited half-hour protest, and steel workers were scheduled to strike for an hour. The protest action has Solidarity's backing. The Silesian miners are angered at the Sejm's recent decision to eliminate the possibility of joint taxation for married couples and the government's prediction that real wages will drop 2% in 1993. Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski met with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 17 February to discuss public sector wages. Suchocka agreed to open negotiations with the union, but stressed that the 1993 budget restricts available funds. She pledged, however, that any excess revenue would be allocated to employees paid from the state budget. Meanwhile, confusion and conflict within the government coalition led the Sejm on 18 February to drop from its agenda a planned debate on the government's request for the right to issue decrees with the force of law. -Louisa Vinton IMF AGREEMENT FOR POLAND IN MARCH. After meeting with Polish Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski in Warsaw, a high-ranking IMF official predicted that formal approval for a new agreement with Poland would come in early March. The agreement was initially negotiated in November 1992, but final approval was delayed until the government secured parliamentary approval for the 1993 budget. Daniel Kaeser, an IMF executive director, told Reuters that "the Fund is very interested in having an agreement with Poland, which has come through a very remarkable adjustment effort and looks very much like a success." The IMF agreement will enable Poland to tap some $800 million in credits. -Louisa Vinton POLLUTED CZECH TOWN THREATENS GENERAL STRIKE. The heavily polluted town of Chomutov threatened to close the town to all traffic and call a general strike unless the government takes immediate environmental measures, Czech Television reported on 17-February. Following several days of a smog emergency in Prague and northern Bohemia, Chomutov local authorities sent letters to President Havel, the government, and lawmakers demanding that all coal-burning power plants receive purification devices within two years. Other north Bohemian towns announced similar initiatives, and students of several schools in the region threatened to hold a boycott of classes unless the government acts quickly. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said on 16 February that the completion of the controversial Temelin nuclear power plant in southern Bohemia will allow the government to close down all major coal-burning power plants by 1997. -Jan Obrman UKRAINE'S COLD WINTER OF DISCONTENT CONTINUES. Against the background of a deepening economic crisis and rising prices, the Ukrainian leadership is also faced with growing social discontent and protest. The situation in the Ukrainian capital has been aggravated by a strike for higher pay by public transport workers which began on 16-February, Ukrainian media report. Meanwhile, President Kravchuk continued his visit to the Donbass, where he is appealing for support of the government's policies. According to Radio Ukraine of 17 February, he told workers in Kramatorsk that if the Kuchma government were toppled, "we will be unable to form another government." Stressing that Ukraine cannot realistically rely on any outside help, he also warned against blaming all of the country's difficulties on Russia. The two neighbors would have to learn to live side by side in friendship, though with each defending its own interests. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY CHANGES. Lieut.-Gen. Ivan Oliinyk has been dismissed from his post as Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister for armaments, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 February. The dismissal reportedly came for abuse of office. Meanwhile, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk has appointed Lt. Gen. Vladimir Antonets as commander in chief of Ukraine's recently united Air Force. According to Ukrinform-TASS, Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov has established two new deputy commander in chief posts for the Ukrainian Air Force; Lt. Gen. Valerii Vasilev will head the Aviation forces while Lt.-Gen. Mikhail Lopatin was named commander in chief of Air Defense Forces. Krasnaya zvezda reported on 6 February that the proposal to combine the two air branches was a controversial one, and that Antonets was himself the initiator of the reform. -Stephen Foye ANDREJEVS ON LATVIA'S DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION. Addressing the UN Commission on Human Rights in Geneva on 15 February, Latvia's Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs noted that the Baltic States are still dealing with the consequences of World War II on a daily bases, especially Estonia and Latvia where the effects of the Soviet policies of colonization and Russification are a source of many problems. Recalling that Latvia lost more than 35% of its total pre-1940 population as a consequence of World War II and the policies of the Soviet regime, he pointed out that only 7% of Latvia's population gain of 27% between 1959 and 1989 was due to the growth of the indigenous population-most of the remainder were new settlers arriving from the USSR. Andrejevs said that Latvians are becoming a minority in their territorial homeland and that they suffered discrimination under the Soviet regime; while stressing that affirmative action is needed to correct the wrongs of the past, he said that such a policy would not affect the rights of Latvia's stateless residents or foreign citizens. -Dzintra Bungs EDUCATION IN 16 MINORITY LANGUAGES IN LATVIA. Latvian Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs also informed the UN Commission on Human Rights on 15 February that Latvia now has 34 cultural societies representing national minorities and offers public school education in sixteen minority languages. Under the Soviet regime, in 1988, school education was provided only in Russian and Latvian. Andrejevs also expressed concern about the fate of the approximately 210,000 Latvians living in Russia, where there are no Latvian schools, newspapers, or radio programs; moreover, Russia's laws hamper ethnic Latvians residing there from registering as citizens of Latvia. As an example Andrejevs cited the Russian tax law which stipulates that citizens of other states must pay their taxes in hard currency. -Dzintra Bungs BALTIC FREE TRADES ZONE STILL IN THE PLANNING. Baltic media reported on 16 February that the formation of a Baltic free trade zone and a single customs area will take some time, primarily because the trilateral economic agreements between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have not yet been adopted. What is more, Latvia and Lithuania still have to adopt their own currencies. Estonia has already signed free trade agreements with EFTA countries, while the Latvian port city of Ventspils is still seeking ways to become a free trade zone, but there is not yet a coordinated effort to form a common Baltic free trade zone. -Dzintra Bungs FIRST JUDGE OF LITHUANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT CHOSEN. On 17 February an extraordinary session of the Seimas approved the first of nine judges to sit on the Lithuanian Constitutional Court. The court will accept the oath of Algirdas Brazauskas as President on 25-February, Radio Lithuania reports. In a secret ballot the Seimas approved the nomination of 50-year old lawyer Juozas Zilys, the head of the parliament judicial department, but rejected the other two candidates, Liudvikas Sabutis and Stasys Staciokas, proposed by Supreme Court chairman Mindaugas Losys. -Saulius Girnius SWEDISH ASSISTANCE TO LITHUANIA. On 16 February Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys participated in the opening ceremonies of Lithuania's embassy in Stockholm and held talks with his Swedish counterpart Margaretha Af Ugglas, Radio Lithuania reports. On 17 February Sweden's Nuclear Inspectorate Agency announced that it would give $4 million to improve safety at the atomic power plant in Ignalina by installing fire-proof doors and remote-control equipment. -Saulius Girnius MOLDOVA REPORTS OIL, GAS FINDS. Moldovan government officials have told the media in recent days that oil and gas deposits have been found in the southern part of Moldova. According to the officials, geological findings indicate that the deposits may be sizable. Moldova, however, lacks the means for further exploratory drilling and for commercial exploitation of the deposits, the officials said. -Vladimir Socor [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendly Slater and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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