|This communicating of a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects; for it redoubleth joy, and cutteth griefs in half. - Francis Bacon|
No. 32, 17 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA REFERENDUM ISSUES. President Boris Yeltsin and parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov agreed at their meeting on 16 February to form a conciliation group to find a way out of the constitutional crisis, Russian TV "Vesti" reported the same day. The legislative branch will be represented in the group by deputy speaker Nikolai Ryabov; the executive, by First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko. They will work out a clear division of powers for a period of stabilization. Yeltsin and Khasbulatov were said not to have moved from the idea of holding a referendum on the future Russian Constitution but seem to be concerned about its possible results. Meanwhile the head of the presidential staff Sergei Filatov said that 84% of the presidential envoys in the regions support the idea of the referendum. -Alexander Rahr KOZYREV TO PROPOSE ARMS DEAL TO US. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev intends to propose to his American counterpart an "arms sales for arms conversion" plan that would aim at opening up arms markets long dominated by Western firms, the Financial Times reported on 16 February. The deal, to be put to US Secretary of State Warren Christopher in Geneva at the end of February, calls for contracts to be deliberately opened to Russian bidding in the "more than 100 countries" where arms trading is sanctioned. Moscow, in turn, would reportedly use the proceeds "not to boost the military industrial complex" but to finance the conversion of defense plants to civilian production. Kozyrev will reportedly argue that such an arrangement would be a less humiliating form of aid to Russia. Juxtaposing carrot with stick, he cautioned that some Russian arms suppliers were talking of selling systems "up to and including strategic weapons," a development which, he said, could lead to a "chaotic" proliferation of arms. -Stephen Foye CHUBAIS: PARLIAMENT THREATENS PRIVATIZATION. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais told parliamentary deputies representing the "Reform of the Army" faction that forthcoming proposed amendments to the government's privatization program threaten to derail the whole process, according to ITAR-TASS on 16 February. He cited, in particular, the so-called "fourth variant of privatization" due for consideration by parliament soon. Enterprises choosing the "fourth variant" would be bought out by their own managers and workers over time from earned profits. Chubais has criticized allowing such an option as it would restrict the use of vouchers in the purchase of enterprise assets and give undue privileges to enterprises' worker collectives. -Erik Whitlock DECENTRALIZATION REJECTED IN TOMSK. Participants in a meeting of the interregional association, "Siberian Accord" in Tomsk on 16 February spoke out against the decentralization of political power in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, on a three-day visit to the region, rejected the idea that regional power needed to be strengthened. "We don't need strong regions but conditions in which workers in any region of Russian can live equally well," he said. Other speakers warned against shifting the responsibility for economic reform from the center to the regions. At the same meeting, Chernomyrdin also confirmed the government's intention to invest more resources in the fuel and energy complex, an important sector of Siberia's economy. -Erik Whitlock CIVIC UNION CO-LEADER VISITS ST. PETERSBURG. The co-leader of the Civic Union, Aleksandr Vladislavlev, has visited St. Petersburg in order to promote the centrist opposition group's political position, St. Petersburg TV reported on 16 February. He met with the city's leading political figures and economic managers and gave a press conference at which he endorsed the Civic Union's proposals for solving the constitutional and economic crises in Russia. -Alexander Rahr INDUSTRIAL LOBBY IN BASHKORTOSTAN. The leader of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, Arkadii Volsky, has set up a similar organization in Bashkortostan, Kommersant Daily reported on 16 February. In his speech in Ufa to some 200-industrialists and businessmen from Bashkortostan, Volsky criticized the government of Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, calling its full-scale privatization program "absurd." He also spoke out against the introduction of the law on bankruptcy. Volsky revealed that he has received a letter from Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov, now in charge of economic policy, suggesting cooperation between the government and Russian industrialists. -Alexander Rahr NEW INVESTMENT FUND FOR AGRICULTURE. President Yeltsin has signed a decree to establish an international fund for land and agro-industrial reform, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 February. The aim of the fund is to attract domestic and foreign investment and credits for the development of the agricultural sector. The State Committee for Property will be involved in setting up the fund, and the government will initially contribute 2 billion rubles to it. Radio Rossii quotes a representative of the Ministry for Agriculture and Food as saying that the fund will serve as a sort of investment bank for the financing of various projects in the agricultural sector. Talks are being held with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) on the possibility of its joining the fund, which would then act as a guarantor for foreign credits and raise funds from other sources. -Sheila Marnie CENTRAL BANK MOVES TO TAKE OVER SBERBANK. Directors of Russia's near-monopoly savings bank, Sberbank, have accused the Central Bank of an unjustified attempt at takeover, the Financial Times and Kommersant reported on 16 and 17 February respectively. According to Sberbank management, the Central Bank has proposed limiting Sberbank's authority to issue credit and to set its own interest rates. The directors were at a loss to explain the action. The chairman of a Moscow division of the savings bank said that the action was "anti-popular" and designed only to "satisfy the bureaucratic interests of the Central Bank and its chairman." The Central Bank has apparently not yet announced its proposal publicly. -Erik Whitlock BLACK MARKET EXCHANGE RATES. The official exchange rate is currently 559 rubles to the dollar, but a survey of black market dealers on Moscow's Pushkin Square, reported by BISNES-TASS on 16 February, reveals that on the streets the dollar is being bought for 640-rubles and sold for 660 rubles, with smaller amounts being bought for slightly less (625-rubles for up to 50 dollars). The deutschmark is bought for 370-375 rubles and sold for 395-400 rubles, but overall trading in deutschmarks is not significant. The recent rise in the black market exchange rates has coincided with an expected increase in the demand for dollars at the official exchange, and experts suggest that this could herald another drop in the official exchange rate. -Sheila Marnie NORTH KOREA TO CEASE HIRING RUSSIAN SCIENTISTS. A Japanese newspaper reported on 16-February that North Korea has agreed to a demand from Moscow that Pyongyang discontinue efforts to hire Russian nuclear and missile scientists and engineers. According to a Reuters dispatch on 17 February summarizing the report, the assurances were given to Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Georgii Kunadze during his visit to North Korea last month. Kunadze reportedly warned that efforts to hire Russian specialists served to justify international concerns that North Korea is attempting to develop nuclear weapons. Quoting unnamed US government officials, the Japanese newspaper reported that Kunadze had threatened to sever diplomatic relations with North Korea if it refused Moscow's demands. -Stephen Foye DEVELOPMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN AIR FORCE. The transfer of several thousand pilots to Russia from other former Soviet states has meant that the Russian Air Force is now able to man its aircraft uniformly with highly-trained crews, the Air Force Commander-in-Chief told ITAR-TASS on 16 February. On the negative side, however, Col. Gen. Petr Deinekin said that shortages of fuel and spare parts had adversely affected training routines. Like all the services, he added, the Air Force also faced a severe shortage of conscript soldiers, a result of problems in the military draft system. -Stephen Foye NORTH OSSETIAN-INGUSH TALKS RESUME. The third round of talks between North Ossetia and Ingushetia on settling their conflict began in Kislovodsk on 16-February, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow and ITAR-TASS reported. Mediators from Russia's State Committee for Nationalities Policy and from Dagestan and Stavropol krai are attending the talks, as they did the previous two rounds. The main item on the agenda is the refugee problem. At the same time, the North Ossetian delegation said it intended to protest against the decision of the Ingush electoral commission to include part of Vladikavkaz and the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia in the list of electoral districts for the Ingush presidential elections. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN, TATARSTAN PRESIDENT'S MEETING POSTPONED. Talks scheduled for 16-February between Russian President Yeltsin and Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev were postponed because of Yeltsin's vacation, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow was told on 16 February. A spokesman for Shaimiev, Anas Khasanov, said that Shaimiev was ready to fly to Moscow any time and that the meeting could take place during Yeltsin's 12-day vacation. Khasanov said that the two sides planned to discuss the bilateral treaty being negotiated between Russia and Tatarstan, economic and environmental agreements, and how much oil Tatarstan will be allowed to export. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AKAEV APPEALS FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN LEGISLATURE AND GOVERNMENT. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev told leaders of the country's democratic parties and movements on 16 February that government and legislature should not waste time in fighting each other, as they are in Russia, but should cooperate to find ways out of Kyrgyzstan's economic crisis, Kyrgyzkabar-TASS reported. Akaev warned that it will be necessary to use very strict methods-some members of the democratic opposition had earlier criticized him for "dictatorial actions." The president asked that the Supreme Soviet complete its debate on the new constitution so that a multiparty coalition government can be created and make progress in solving the country's problems. -Bess Brown UZBEKISTAN READY TO INTRODUCE OWN CURRENCY. The chairman of the board of Uzbekistan's Central Bank was quoted by Radio Rossii on 16 February as saying that his country is prepared to introduce its own currency any day, but will make the transition to its own currency only if the CIS ruble zone disintegrates. According to the report, banks in Uzbekistan have already been supplied with the national currency. -Bess Brown UZBEK AUTHORITIES BAN PROTEST MEETING. Muhammad Salih, chairman of the opposition Erk Democratic Party of Uzbekistan, told an RFE/RL correspondent on 16-February that the Uzbek State Prosecutor's Office has banned a protest meeting which opposition groups had planned to stage at the end of the month. Organizers were warned that if they ignored the prohibition, they would be charged with attempting to disrupt the state system, a crime punishable by 10-15 years in prison. Salih said that the protest, sponsored by Erk and the opposition Birlik Movement, would be deferred until March. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ARE BOSNIANS RESORTING TO CANNIBALISM? BOSNIA'S UN AMBASSADOR, MUHAMED SACIRBEY, TOLD REPORTERS IN NEW YORK ON 16 FEBRUARY, THAT SOME BESIEGED MUSLIMS IN EASTERN BOSNIA HAVE TURNED TO CANNIBALISM TO SURVIVE. There is no independent confirmation of Sacirbey's claim. Bosnian Serbs continue to block a UN aid convoy headed for Cerska, while allowing another to pass on to Goradze. Bosnian officials are continuing to refuse to distribute relief supplies in Sarajevo and Tuzla, in hopes of pressuring the UN to take action. Reuter reports on 16 February that Sarajevo's six-day boycott of UN aid has wide support among the public. CNN reports on 16 February that Cyrus Vance is planning to resign in late March as UN mediator for the peace talks on the former Yugoslavia. Vance emphasized he will not leave "in the middle of these negotiations." Radio Bosnia reports that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic won the 1993 King Faisal International Prize for Service to Islam for his defense of Bosnia. -Milan Andrejevich …ZAL IN SOFIA. On the second day of his visit to Bulgaria, Turkish President Turgut …zal held talks with politicians from all three parliamentary factions on the situation in rump Yugoslavia and the danger of a wider conflagration. Whereas representatives of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and Union of Democratic Forces expressed strong reservations about Turkish participation in peace-keeping missions to former Yugoslavia-an idea recently launched by Ankara-the mainly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms told BTA that the final decision must be left to the United Nations. On the previous day Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev said that bilateral relations have now reached an "unprecedented level." During a meeting with Turkish businessmen, Deputy Premier Valentin Karabashev revealed that last year's trade balance ended 5 to 1 in Turkey's favor ($250 to $50 million). After this visit-the first by a Turkish head of state to Bulgaria in 10 years-…zal travels on to Macedonia and Albania. -Kjell Engelbrekt ILIESCU REPORTS EMBARGO LOSSES. President Ion Iliescu said that Romania faces big economic losses from applying the United Nation sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. He dismissed accusations that Romania was flouting the embargo, Reuter reported from Bucharest on 16 February. In an interview with Cronica Romana, Iliescu said his country observed the embargo to the letter, adding, however, that it has avoided "introducing elements likely to aggravate the situation" and involve Romania in a conflict with Yugoslavia. Romanian officials have cited losses of up to $7 billion from the embargo, but Western diplomats said this was implausible and the figure must be lower. Meanwhile, it was announced in Bucharest that Romanian and Ukrainian officials will meet in the Romanian capital on 18 February to discuss enforcing the embargo. A spokesman for the foreign ministry said Ukraine will be asked not to allow the loading of cargo into Serb barges which reached Ukraine on 15 February. -Michael Shafir KOSOVO PRESIDENT PROPOSES PEACE PLAN. Radio Croatia reports on 16 and 17-February that Ibrahim Rugova, president of the self-declared Republic of Kosovo, has proposed a ten-point peace plan aimed at preventing the war in Bosnia from spreading into Kosovo, which is under Serbian control. The plan, unveiled in Washington, calls for a no-fly zone over Kosovo, the immediate deployment of UN peacekeepers, the disarming of Serbian militia, and the convening of the republic's elected assembly in Pristina. Rugova and Kosovo's prime minister Bujar Bukoshi are in the US to lobby their cause; Rugova met with members of Congress and State Department officials. -Milan Andrejevich COSIC REJECTS ALLEGATIONS OF RAPE BY SERBS. Dobrica Cosic, president of rump Yugoslavia, denied allegations that Bosnian Serbs systematically raped Muslim and Croat women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. According to Radio Serbia on 15 February, Cosic said that he does not remember if "any nation has ever been accused of such crimes as the Serbs are today," and added "this is the last crime which can be ascribed to the Serbian people." International organizations charge, however, that more than 20,000 women have been raped during the war in Bosnia; most of the victims are Muslims attacked by Serbs. -Milan Andrejevich CONFERENCE ON ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION CALLS FOR JOINT MEASURES. A two-day conference on illegal immigration in Budapest ended on 16 February with an agreement among European government officials to wage a joint war on professional gangs smuggling illegal immigrants across borders. The final document adopted at the conference calls for the creation of special police units to hunt smugglers, the use of modern communications equipment to coordinate police activity, introduction of special equipment to detect forged papers, and new legislation making human smuggling a criminal offense. According to MTI and Western agencies, Hungarian Minister of Interior Peter Boross and other East European officials complained that the meeting had failed to agree on a system of financial assistance for East European countries who bear the main burdens of implementing the immigration decisions. Polish TV reported that a regional conference devoted to the repatriation of failed asylum-seekers is now scheduled for March in Prague. -Edith Oltay NEW HUNGARIAN LAWS ON COMMUNIST CRIMES. The Hungarian parliament passed two laws and a declaration on 16 February designed to settle accounts for past communist crimes, MTI reports. The first law declares certain crimes committed during the 1956 revolution "war crimes and crimes against humanity," making the prosecution of those responsible possible. It points out that such crimes were also punishable under legislation existing at the time. The second law allows the courts to consider whether the statute of limitations has in fact expired for "serious crimes" committed between 1944 and 1989. Under the law, the statute of limitations no longer provides a basis for refusing the investigation of past crimes. The declaration states that the period during which the state failed to exercise its power to prosecute crimes is not subject to the statute of limitations. This is the government's second attempt to call former communists to account. Legislation dating from 1991 that extended the statute of limitations for certain crimes was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on the grounds that it created legal insecurity. -Edith Oltay CZECH GOVERNMENT WANTS TO COMPLETE TEMELIN. After a meeting of the Czech government on 16 February, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told journalists that the cabinet had reached a consensus in favor of completing the construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant. CTK quoted Klaus as saying that by opening the Temelin power plant, the Czech Republic will be able to close heavily polluting brown coal-fired power plants in northern Bohemia by 1997. Klaus ruled out the possibility of holding a referendum on the future of Temelin. The construction of the Temelin plant, originally designed under Czechoslovakia's communist regime, was put on hold after the "velvet revolution" of 1989 following domestic and international protests. Austria has repeatedly asked the Czech and Czechoslovak governments to give up the project. Temelin is located 50 kilometers from the Austrian border. -Jan Obrman DEVALUATION DISCUSSION CONTINUES IN SLOVAKIA. Slovak media reported on 15 and 16-February that the discussion about a devaluation of the new Slovak currency is continuing among Slovak officials. While Finance Minister Julius Toth categorically opposes such a move, the Minister of Economy, Ludovit Cernak, argued that a devaluation of 10 to 15% would keep the Slovak koruna convertible. According to various sources, the Slovak National Bank favors a much more significant devaluation of up to 30%. After a meeting of the Slovak government on 16 February, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said in an interview with Slovak Television that the Slovak koruna would not be devalued if he finds that Slovak exports are still exceeding imports. Meciar urged Slovak industrial managers to limit imports as much as possible and buy Slovak-made goods. He said that he intends to prevent a devaluation of the Slovak currency as such a move would simultaneously "devalue our work." -Jan Obrman IMF SATISFIED WITH CZECH FINANCIAL POLICY. The IMF's permanent representative in Prague, James Carter, said that the Czech Republic's monetary and fiscal policies are sound, CTK reported on 16 February. Carter said 1993 will be a difficult year for the republic because of the disintegration of Czechoslovakia and the introduction of a new taxation system; he added that this will cause bankruptcies and consequent social problems. At the same time, however, Carter said that he expects an increase in exports and a further revival of the economy. The IMF representative said that his mission has reached agreement with the Czech government on all key issues of cooperation. -Jan Obrman POLISH GROWTH CONTINUES. Poland continues to emerge from recession. The central planning office reported on 16 February that industrial production in January was 5.7% higher than in the same month in 1992. Labor productivity was up nearly 11%. Inflation and unemployment were higher as well, with prices rising 4.1% in January and unemployment climbing to 14% of the work force. Central planning minister Jerzy Kropiwnicki predicted at a press conference on 16-February that industrial production will grow 4% in 1993 and GDP will rise at least 2%. The private sector will account for over 50% of GDP, while inflation will remain below 40%. Economic growth may not be sufficient to improve the public mood, however, as real wages will drop an average of 2% in 1993 and income disparities will become more pronounced. Housing construction will also slow and agricultural production is expected to drop 4-7% because of the 1992 drought. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAKIA CUTS SUBSIDIES TO CULTURAL PUBLICATIONS. At a press conference in Bratislava on 16-February, the editors of four Slovak cultural journals announced that the Slovak Ministry of Culture had cut off their subsidies, CTK reports. The editors of Slovenske pohlady, Fragment, Kulturny zivot, and Arena charged that the decision was motivated by politics and was "undemocratic." Seven of the eleven cultural journals published in Slovakia received 10 million koruny from the culture ministry while the remaining four got nothing. The editors said this was because their journals strove to remain politically independent. They doubted their journals could survive without state funds. In a joint statement, the editors charged the culture ministry with attempting to "liquidate all forces that paved the way to democratic transformation." Oleg Pastier, the editor-in-chief of Fragment, announced that his staff was considering publishing the journal as samizdat. -Jan Obrman UKRAINIAN RATIFICATION OF START-1; TALKS WITH GERMANY. A Ukrainian parliamentary representative sitting on the special commission that is reviewing the START-1 Treaty told an RFE/RL correspondent in Kiev on 16 February that debate by the full parliament on ratification of the treaty will not begin this week. Ihor Derkach said that most members of the commission believe that a special protocol to START-1 is needed to define the issue of ownership of the nuclear warheads and delivery systems on Ukrainian territory. Meanwhile, German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel ended a two day official visit to Ukraine on 16-February with the announcement that Germany intends to participate in the destruction of missile fuel in Ukraine and will aid in the destruction of ammunition as well. According to ADN, he said that Ukraine ought to be given assistance from the G-7 fund that is to be set up to assist in the elimination of weapons of mass destruction in the CIS states. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told Kinkel that Ukraine hoped for the early elimination of nuclear weapons on its territory, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 February. -Stephen Foye KRAVCHUK CALLS FOR NEW CONSTITUTION. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, arriving for a visit in the Luhansk region (the Donbass) on 16-February, said that Ukraine needs a new constitution and, on its basis, a new parliament. If the people so desire, he added, new presidential elections could also be held. Kravchuk's remarks were reported by Radio Ukraine. -Roman Solchanyk FOUNDING CONGRESS OF COMMUNISTS-BOLSHEVIKS IN UKRAINE. The founding conference of the Party of Communists-Bolsheviks of Ukraine concluded its work in Donetsk, Ukrinform-TASS reports on 16 February. About 70 representatives from 13-oblasts adopted a charter, program, and other documents but could not agree on a party leader. The party aims to establish the "dictatorship of the proletariat" and build a "classless society. -Roman Solchanyk NATO COMMANDER VISITS HUNGARY. NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Gen. John M. Shalikashvili, paid a three-day official visit to Hungary from 14 to 16 February at the invitation of Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur, MTI and Western news agencies report. Shalikashvili met Premier Jozsef Antall, Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, defense minister officials and army command leaders. At a joint press conference with Fur on 16-February, Shalikashvili termed relations between Hungary and NATO "very good" and said that the Southern Slav crisis was one of the major topics of discussion. He expressed "NATO's appreciation to Hungary" for allowing NATO to use Hungarian airspace to monitor air activity in Bosnia-Herzegovina. -Edith Oltay MOLDOVA OBJECTS TO ROMANIA'S ENVOY. Moldovan government officials told the RFE/RL Research Institute that Moldova has asked Romania to replace its envoy to Chisinau, Ion Bistreanu, because of his recent public statements treating Moldova in effect as a temporary state and a prospective part of Romania. The Romanian side has acceded to Moldova's request, the officials said. Although Romania was the first state anywhere to recognize Moldova and establish diplomatic relations, it has never appointed an ambassador but kept the level of its representation to that of charge d'affaire, reflecting Bucharest's second thoughts about Moldova's independence. -Vladimir Socor NIXON VISITS LATVIA. On 15 February former US President Richard Nixon discussed Latvian-Russian relations with Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs emphasizing that any differences should be decided through negotiations. He said that Russian President Boris Yeltsin was Latvia's best friend and needed its support against hard-line conservative opposition. At a press conference on 16 February after meetings with government and parliamentary officials, Nixon said he would suggest that American experts participate as observers in the talks on Russian troop withdrawals. He also disagreed with recent articles in Life and The Guardian that accused the Latvian authorities of backing anti-Semitism. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN TRADE WAR IN THE OFFING? ESTONIAN PRIME MINISTER MART LAAR BELIEVES RUSSIA MAY BE TRYING TO PROVOKE A TRADE WAR WITH ESTONIA. According to BNS of 16-February, Laar said Russia's recent announcement that it would increase customs tariffs with Estonia by 50% seems intended to exert pressure on its neighbor. "I hope that Russia will realize the harmful effect of such steps," Laar said, adding that Estonia would not give in. The increased duties were supposed to take effect on 15 February, but reportedly have not yet been implemented. -Riina Kionka ESTONIA'S RUSSIANS: COOPERATION TOWARD PROSPERITY. The Representative Assembly of the Russian-Speakers in Estonia held its inaugural plenary session on 16-February in Tallinn, BNS reports. The Assembly, formed two weeks ago, adopted two statements. The first, issued to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Republic of Estonia, called on Estonians and Russian-speakers to join forces in "fruitful, creative activities" toward building prosperity for the next 75 years. The second called for restoring a recently vandalized memorial plaque to Soviet soldiers killed in Tallinn in WW II. -Riina Kionka [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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