|Greatness lies not in being strong, but in the right use of strength. - Henry Ward Beecher|
No. 31, 16 February 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA KHASBULATOV CALLS FOR CONFIDENCE VOTE IN YELTSIN. At a meeting of the parliamentary presidium on 15 February, speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov proposed that in the planned April referendum on the principles of a new Russian Constitution, separate questions should be put to voters asking whether they trust President Boris Yeltsin, the Congress of People's Deputies, the parliament, and the government. A further question on whether to hold simultaneous early presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994 should also be put to the electorate, Russian and Western agencies reported Khasbulatov as saying. Meanwhile President Yeltsin left central Moscow for an impromptu 12-day vacation. -Wendy Slater MORE ON REFERENDUM ISSUES. Although going on vacation, Yeltsin has not canceled the meeting with parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov scheduled for 16 February, Ekho Moskvy reported on 15 February. The head of the presidential staff, Sergei Filatov, said that Yeltsin should not renounce the idea of holding the planned constitutional referendum in April. A number of democrats have recently voiced skepticism about Yeltsin's chances of winning the referendum. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai told Russian TV the same day that the parliament should agree to renounce any claims on executive power for a period of stabilization. -Alexander Rahr BURBULIS COMMENTS ON CONSTITUTION. Former Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis is leaving for the United States to seek contacts for his newly established analytical center "Strategiya." Burbulis told the RFE/RL Research Institute on 15 February that the only way out of the present constitutional crisis lies in the setting up of a Constitutional Assembly. He said that people must decide by referendum whether a Constitutional Assembly or the present parliament should be tasked with drawing up the new constitution. He stated that he was absolutely sure that the majority of Russians would support the idea of a Constitutional Assembly, which would function only temporarily until the new Russian Constitution is drafted. Burbulis also said that he was convinced Russia should become a presidential republic. -Alexander Rahr KOZYREV CALLS FOR BALANCED POLICY ON YUGOSLAVIA. In an interview published by Nezavisimaya gazeta on 16 February and summarized by ITAR-TASS, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev recommended that Moscow avoid offering "blind support to only one of the Slavic peoples" (presumably the Serbs) in the former Yugoslavia, or that it base its policies solely on common ties to the Orthodox religion. Reflecting an awareness of disintegrative tendencies within Russia itself, Kozyrev argued that undifferentiated Russian support for a single ethnic and religious group in the former Yugoslavia could, for example, undermine Moscow's relations with Tatarstan or Bashkortostan. He also said that it might split the CIS as a whole. Kozyrev has been roundly criticized by Russian nationalists in the parliament for not adopting a more pro-Serbian stance, but appears nevertheless to have won grudging support from Evgenii Ambartsumov, the influential chairman of the parliamentary committee for international affairs. -Stephen Foye FLEET COMMAND DENIES SINKING SHIPS IN BALTIC. A spokesman for the Russian Baltic Fleet command has denied a report, published in the most recent issue of the German news magazine Der Spiegel, that the Russian navy sank two nuclear-powered ships in the Baltic Sea. The spokesman, speaking by telephone from Kaliningrad, told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent that the Baltic Fleet has no nuclear-powered vessels or nuclear weapons. He called the report "disinformation." -Stephen Foye WARNING THAT UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE UNSAFE. The command of the Russian Strategic Rocket Forces has charged that Ukrainian authorities have failed properly to maintain strategic nuclear weapons still based in Ukraine and has suggested that this neglect could lead to a catastrophe rivaling Chernobyl. According to Izvestiya of 16 February, specialists from the missile forces' main staff were shocked by their findings during a recent inspection of nuclear weapons facilities located in the Ukrainian city of Pervomaisk. Maj. Gen. Vladimir Nikitin, identified as a deputy commander-in-chief in charge of nuclear weapons operations, was quoted as saying that it was impossible "to give a guarantee of the complete safety of nuclear missiles in Ukraine." The article attributed the alleged deterioration of safety standards to Kiev's decision to assume administrative control over the weapons. Ukrainian military authorities reportedly refused comment, but the allegations reflect misgivings long expressed by political and military circles in Moscow. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA AND UKRAINE CONTINUE TO SQUABBLE OVER DEBT. Negotiations between Russia and Ukraine over dividing the debt and assets of the former Soviet Union remain troubled, Reuters reported on 15 February. The Russian government accused the Ukrainians of derailing its attempts to reschedule the debt with Western lenders: "As a result of the unconstructive position of Ukraine . . . a real danger has arisen that negotiations with foreign creditors might be broken off." The major sticking point continues to be the evaluation of the assets of the former Soviet Union. Ukraine asserts that its share of these assets exceeds the value of its share of the debt; Russia claims the two sums should cancel each other out. The Russian government also said that the Ukrainian position on foreign debt was doubly unacceptable, considering its demands for continued access to Russian energy exports at preferential prices. -Erik Whitlock MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE DISCUSSES PROBLEMS. The Russian Ministry of Agriculture held a meeting on 15 February to consider last year's agricultural performance and current problems, according to ITAR-TASS. Agriculture Minister Viktor Khlystun reported that production dropped 8% overall in the sector, led by an 18% decline in livestock products. The number of loss-making farms grew from 1,285 to 2,402. Interenterprise debt continues to plague the sector as well. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, also present at the meeting, said that most of the existing problems could be solved by changing the means by which the sector is financed. Although no details were given, Rutskoi seemed to propose achieving a more equitable balance between agricultural and industrial prices through contracts that would anticipate future changes in costs in the agricultural sector. On a related topic, Reuters reported the same day that the Russian government may soon eliminate all compulsory sales of agricultural products to the state. -Erik Whitlock MINERS' PROTEST IN VORKUTA. Miners at the Vorgashorskaya mine in Vorkuta (Komi Republic) are holding an underground sit-in protest, according to Russian TV on 15 February. The 314 miners involved in the sit-in are demanding the release of their union leader, Ivan Guridov, who was arrested on 12 February. Guridov was elected director of the mine by the work collective at the end of January, and appears to have been arrested because of his refusal to attend court hearings in connection with charges brought against him by the previous director. According to Reuters on 14 February, the miners decided to remove the former director because he had been involved in illicit barter deals, trading coal with foreign and Russian firms. There has been worker unrest since early December at all of the 13 mines centered around the former penal colony of Vorkuta. Vorgashorskaya, with its 5,000 employees, is one of the largest mines in Russia. -Sheila Marnie YELTSIN AND BARANNIKOV ON CRIME. At a two-day national conference on the fight against crime held in Moscow on 12-13 February, President Yeltsin delivered a speech singling out corruption and organized crime as particularly urgent problems and a threat to Russia's national interest, Western and Russian news agencies reported. He announced that $2-billion had gone missing from the balance of payments of the Foreign Trade Ministry in the first nine months of 1992, suggesting that it may have ended up illegally in foreign bank accounts. About 40% of all businessmen and two-thirds of all so-called "commercial structures" were involved in corrupt transactions, he said. On 13 February Security Minister Viktor Barannikov told the conference that Western intelligence was fostering the spread of crime in Russia by encouraging links with international criminal organizations and that criminal elements had penetrated the highest circles of power in Russia.-Sheila Marnie and Wendy Slater MEIN KAMPF PUBLISHER ACQUITTED. A St. Petersburg city court has acquitted Viktor Bezverkhii, the publisher of a slightly abridged version of Adolf Hitler's autobiography, Mein Kampf, Russian TV reported on 15 February. An activist in ultranationalist groupings and the editor of the virulently anti-Semitic magazine Russky klich (Russian Appeal), Bezverkhii was accused of fomenting ethnic discord under Article 74 of the Russian Criminal Code. The accused, however, claimed that he had published Hitler's book from purely commercial considerations, and, although the publisher had lost money, in the course of the three-day trial the court agreed with the defense.-Julia Wishnevsky TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA INDIA PROMISES CREDIT TO TAJIKISTAN. Western agencies and Xinhua reported on 15-February that Indian officials have promised a $5 million credit to Tajikistan. The promise was made to Tajik Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov, who is in India on his first official visit outside the CIS since the winding down of Tajikistan's civil war. Several Tajik government leaders, including Abdullodzhonov, have said that Tajikistan has little hope of restoring its ravaged economy without foreign help. Abdullodzhonov appealed to members of the Business Forum to enter into joint ventures in Tajikistan, pointing out that his country is rich in mineral resources. A delegation of Indian businessmen plans to visit Tajikistan to explore investment opportunities. -Bess Brown KYRGYZSTAN RESTRICTS FOREIGN BUSINESSMEN. In future diplomats, representatives of foreign companies, and private individuals who visit Kyrgyzstan frequently will have to inform the country's Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the reasons for their visits, Kyrgyzkabar-TASS reported on 12 February. The ministry will arrange such visitors' meetings with appropriate government officials or representatives of industry and agriculture. According to the report, the press in Kyrgyzstan attributed the new rule to a need to regulate the stream of foreigners visiting the country. It does not, however, appear to signal a retreat from foreign contacts by Kyrgyzstan; the country's Prime Minister Tursunbek Chyngyshev is traveling in Western Europe to expand Kyrgyzstan's contacts there and to seek European investment. -Bess Brown UZBEK OPPOSITION LEADER EVICTED FROM HOME. Law enforcement officials in Tashkent have evicted Dzhakhangir Mamatov, secretary of the Erk (Will) Democratic Party and editor of its newspaper, from his home, Mamatov told an RFE/RL correspondent on 15-February. The correspondent reported that Mamatov attributed the action of the authorities to official anger over his criticism of Uzbek President Islam Karimov. Previously he had said that harassment began after he was chosen to edit Erk's publication. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KOVAC ELECTED SLOVAK PRESIDENT. Michal Kovac, the candidate of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, was elected Slovak President on 15 February by the National Council of the Slovak Republic. Kovac received 106 votes, 16 more than the three-fifths majority required by the Slovak constitution, Slovak media reported. Of the 148-deputies present, 20 voted against Kovac, 19 abstained, and one ballot was invalid. Kovac, 62, is a financial expert who worked for the Czechoslovak State Bank for many years. In 1964-65 he was an instructor at the College of the Banco National de Cuba. He joined the Communist Party in 1953, but was expelled in 1970. After the "velvet revolution," Kovac served as Slovak Finance Minister (December 1989 to May 1991); in June 1992, he became the Chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly and held that position until the end of the Czechoslovak state. Kovac will be inaugurated on 3-March. -Jan Obrman KOVAC ON SLOVAK-CZECH RELATIONS. After his election as president, Kovac declared that he will devote much attention to good relations between the independent Slovak state and the Czech Republic. He told reporters in Bratislava that such relations should take priority in Slovakia's foreign policy. Kovac also announced that he would give up his membership in Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia during his five-year tenure and expressed his wish to discuss Slovakia's problems with all political parties and groups in the upcoming weeks. -Jan Obrman KNAZKO TO BE DISMISSED SOON? FOLLOWING THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, SLOVAK PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR DISCUSSED THE FUTURE OF SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER MILAN KNAZKO WITH JOURNALISTS, SLOVAK MEDIA REPORTED ON 15 FEBRUARY. He was quoted as saying that he will ask the president to dismiss some members of the government if it proves necessary. When asked whether the dismissal of foreign minister Knazko is necessary, Meciar told the reporters "to wait and see." Tensions between Meciar and Knazko, who are both high-ranking officials of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, have grown recently and observers say that the Prime Minister wants to oust Knazko from both his government and his party positions. In the absence of a president it was not legally possible to relieve Knazko from his government post, however. The foreign minister did not attend the presidential election; his spokesman explained that he is ill. -Jan Obrman CROATIA PEACE TALKS SET TO BEGIN. Negotiations between the warring factions in Croatia are set to begin at the UN on 16 February, Radio Croatia reports. Heading the negotiating teams are Goran Hadzic, president of the self-proclaimed Serbian Republic of Krajina and Gojko Susak, Croatia's defense minister. The UN plan for Krajina calls for the disarming of the Serb militia by UN peacekeepers and measures aimed at allowing refugees from the region to return. Krajina Serbs reject the UN plans and demand independence. They refuse to negotiate with Croatia until Croat forces withdraw to the positions held before the 22-January offensive. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman has offered a six-month extension of the UN mandate that expires next week and demands that Croatian police be allowed to patrol jointly with UN forces to reassert Zagreb's control over the Krajina militia. The UN commander in Croatia, Gen. Satish Nambiar, is quoted by the Los Angles Times as saying "we are back to zero." -Milan Andrejevich BOSNIAN SERBS CONTINUE TO BLOCK RELIEF CONVOY. Radio Bosnia reports on 15-February that Bosnian Serb militia continue to block an emergency aid UN convoy in eastern Bosnia despite assurances by Bosnian Serb leaders that the blockade would be removed. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic told Radio Serbia that his forces are prepared to assist the UN convoy on condition that Bosnia's Muslim-led army orders a halt to their offensive in the region near the border with Serbia. Meanwhile, Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic told UN mediator Cyrus Vance that he will use his influence to clear the way for the convoy. According to UN officials in Geneva, some 25,000 Muslims in Cerska area are waiting for the supplies. -Milan Andrejevich EC PRESIDENT WARNS OF BALKAN WAR. On 15-February EC Commission President Jacques Delors criticized the US for indecision over the Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia-Herzegovina. In an interview with Europe 1 radio, he claimed that if the US had accepted the plan from the start "we would have sent a signal to the belligerents that war does not pay." He added that while the Clinton administration developed its policy, the fighting in Bosnia intensified and warned "now it is possible that we will have a Balkan war within two months." -Milan Andrejevich MITSOTAKIS FACES HOSTILE GREEKS OVER MACEDONIA. Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis has come under fire from colleagues and opposition figures alike. According to Katimerini, a leading conservative Greek newspaper, Mitsotakis said in a statement on 14 February that Greece might agree to the use of the word "Macedonia" in the Republic of Macedonia's official title, provided international arbitration guarantees Greek national security. Katimerini demanded that the prime minister resign; and a number of deputies in his own New Democracy Party objected to the compromise. The opposition PASOK party rejects the idea categorically. Mitsotakis faces an uphill fight as he seeks to solve a problem that has destabilized the Central Balkans. -Duncan Perry MACEDONIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES NAME ISSUE. The Republic of Macedonia's legislature ended its fifth day of debate on 15 February over whether to accept a UN compromise which proposes that the new republic be admitted to the UN under the temporary name "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." Reuters reports that the main opposition to the idea comes from the nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party of National Unity which controls 36 seats of the total 120. No official UN document concerning the matter has been delivered to Macedonian leaders. -Duncan Perry PRESIDENT OF RUMP YUGOSLAVIA TO VISIT ROMANIA SOON. Radio Bucharest announced on 15-February that Dobrica Cosic, president of the rump Yugoslav state, would visit Romania on 20 February for talks on the Yugoslav crisis. Cosic is scheduled to meet with President Ion Iliescu. Romanian radio summarized a commentary by the Yugoslav news agency Tanjug saying that Romania appears to have become the center of a new pan-Balkan initiative to solve the Yugoslav conflicts. According to Tanjug, which quotes unidentified "well-informed sources in Bucharest," all countries in the region accept the idea that Romania should lead a Balkan initiative to put an end to the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Recently, the foreign ministers of Turkey and Greece visited Bucharest, where they discussed the Yugoslav crisis with high-ranking Romanian officials. -Dan Ionescu CONFERENCE ON ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. An international conference on controlling illegal immigration in Europe opened in Budapest on 15 February, MTI and Western news agencies report. Government officials from more than 30 countries and a number of international organizations are attending. The conference is expected to draw up proposals for a common European policy on illegal immigration. In his opening speech, Hungarian Interior Minister Peter Boross said that thousands of people were leaving home because of difficult living conditions and rising unemployment, and warned that countries targeted by European immigration will soon "reach the limits of reception capability.'' He linked illegal migration to crime and rising violence against foreigners. Boross said that last year strengthened police patrols on the border as well as new measures in Romania and cooperation with Austria have reduced the number of illegal immigrants. He appealed for Western financial help to purchase technical equipment to seal Hungary's borders more effectively. -Edith Oltay MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT WARNS OF IRREDENTIST COUP. Mircea Snegur told a convention of farm managers (a pillar of Moldova's parliamentary majority) on 12 February, as cited by Basapress, that supporters of Moldovan-Romanian unification may be planning a coup to overthrow the legal authorities and to provoke civil war in order to achieve their aims. He noted that the recent resignation of the pro-Romania parliamentary leaders has reignited demonstrations and threats of violence in Chisinau by militant groups calling for unification. Offering assurances that Moldova "would not undertake anything against Romania," Snegur reaffirmed his support for a referendum which is expected to endorse Moldovan independent statehood. He urged continued cooperation among the "two Romanian independent states" but warned against any "artificial integration" and supported "the preservation of existing borders." -Vladimir Socor WORKERS' PROTESTS IN BUCHAREST. Thousands of Romanian workers took part in two demonstrations in Bucharest on 15 February. An estimated 3,000 to 10,000 people attended a meeting in Revolution Square organized by the "Solidarity 90" trade union federation of workers in electronics, the electromechanical industry, and fine mechanics. After the gathering, protesters marched to the government's headquarters and other official buildings to present a list of demands including better social protection, job security and a minimum monthly wage of 41,000 lei ($82) instead of the present 17,300 ($35). In a separate gathering, some 4,000 workers from the aircraft industry called for action to help their crisis-stricken industry. Radio Bucharest reported extensively on the demonstrations, which were the first workers' street protests since the cabinet headed by Nicolae Vacaroiu took office in November 1992. -Dan Ionescu ANTI-KRAVCHUK PROTESTS IN THE DONBASS. Demonstrators in all major cities of the Donbass on 13-February declared no confidence in President Leonid Kravchuk and demanded that he explain his actions to voters of the Donetsk region, ITAR-TASS reports. The demonstrators also called for more local autonomy and the introduction of a federated system in Ukraine. The meetings were organized by the Socialist Party of Ukraine (former communists) and the local Intermovement. -Roman Solchanyk NEW HUNGARIAN MINISTERS DESIGNATED. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall designated five new ministers on 15 February, completing the government reshuffle. Minister without portfolio Ferenc Madl, a Hungarian Democratic Forum (HDF) member was named minister of culture and education; Political State Secretary in the labor ministry Gyorgy Schamschula (HDF) was designated transportation minister; and department head in the industry ministry Janos Miklos Latrocai was named Minister of Industry and Trade, replacing Ivan Szabo who was earlier designated Finance Minister. Janos Szabo, the parliamentary leader of the Smallholders' 36group which supports the government, was named Minister of Agriculture, and parliamentary deputy Janos Gyurko (HDF), a member of the parliament's committee on environmental protection, was designated Minister for Environmental Protection and Regional Development. Madl and Janos Szabo studied law; Schamschula studied economics; Latrocai graduated from the Technical University for Heavy Industry; and Gyurko is a construction engineer. -Edith Oltay PRAGUE CREATES CENTER TO INVESTIGATE COMMUNIST CRIMES. Czech Prosecutor General Jiri Setina and Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml signed an agreement on the creation of a center for the investigation of communist crimes on 12 February, media reported. Setina said the purpose of the center is to investigate crimes against humanity such as physical and psychological torture under the communist regime. He added that "special senates" could be set up to assess the crimes, but stressed that "no spectacular trials" should be expected. Setina said that dealing with Czechoslovakia's communist past had moral rather than legal significance and that most of those responsible for crimes were either dead or too old to be prosecuted anyway. -Jan Obrman WALESA SIGNS ABORTION LAW. President Lech Walesa signed a restrictive abortion bill into law on 15-February, closing a four-year debate on the issue. The law, which takes effect two weeks after its publication, permits abortion only in three cases: when the pregnant woman's health or life is threatened; when the pregnancy results from rape or incest; and when the fetus is damaged. Doctors performing illicit abortions face two-year prison sentences; the new law exempts women from any punishment. Abortions are restricted to public health facilities; prenatal testing is strictly limited. In earlier comments, Walesa said that the new law, while imperfect, is better than the old one and demonstrates the need to respect life from the moment of conception. Walesa rejected appeals from conservative deputies to veto the bill on the grounds that it does not impose an absolute abortion ban. -Louisa Vinton ESTONIA WELCOMES CSCE MISSION. CSCE and Estonian officials signed an agreement on 15 February paving the way for the international organization to start monitoring allegations of human rights violations there, BNS reports. Estonian Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste and Klaus Tornudd, the chief of a six-member CSCE mission, signed an agreement allowing the watch group to set up shop in Tallinn, Kohtla-Jarve and Narva. The CSCE mission, which will stay in Estonia for six months, plans to establish ties with trade unions, enterprises, public organizations and individuals in order to assess Estonia's compliance with CSCE principles. Foreign Minister Velliste hailed the arrival of the mission as an historic step that "will provide the world with additional information about Estonia and its policies." -Riina Kionka OPPOSITION SLAMS ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT. The controversy over the alleged entry of some 200-additional Russian troops into Estonia continues to dominate parliamentary debate in Tallinn. Opposition MPs again charged on 15 February that the government knowingly gave the Russian military permission to bring in additional troops to help facilitate the withdrawal. Representatives of the ruling coalition have acknowledged allowing the soldiers in, but said on 15-February that the permission had been annulled and the troops entered Estonia without their knowledge. Prime Minister Mart Laar told BNS on 15 February that he regards the opposition's criticism "natural;" since the adoption of the 1993 budget last week, Laar said, the opposition is forced to find other ways to get rid of the government. -Riina Kionka LATVIA INTRODUCES STATE MONOPOLY ON ALCOHOL SALES. The Latvian cabinet, backing a proposal by Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis, voted unanimously to introduce a state monopoly on sales of alcoholic beverages, BNS reported on 15 February. The main reason for the measure is to increase government revenues to balance the budget as required by the IMF. The government on 12 February also declared invalid all trade certificates on the sale of imported alcoholic beverages issued at the end of last year, instructing the Interior Ministry to suspend the sale of imported alcoholic beverages in commercial shops or kiosks. Beginning 15 February, custom duties will have to be paid in either Latvian rubles or hard currency and not in CIS currencies, the purchase of which the Bank of Latvia suspended in January. -Saulius Girnius INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS IN LITHUANIA. On 16 February Lithuania celebrates the 75th anniversary of its independence declaration, Radio Lithuania reports. During a Mass at the Vilnius cathedral, Vilnius Archbishop Audrys Backis will consecrate the Vilnius city flag, which will then be carried to the building where the act of independence was signed. At the Seimas, acting President Algirdas Brazauskas will present the Order of Grand Duke Gediminas to emigre poet Bernardas Brazdzionis, painter Vytautas Jonynas, former Vilnius University rector Jonas Kubilius, poet Justinas Marcinkevicius, and poet priest Ricardas Mikutavicius. Latvian and Belarus parliament chairmen Anatolijs Gorbunovs and Stanislau Shuskevich and officials from other countries will participate in the celebrations. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. FOR INQUIRIES ABOUT SPECIFIC NEWS ITEMS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, OR ADDITIONAL COPIES, PLEASE CONTACT: IN NORTH AMERICA: MR. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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