|One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles|
No. 29, 12 February 1993
RUSSIA RUSSIAN DEPUTIES ON FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev will speak about the former Yugoslavia in the Russian parliament today. The chief adviser of the parliamentary Committee for International Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, Andronik Migranyan, told a RFE/RL correspondent on 11 February that the parliament wants to issue a special statement on the conflict in former Yugoslavia. He said the Russian parliament rejects foreign military intervention in the Civil War and will ask for a continuation of the arms embargo to prevent weapons reaching any of the warring sides, and, at the same time, for the loosening of some international sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro. He emphasized that parliament supports in principle the Vance-Owen plan for the regulation of the situation in Bosnia. -Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN POLITICS IN TURMOIL. President Boris Yeltsin said that the present power struggle "tears Russia apart," Western news agencies reported on 11-February. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov stated at two recent occasions that parliament should increase its control over the executive branch because Yeltsin is incapable of ruling the country. Meanwhile, former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has set up his own institute, the International Humanitarian Political Center "Strategiya," to oppose hardliners, according to Radio Rossii on 10 February. Former Moscow police chief and "Democratic Russia" activist Arkadii Murashov supports him. The centrist Civic Union has officially registered itself as a political organization with the Ministry of Justice on 9 February. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN AND KHASBULATOV FAIL TO AGREE ON REFERENDUM. An hour-long meeting between President Boris Yeltsin and parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov on 11-February failed to result in any narrowing of their differences over the balance of powers in the country, various Russian and Western agencies reported. The meeting was mediated by the chairman of the Constitutional Court, Valerii Zorkin. The president's press secretary told reporters after the meeting that "there can be no question of halting preparations for the referendum." Political leaders have expressed widely differing views in recent days over whether to hold a plebiscite to resolve the conflict between parliament and the president. Yeltsin described the 12 possible referendum questions, drafted by the parliamentary presidium, which Khasbulatov presented to him at the meeting, as "completely unacceptable." Further discussions are scheduled for next week. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN CONSIDERS CABINET CHANGES. President Yeltsin has put Vice President Rutskoi in charge of organizing military units for fighting crime and corruption, Mayak reported on 11 February. His previous responsibilities in agriculture have presumably been transferred to the newly appointed deputy prime minister in charge of agriculture, Aleksandr Zaveryukha. Ekho Moskvy on the same day quoted Yeltsin as saying that he will fire those ministers from the cabinet who do not support privatization. He said that he is considering relieving the ministers of finance and economics, Vasilii Barchuk and Andrei Nechaev, respectively. Nechaev was one of the closest associates of former head of cabinet, Egor Gaidar. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin stated that he agreed with Yeltsin's criticism of these two ministers. -Alexander Rahr SKOKOV'S POWERS INCREASED. The newly created Foreign Political Commission of the Security Council has taken away most of the power of the foreign ministry, according to Moskovskie novosti (no. 7). The paper listed the ministers of foreign affairs, defense, security, internal affairs, foreign economic ties, justice, the head of foreign intelligence and general staff of the armed forces as members of the Commission, which will be subordinated to the Secretary of the Security Council, Yurii Skokov. The Commission has received the right to control the work of the major ministries, including the foreign ministry, and prepare all major foreign political decisions for the president. -Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN COMMUNISTS WANT TO REUNITE. Russian Communists plan to hold their congress on 13-14-February. Vladimir Spirin, a representative of the Communist faction in the Russian parliament, told an RFE/RL correspondent on 11 February that the congress will take place despite objections voiced from the Ministry of Justice, which had stated earlier that it regarded the convening of the 29th Congress of the CPSU and the 2nd Congress of the Communist Party of the RSFSR as "unconstitutional." Viktor Anpilov, leader of the Russian Communist Labor Party, called for a national struggle with President Yeltsin's government. -Alexander Rahr DEMANDS FOR SCHEDULING AN ALL ARMY OFFICERS ASSEMBLY. Officials of the ultra-nationalist Russian "Officers Union" told reporters on 11 February that the convening of the All Army Officers Assembly has been tentatively scheduled for 20-21 February in Moscow. The agenda will reportedly include discussion of military reform and readiness, and providing social protection for servicemen. The Officers Union has no formal connection to the All-Army Officers Assembly, however, and there has as yet been no confirmation from other sources that the assembly has in fact been scheduled. The Russian Defense Ministry has attempted to limit the activities of the local officers assemblies in hopes of rendering them politically impotent. In the wake of the August coup and the establishment of the CIS, the All Army Officers Assembly did, in fact, strive to become an important political actor, and its re-emergence would likely harm civil-military relations and might also undermine democratic reforms in the army. -Stephen Foye COUNCIL OF MINISTERS APPROVES 1993 ECONOMIC PLAN. The Russian Council of Ministers gave approval to the government's latest economic program for 1993 on 11-February, ITAR-TASS reported. The plan stressed tight monetary policy and a more active structural policy. No details were given; however, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin said that structural policy would target four priority areas: fuel and energy development; securing food supplies; conversion of the defense industry as well as maintenance of the country's science and technology potential. The program will be revised over the next week to include among other things a section on regional policy. -Erik Whitlock MINISTRY OF FINANCE GIVES 1992 DEFICIT FIGURES. The Russian Ministry of Finance disclosed at the cabinet meeting on 11 February that the consolidated budget deficit of the Russian Federation for 1992 was 641.9 billion rubles, according to ITAR-TASS. The federal budget was 957.9 billion rubles in deficit while the Russian Federation's constituent republic and regional budgets ran a combined 316 billion ruble surplus. On the same day Russian Central Bank chairman Viktor Gerashchenko told a meeting of leaders from local soviets and industrial enterprises that the actual federal deficit was nearly twice that given by the Ministry of Finance, 1.2 trillion rubles. He repeated his claim that the government deliberately prepares its budget figures to deceive foreign lending institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund. However, since the IMF uses a different methodology than that typically used by the Russian government to calculate state budget figures in any case, it is difficult to evaluate the validity of Gerashchenko's accusation. -Erik Whitlock JANUARY'S ECONOMIC RESULTS. The Russian State Statistical Committee has produced a document giving January's economic results, ITAR-TASS reported on 11-February. According to the document, industrial production in January was 23% lower than in January 1992, but the drop is attributed to the large number of holidays at the beginning of the month. Production in some sectors, such as ferrous metals, machine building and consumer goods is reported to have increased. The most worrying result is that for food production; production of two-thirds of all food products has decreased, and that of bread by over 30%. Strikes led to a 1.5 billion ruble loss in foregone production, and the regions most affected by strikes were the Kemerovo, Sakhlin, Krasnoyarsk regions and the Komi republic. Prices for 70 basic food products rose on average by 25%; those for meat, fish and dairy products by 33-43%. -Sheila Marnie MINISTER OF ECONOMICS REPORTS ON 1992. The Russian Minister of Economics, Andrei Nechaev, gave a summary of 1992's economic results at the meeting of the Russian Council of Ministers on 11 February, according to ITAR-TASS and AFP on the same day. GNP decreased by 20% and industrial production by 18.8%. Earnings differentials increased, with a larger number of individuals making very high earnings, while 28% of the population lived below the poverty line. The top earners now receive 8.6 times more than those at the bottom of the scale, compared to 6 times in January 1992. Consumption of meat, fish, dairy products and eggs fell significantly. Another problem highlighted by Nechaev was the lack of funds to modernize obsolete equipment in Russian industry; 41% of machinery is reported to be more than 10 years old and only 16% is capable of competing with Western machinery. -Sheila Marnie PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES MAKE PROPOSALS ON START-2. The Russian parliament committees for international affairs, foreign economic relations, and defense and security have proposed to the US Congress additional strategic arms reductions as part of an extended START-2 process. According to ITAR-TASS on 11 February, the Russian committees suggested lowering US and Russian nuclear arsenals to the level of other nuclear powers by the year 2010; they also confirmed Russian and American adherence to the 1972 ABM Treaty. The committees also confirmed their earlier commitment to conduct joint Russian-US hearings on all aspects of the START-2 Treaty during its ratification process. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAS SUPPLIES TO ARMENIA AGAIN CUT OFF BY PIPELINE EXPLOSION. The gas supply pipeline through Georgia to Armenia was again damaged by an explosion in Georgia's Marneuli Raion during the night of 10-11 February, ITAR-TASS reported. Radio Erevan quoted an Armenian government spokesman as stating that the explosion was an act of sabotage, and that it would take two to three days to repair the damage. -Liz Fuller IRAN QUESTIONS RUSSIAN INTENT IN TAJIKISTAN. An Iranian journal, Salam, has accused Moscow of wanting to reestablish its hegemony over Tajikistan and warned that if Russian forces do not leave the Central Asian state, they will find themselves in a morass worse than that in Afghanistan. The Iranian comments were reported in the Sźddeutsche Zeitung on 11 February. The Iranian publication also claimed that numerous mosques and copies of the Koran had been burned during the Tajik civil war in 1992. Tajikistan's government has sought closer ties with Russia in order to help overcome the effects of the war; Russia also plans to participate in peacekeeping efforts in Tajikistan, and has offered to help build a Tajik army. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. Western news agencies on 11-February said that the Organization of the Islamic Conference welcomes the US approach to the Bosnian crisis outlined the previous day, adding that Washington's policy "improves prospects for negotiating a settlement." Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Bosnian authorities said on 11-February they will accept no more aid for that city until the UN manages to persuade Serbs to let relief shipments reach eastern Bosnia, where some towns have been cut off for ten months. The 12 February Washington Post quotes Bosnian UN ambassador Mohamed Sacirbey as saying that Sarajevo "refuses to continue to act as a mask for those who are dying." Finally, Western news agencies on 11-February report that UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali "deplores" the Bosnian decision as well as the resumption of fighting by the Bosnian side around Sarajevo airport. The Bosnians' goal is the Serb-held suburb of Ilidza beyond the airport. -Patrick Moore GERMAN-GREEK TALKS. The 12 February Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports at length on German foreign minister Klaus Kinkel's visit to Athens on 11-February. He discussed a proposal by Britain, France, and Spain for the UN to offer a three-point package to Greece and Macedonia to resolve their dispute. According to the plan, Macedonia would enter the UN under the name "the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia," and the two states would then sign a friendship and border treaty on the model of that between Germany and Poland. Finally, international negotiators would arbitrate a settlement on the key question of Macedonia's internationally recognized name. Greece wants this arbitration to be binding, while Macedonia says that only it can decide on its own name. Kinkel and his Greek discussion partners agreed that Turkey's international importance is growing because of its influence in the Black Sea region and as a bridge between Europe and the Muslim world, but Greek officials seemed worried by an increasing Turkish role in the Balkans, especially in conjunction with Albania and the Kosovo situation. -Patrick Moore TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER MEETS ROMANIAN OFFICIALS. On 11 February Hikmet Cetin held talks in Bucharest with his Romanian counterpart, Teodor Melescanu on political cooperation and future visits by Romanian President Ion Iliescu to Turkey and by Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel to Romania. Cetin told reporters that both countries can play an important role in the Balkan and Black Sea region. He was also received by Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies Adrian Nastase, and Eugen Dijmarescu, deputy chairman of the Senate, and President Ion Iliescu, who said after the meeting that he hopes to visit Turkey in September. -Dan Ionescu BELGRADE RELEASES ROMANIAN SHIPS. A spokeswoman for the Romanian Transport Ministry announced on 11 February that Serb authorities have released four Romanian vessels detained in the Danube port of Bezdan and that a fifth ship was expected to be released soon. The tugboats, pulling barges loaded with fertilizers, resumed their journey toward destinations in Germany and Austria. -Dan Ionescu ISRAEL TO TAKE BOSNIAN REFUGEES. Deutsche Welle reported on 11 February that Israel has agreed to accept 100 refugees from war-torn Bosnia-Herzegovina. The decision came as a result of an appeal from Arab mayors. -Patrick Moore WILL MILOSEVIC SUCCEED COSIC? CITING HIGHLY-PLACED SOURCES, BORBA ON 6/7 FEBRUARY REPORTS THAT SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC PLANS TO REVISE THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. According to the Belgrade daily, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro are supposed to be under parliamentary government, while the federation will be made a "presidential system" with "all important national matters under the competence of the president." The daily asks: "Guess who will be the new president?" -Milan Andrejevich KOSOVO LEADER URGES SOLIDARITY AGAINST SERBS. Radio Croatia, citing an ATA report on 10-February, quotes Bujar Bukoshi, prime minister of the self-declared Republic of Kosovo, as saying that the Albanian majority there will resist Serbia's "silent ethnic cleansing" and called for "homogeneity of action by all to face this evil." Without being specific, he warned that Kosovo Albanians "have the forces once more to destroy and make Serbia's plans unattainable." -Milan Andrejevich HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT RESHUFFLE. The long-anticipated government reorganization began on 11-February, when Prime Minister Jozsef Antall accepted the resignations of a number of ministers, among them Minister of Environmental Protection Sandor K. Keresztes and Minister Without Portfolio Balazs Horvath, MTI reports. Antall also asked President Arpad Goncz to dismiss Minister of Culture and Education Bertalan Andrasfalvy, Minister of Agriculture Elemer Gergatz, and Minister of Transportation and Communications Csaba Siklos. Since Finance Mihaly Kupa did not accept the new cabinet position offered to him as Transportation Minister, Antall accepted his resignation. Kupa, considered the architect of Hungary's purposeful drive toward privatization, said in a press conference that he is also leaving the Hungarian Democratic Forum, the parliamentary faction of which he joined in October 1991, and will join the group of independent deputies in parliament. Antall said that he will soon initiate the parliamentary committee hearings on the ministers' replacements but gave no names. -Judith Pataki HUNGARIAN SECURITY POLICY CONCEPT. The parliamentary defense and foreign relations committees have reached a six-party consensus on Hungary's new national security concept, which is now expected to come before the full house next week, MTI reported on 10-February. The concept, which goes beyond the framework of military security, formulates the various forms of direct and indirect international security guarantees Hungary would like to receive, including membership in NATO and the WEU. It also sets an even balance between the country's dual desire to integrate with the West and to have good relations with its neighbors on a partnership basis. In that respect, the legal situation of the Magyar minorities is placed in the international context of the accepted norms for all minorities as spelled out by the Council of Europe and the CSCE. -Alfred Reisch SLOVAK NATIONAL PARTY DEFENDS KNAZKO. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava on 11-February, the deputy chairman of the Slovak National Party, Ladislav Vlasic said that his party thinks that Foreign Minister Milan Knazko has managed to transform the Ministry of Foreign Affairs into a well-functioning institution. Slovak media report Vlasic as praising Knazko especially for his efficiency in negotiating Slovakia's admission to the United Nations. The Slovak National Party is an unofficial ally of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia; its chairman Ludovit Cernak is the Minister of Economy in Vladimir Meciar's cabinet, which is otherwise entirely composed of MDS members. On 6 February Meciar criticized Knazko's performance as foreign minister and demanded his resignation. -Jiri Pehe MECIAR'S POPULARITY DROPPING. According to an opinion poll taken by the Slovak Statistical Office in January and reported by Reuters on 11 February, the popularity of Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar dropped by 10% in comparison with a poll taken by the same group in December. However, with a 34% approval rating, Meciar is still by far the most popular politician in Slovakia. Peter Weiss, the chairman of the Party of the Democratic Left (formerly, the Slovak Communist Party) is the second most popular politician in Slovakia, holding a 21% approval rating. Third is Deputy Prime Minister Roman Kovac, the unsuccessful presidential candidate in the first round of the 26-January presidential elections, with 14%. Michal Kovac, the new candidate for the post of Slovak president, enjoys only a 7% approval rating, as does Foreign Minister Milan Knazko, the leading opponent of Meciar in the MDS. Some 37% of Slovak population indicated that they trust no politician at all, the highest figure since the end of communist rule in late 1989. -Jiri Pehe ECONOMIC NEWS FROM SLOVAKIA. According to information released on 10 February by the Slovak Statistical Office, the share of the private sector in the Slovak economy reached 21% in 1992. The inflation rate in 1992 was 10%. The average salary in the state sector is 4,900 koruny, while in the private sector it was 7,000 koruny. In comparison with 1991, real wages in Slovakia grew by 13% in 1992. The unemployment rate dropped from more than 13% to 10.5%. Meanwhile, CTK reports that Ceska Sporitelna, the Czech savings bank, announced on 11 February that it will fix the purchase price of the Slovak koruna (SOK) at 0.93 Czech koruny (CEK) and sell it at the rate of 1.05 on 12 February, thus backing away from the original 1:1 ratio established at the time the two currencies split last week. -Jiri Pehe and Charles Trumbull POLISH COALITION FIGHTS FOR BUDGET. "The government has the right and even the duty to refuse to implement an impossible budget," Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka told the Sejm on 12 February. "In a democracy, this means the resignation of the government and the assumption of power by those who can secure a majority for their concept." Suchocka's threat closed the Sejm's discussion of the proposed budget for 1993. The vote is expected later on 12-February. The government is attempting to hold the budget deficit to 81 trillion zloty; the opposition has proposed increasing the deficit to as much as 140 trillion zloty. National Bank President Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz warned that increasing the deficit would bring a return of hyperinflation. Coalition members warned that high inflation hits the poorest members of society hardest and that printing "empty money" is not an acceptable tool of economic reform. The opposition criticized low spending on social programs and called the budget "antisocial." -Louisa Vinton SOLIDARITY DESERTS GOVERNMENT. The Solidarity trade union dealt a major blow to the government's chances on 11 February. Meeting behind closed doors in Gdansk, Solidarity's National Commission voted to instruct the union's parliamentary caucus to oppose the government's proposed 1993 budget. The roll-call vote was 53 to 24 with 5-abstentions. Deputy Jan Rulewski said the union's decision was motivated by the budget's "social asymmetry." Solidarity feels the budget lacks adequate funds for pensioners, state workers, and the unemployed. The Solidarity caucus, with 27 deputies, holds the balance of power in the Sejm between the government coalition and the opposition. The decision suggests that Solidarity wants the profile of a pure trade union rather than the broader formula of a social movement for reform. -Louisa Vinton CORNEA QUESTIONED. Romanian human rights activist Doina Cornea was summoned on 11 February to the prosecutor's office in Cluj, where she resides. She was questioned in connection with charges filed against her by three persons alleging that she tried to undermine state power by calling for the overthrow of President Iliescu in September 1991. Cornea rejected the charges as groundless. The recent moves against Cornea, a well-known dissident under Nicolae Ceausescu, have damaged Romania's image at a time when the country is seeking full membership in the Council of Europe. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA AND DECOMMUNIZATION. A law regulating the "decommunization" of science and academic institutions has been endorsed by Bulgaria's Constitutional Court. According to a BTA report on 11 February, six of the eleven court members taking part in the proceedings ruled that the new legislation is in conformity with the Bulgarian Constitution of 1991. Passed by parliament on 9 December, the law prohibits scholars formerly closely affiliated with the Communist Party from holding management posts in research and science over the next five years. President Zhelyu Zhelev plus 102 deputies had asked the court to pass a final judgment on the law. -Kjell Engelbrekt KUCHMA ON THE ECONOMY. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma told a group of Ukrainian businessmen and enterprise directors that the economic situation in the country is not improving, but that in the last two months it has been stabilized, Ukrinform-TASS reports on 11 February. Kuchma said that the catastrophic decline in production has been halted somewhat, thereby stopping an impending "national crisis." Economic ties with Russia, he said, is one of the major problems for the economy and for the existence of Ukraine. -Roman Solchanyk DNIPROPETROVSK TAKES POLITICAL TIME OUT. About ten political parties and groups in the Dnipropetrovsk region have agreed to suspend meetings and mass political actions, Ukrinform-TASS reports on 11 February. The action was taken to extend "psychological support" to the economic reform program of the Cabinet of Ministers. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER ON BLACK SEA FLEET. Col. Gen. Konstantin Morozov told a press conference in Sevastopol on 11 February that the appointment of Russian Admiral Eduard Baltin as Black Sea Fleet Commander, a joint decision of the Russian and Ukrainian presidents, would ease relations between the two countries and lead to resolution of a number of problems concerning the disposition of the fleet. According to an ITAR-TASS report on 11 February, Morozov also said that Russia now recognizes Ukraine's existing borders. He criticized as "unconstructive" a recent declaration by Ukrainian Naval commander Boris Kozhin that calls for Ukrainian sailors to be educated on the fundamentals of Ukrainian nationalism and called for the fleet to be divided on the bases of the Yalta agreement. -Stephen Foye LEBED WARNS UKRAINE. Interviewed by the Kiev newspaper Nezavisimost, as cited by Basapress on 9-February, Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, condemned the "parade of sovereignties" of the former Soviet republics as a "darkening of the mind" and predicted that sovereignty will lead to wars; "therefore it is necessary to eradicate it." Pointing to the Dniester conflict, Lebed warned that "something similar is looming in Ukraine," owing, he alleged, to the implementation of the Ukrainian language law in Ukraine's "Russian-speaking" regions. Lebed has previously urged Ukraine to rejoin Russia in a single state. -Vladimir Socor HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT ON ESTONIA. A four-member UN Human Rights mission gave Estonia a clean bill of health after a week-long fact-finding tour of the country, BNS reports. Delegation leader Enayat Haushmand told reporters that Estonia has "guaranteed the integration of the principles of democracy and human rights into society" and had "demonstrated political maturity in settling the sore points concerning human rights." The UN mission will reportedly file its final report in a few weeks' time. -Riina Kionka ESTONIA APPROVES LANGUAGE TEST FOR WOULD-BE CITIZENS. Parliament on 11-February approved a law setting out in exact terms how language proficiency will be measured for citizenship applicants. According to the new law, an applicant will be considered proficient when the applicant can make him/herself understood in Estonian. The parliament also approved a separate bill mandating that the government provide a separate set of requirements for applicants born before 1 January 1930 and for some invalids. In addition, those who received primary, secondary or higher education in the Estonian language are exempt from the language examination. -Riina Kionka LITHUANIAN TRADE AGREEMENTS WITH CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS. On 10 February Industry and Trade Minister Albertas Sinevicius signed a bilateral trade and economic agreement with Tajikistan worth about $5-million per year, BNS reports. Lithuania will supply compressors, refrigerators, and food in exchange for cotton, aluminum, and other products. Sinevicius signed similar agreements with Kyrgyzstan on 4 February and Uzbekistan on 5 February and will next visit Kazakhstan for similar purposes. -Saulius Girnius. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba and Charles TrumbullTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993; RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.