|The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound|
No. 13, 21 January 1993
RUSSIA RUSSIAN CABINET MOVES TO COUNTER HYPERINFLATION. At a news conference after the cabinet meeting on 20 January, Deputy Prime Ministers Boris Fedorov and Anatolii Chubais warned of the imminent threat of hyperinflation, Russian and Western agencies reported. Retail prices could rise by 55-60% in January. Referring to proposed countermeasures, Fedorov spoke of a "tough discussion" within the cabinet and forecast a battle with the parliament. The proposals included the setting of quarterly ceilings for the budget deficit, doubling interest rates on savings deposits, reducing subsidies to inefficient enterprises, and issuing government bonds to finance the budget deficit. Fedorov hopes to bring inflation rates down to 5% a month and the budget deficit down to 5% of the GNP by the end of 1993. Keith Bush KHASBULATOV AND CHERNOMYRDIN MEET LOCAL LEADERS. Both the Russian Prime Minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin, and the parliamentary speaker, Ruslan Khasbulatov, held meetings on 20 January with leading members of Russia's Union of Governors (the influential body uniting the local leaders in Russia's regions). ITAR-TASS reported that during the discussions, which covered, among other topics, the Federation Treaty, members of the Union expressed their concern that Russia's regions did not have the same political weight as the constituent republics of the Russian Federation. Chernomyrdin, however, called for the institution of regular meetings between the Union of Governors and members of the cabinet, and for closer co-ordination between the central and local governments, since, he said, the Russian government was shifting the emphasis of its reform program to the regions. Wendy Slater RUSSIAN NEO-COMMUNISTS PLAN REVIVAL. Over 1,000 initiative committees were already working towards the revival of communist party structures in preparation for the second congress of the Communist Party of Russia (CPR), due to take place in Moscow on 13-14 February, Valentin Kuptsov, chairman of the congress's organizing committee, said at a press conference reported by Russian TV on January 19. Following the Constitutional Court's November ruling lifting the ban of the CPSU, Russia's communist parties have accelerated their plans for a revival, but Kuptsov denied that they were carrying out propaganda among active members of the security services, and noted that members of the CPR had to become accustomed to the fact that they belong to an opposition and not a ruling party. However, it was clear that not all communist sympathizers planned to participate in the forthcoming congress; in particular, Nina Andreeva's All-Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks have categorically refused to attend. Wendy Slater NEW WARNING ABOUT CHERNOBYL. A European Community team has examined the Chernobyl nuclear power station and found it unfit to operate by Western safety standards, Reuters reported on 20 January. One of the experts told a news conference in Hamburg that "it is not responsible to keep this plant in operation." The reactors lack fire protection doors to keep any blaze from spreading and their safety systems are not physically separated, making them liable to being knocked out at the same time. The cost of required safety improvements is put at about DM 60 million. Keith Bush RUSSIA'S NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. An Interfax report on 19 January suggests that Russia's nuclear power plants are in need of repair. One bloc in each of the Novovoronezh, the Kalinin, the Smolensk and the Kursk nuclear power plants are currently closed for repairs, and within the last week four incidents took place at different power stations; three of the problems were resolved within one day, but one resulted in a bloc at the Kalinin plant being closed for major repairs. -Sheila Marnie. RUSSIAN ARMY BIGGEST PEDDLER OF WEAPONS. A unnamed military official was quoted by "Rossiiskie vesti" on 19 January as saying that Russian military personnel are the primary suppliers of black market weaponry on the territory of the former USSR, particularly in the Caucasus region. According to AFP, the official said that the breakup of the Soviet Union had led to a loss of control over the army's weapons inventory, and that the reorganization of the Russian army since last spring has complicated the situation further. He claimed that some 25,000 firearms have disappeared over the last six months, including 21,000 in the Caucasus. Stephen Foye INVESTIGATION OF CORRUPTION IN WESTERN GROUP OF FORCES. The former chief of Control Administration at the Russian President's Office Yurii, Boldyrev, has submitted to President Yeltsin a report recommending that several generals of the Western Group of Forces (WGF) be stripped of rank for corruption and embezzlement, Radio Rossii reported on 15-January. Boldyrev has headed a joint investigative commission led by officials from the Ministries of Security and Defense, the Russian Prosecutor's Office, and the Russian Central Bank. According to the investigation, some of the WGF generals set up in Germany, Poland, and Russia illegal commercial firms connected with organized crime and the black market. Typical of these activities is the illegal export from Germany to Poland, and thence to Russia of food and alcohol products in short supply or unobtainable in Russia; in addition, military supplies are also sent for black market sale in Russia. The total sum of these supplies sold at free market prices by military wheeler- dealers has reached DM 100 million, according to the report. -Victor Yasmann COMPROMISE ON DATE OF ELECTION OF INGUSH PRESIDENT. The Presidium of the Russian parliament decided on 20 January that the election of the president of Ingushetia should take place on 28 February and the election of the Ingush parliament on 11 April, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. A congress of the Ingush people on 17 January had decided that the presidential election should be held on 24 January. This had been opposed by the interim administration in North Ossetia and Ingushetia on the grounds that the election should take place when things were more settled in the area. The administration had proposed 11 April instead. -Ann Sheehy MOSCOW COMPLAINS ABOUT LOST EXPORT REVENUES. Andrei Kushnirenko, identified by Interfax on 20 January as the First Deputy Head of the Division of Strategy and Support of Exports of the Russian Foreign Economic Relations Ministry, said that constraints faced by Russia in the sale of rocket technology could cost Moscow up to $200 million annually. Kushnirenko, who was complaining over the failure of Moscow and Washington to reach a compromise on a dispute over interpretation of the rocket technology control regime, charged that the US was trying to drive Russia from the international market in this area of technology. The two sides have clashed especially over Moscow's efforts to sell rocket technology to India. Stephen Foye INTERREGIONAL FOREIGN MINISTERS DISCUSS AGENDA FOR CIS MINSK SUMMIT. At a meeting in Minsk on 20 January the CIS foreign ministers discussed the agenda for the CIS summit on 22 January, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. The Belarusian Foreign Minister Petr Kravchenko said that the draft CIS charter would be on the agenda, and that he thought that it would be approved. The Ukrainian and Turkmen delegations repeated, however, that their countries had reservations about the charter. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said that the creation of an interstate bank, which was to have been one of the important items to be discussed, had been dropped because it required more work. Kozyrev added that Yeltsin would come to Minsk "with a solid package of fundamental ideas and proposals on strengthening the CIS. Perhaps this will be the doctrine of the CIS." Ann Sheehy DISCORD OVER STRATEGIC FORCES PROPOSAL? THE SECRETARY OF THE CIS COUNCIL OF DEFENSE MINISTERS, LEONID IVASHOV, SAID ON 20 JANUARY THAT A PROPOSAL TO REDEFINE THE COMPOSITION OF THE CIS STRATEGIC FORCES WAS LIKELY TO BE DISCUSSED AT THE SUMMIT IN MINSK, SCHEDULED FOR 22 JANUARY. Ivashov, in Minsk for a meeting of the Council of Defense Ministers, was quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying that the CIS joint forces command had acceded to the wishes of most of the CIS national defense ministries that strategic forces would be comprised only of units and objects possessing and storing strategic nuclear weapons and units serving them. Ivashov said that this would include primarily strategic nuclear missile forces, naval and air forces, and some anti-aircraft units. He also said that each CIS state would independently determine the list of strategic forces on his territory. However, an Interfax report, also dated 20-January, said that the Russian military leadership had clashed with the CIS command over both its definition of strategic forces and over the provision that each CIS state be allowed to determine which units on its territory were to be classified as strategic. Stephen Foye GRACHEV DEPARTS EARLY FROM FRANCE. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev cut short a visit to France that had been scheduled to end on 22 January and returned to Moscow on the evening of 20 January, Interfax reported. Defense Ministry spokesman reportedly told Interfax that Grachev wanted to fly to Minsk to take part in the meeting of CIS defense ministers. According to an ITAR-TASS report out of Paris on 20-January, Grachev expressed satisfaction with his three-day visit to France, and said that several agreements promoting contacts between military personnel from the two countries had been signed during his visit. Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA & CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN AT CIS SUMMIT. Tajikistan's head of state, Supreme Soviet Chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, told Interfax on 20 January that his country needs CIS aid in the form of food, medical supplies and construction materials, and he wants the situation in Tajikistan to be added to the agenda of the CIS summit. Rakhmonov also plans to make a plea for common CIS defense of the Tajik-Afghan border. He promised that some 3,000 Tajiks will be drafted in 1993 for border guard duty and said that creation of a Tajik army is a top priority of the new government. The previous day Interfax reported the appointment of Colonel Aleksandr Shlyapnikov, who has served in Uzbekistan's Defense Ministry, to be Tajikistan's Minister of Defense. Bess Brown TAJIKISTAN STILL HOPES FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENT. Tajik Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov told Interfax on 20 January that Tajikistan needs foreign investment to rescue its economy from the near-collapse caused by the civil war in 1992. In order to bring production levels up to those of 1985-86, the country will need over 200 billion rubles and two to three years, Abdullodzhonov said. His reform program aims at the development of small and medium businesses while continuing state support for large enterprises; a major element in the program is development of non-ferrous metallurgy and mining of precious stones. Existing defense industries are to be converted to gold refining, though Tajikistan intends to continue manufacturing weapons. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERBS APPROVE PEACE PLAN. On 20-January the assembly of the self- proclaimed Serb Republic in Bosnia-Herzegovina voted overwhelmingly to approve an internationally-mediated peace plan, thus paving the way for a resumption of talks in Geneva on 22 January. Fifty-five deputies voted in favor and 15-against with one abstention. The plan envisions the division of Bosnia into 10 provinces loosely governed in a federated state. Radio Croatia reports that the Serbs were reluctant to accept the plan until their leaders emphasized that the vote does not mean they will abandon their goal of eventual creation of a greater Serbia. Radovan Karadzic, president of the "Serb Republic," told the assembly the acceptance of the plan is a "step closer to peace" and added that any final agreement reached during the resumption of talks in Geneva will be put to a referendum. -Milan Andrejevich REACTIONS TO BOSNIAN VOTE. The Muslim-dominated Bosnian government greeted the vote with skepticism. Kemal Muftic, advisor to Bosnia's President Alija Izetbegovic, told reporters the Serbian acceptance would mean "the rejection of everything they have done-and they've committed a lot of atrocities in the name of a concept they're now rejecting." The president of rump Yugoslavia, Dobrica Cosic, said that he now hopes for a change in attitude by "those who prescribe sanctions against Serbia." Vojislav Seselj, the leader of the nationalist Serbian Radical Party, said that the Serbs have "gained some time and avoided new criticism by the international community." Germany, Britain and the EC all have cautiously welcomed the Bosnian Serbs' vote. Danish foreign minister Uffe Ellemann-Jensen, representing the EC said the words must be rapidly followed by deeds. Radio Serbia and international media carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich BOSNIAN CROATS, MUSLIMS AGREE TO CEASE-FIRE. Radio Bosnia reports on 20-January that UN-EC mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen have brokered a cease-fire in Sarajevo between warring factions of the Bosnian Croat and Muslim armies in southwestern and central Bosnia. The two sides have been fighting more than a week over control of certain provinces designated either Croat or Muslim. The announcement came shortly after the Bosnian Serbs approved the peace plan. A spokesman for Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban told reporters that he had ordered Croat forces to stop firing at Muslim positions but warned that Croat forces will defend themselves if attacked. The spokesman added that all available Croat forces are needed to face the Serbs and warned that only the Serbs would profit from disunity among Croats and Muslims. Some Croat and Muslim leaders suggest the Serbs are instigating the clashes. -Milan Andrejevich "WHO KILLED DONALD DUCK?" SINCE 17 JANUARY BELGRADE MEDIA HAVE BEEN EXTENSIVELY REPORTING ON THE WALT DISNEY CORPORATION'S DECISION TO BAN PUBLICATION OF ITS COMIC STRIPS IN SERBIA-MONTENEGRO AND THE LIKELY SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT ON THE COUNTRY'S CHILDREN. Politika, which has run the Donald Duck series since 1932, showed an astonished Donald in chains with Mickey Mouse crying, "Sanctions Banish Mickey and Donald." Independent radio B92 commented, "the psychological impact of this ban is greater than any of the other UN-imposed sanctions." The latest cover of the independent weekly Vreme is headlined "Who Killed Donald Duck?" and depicts a dazed Donald being shot in the back of the head from a cannon on a model frigate. -Milan Andrejevich MACEDONIA AND RECOGNITION. With the UN Security Council scheduled to review the Republic of Macedonia's request for recognition soon, both Greece and Macedonia have sent high-ranking representatives to the UN to promote their respective cases. In the meantime, Reuters reported on 20 January that Greek officials were critical of Danish foreign minister, Uffe Ellemann-Jensen, whose country currently holds the presidency of the European Community, for saying that the EC is being held hostage by Greece over the Macedonian recognition issue and that such efforts undermine EC solidarity. Macedonia has also complained that a Greek warplane violated its airspace on 20 January, the second such incident in 10 days. -Duncan Perry REGISTRATION OF LITHUANIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES ENDS. On 21 January Vaclovas Litvinas, chairman of the Lithuanian presidential election commission, told a press conference that only two of the seven candidates nominated for the race presented the required 20,000 signatures supporting their candidacies by the 20 January midnight deadline, Radio Lithuania reports. The two are Lithuanian Democratic Party Chairman Algirdas Brazauskas and Ambassador to the US Stasys Lozoraitis. Lozoraitis is supported by both right and center parties, but preelection polls make Brazauskas the favorite. -Saulius Girnius PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA. On 20 January the Left Bloc, a coalition of leftist parties dominated by the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, nominated Marie Stiborova, a communist deputy in the Czech parliament, as its candidate for the post of Czech President. CTK describes Stiborova as a 43-year-old biochemistry expert with a degree from Charles University. Also on the 20th, the extreme-right Republican Party nominated its leader, Miroslav Sladek, for the post of president. Both candidates will be running against former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel. Czech parliamentary leaders have recommended that the presidential vote be held on 26 January. The presidential elections in Slovakia are also to be held on the same day. The official candidates for the post of Slovak president are Prime Minister Roman Kovac, nominated by the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Jozef Prokes, (Slovak National Party), Milan Ftacnik (Party of the Democratic Left), and Anton Neuwirth (Christian Democratic Movement). -Jiri Pehe DISMISSAL OF SLOVAK TV NEWS DIRECTOR. Nineteen deputies in Parliament, mostly members of the nationalist Slovak National Party, signed a statement on 20 January expressing support for Bohuslav Piatka, the news director of Slovak TV, who was fired on 19-January. Piatka, who shared the view of Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar that the media should provide what Meciar has termed "a true picture of Slovakia," was hired in October 1992 to replace Jan Fule, a journalist who was opposed to Meciar. CTK reports that according to the management of Slovak TV, Piatka was fired because news broadcasts were of low quality and servile in their attitude toward the government. Fule said that Piatka was fired because Slovak television had become a "joke in our country and abroad." The nineteen deputies who protested against the firing of Piatka blamed the dismissal on opponents of the split of Czechoslovakia, whom they called "federalist mafia." Piatka has been replaced by 26-year-old Martina Kyselova, who told Reuters on 20 January that for the time being she intends to continue Piatka's practice of giving the government free access to television. -Jiri Pehe POLAND CHAFES AT GERMAN ASYLUM LAW. Polish concern about the consequences of Germany's new restrictions on political asylum, which are expected to take effect before April, was evident during bilateral talks held in Warsaw on 18 and 19 January. Under the new law, asylum-seeking foreigners arriving in Germany from "safe" countries, including Poland, would be deported to the countries from which they came. During the talks, described as "frank and informal," Polish officials said they stressed that the two countries' interests differ. As quoted by Rzeczpospolita of 20-January, deputy internal affairs minister Jerzy Zimowski said that the Polish side asked "why a rich country wants to impose its social problems on poorer countries." Germany faced 440,000 asylum requests in 1992, the German side argued, while Poland had only 532. The German side claimed that over 100,000 asylum-seekers entered Germany from Poland; Polish officials said the number was under 30,000. Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski told reporters on 21 January that Germany will have to provide financial assistance if it begins deporting people to Poland. -Louisa Vinton MELESCANU OPTIMISTIC ABOUT RELATIONS WITH HUNGARY. On 20 January Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu told an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest that he believed relations with Hungary are "on the threshold of rapid improvement." Melescanu said that his assessment is based on new and positive developments in negotiations with Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky. He also said that he was gratified by the progress in negotiations for a basic bilateral treaty between Hungary and Romania, but added that formal recognition of Romania's present border with Hungary was necessary for completion of that treaty. -Dan Ionescu HUNGARIAN INTERIOR MINISTER CALLS FOR STRONGER EXECUTIVE. On 20 January Minister of the Interior Peter Boross told a conference evaluating his ministry's work that the country's internal transformation and geopolitical situation require "a state with the capacity to act and that is capable of protecting the citizens," MTI reports. He called for a reform of public administration that would increase executive authority while at the same time avoiding the dangers of centralization. Boross stressed that public administration plays an important role in preserving political stability and should be free of party political influences. -Edith Oltay SIEMENS INVESTS IN BULGARIA. The Germany-based electronics giant Siemens has founded a joint venture in Bulgaria, Western agencies reported on 20-January. Together with Incoms Telecom Holding, located in Sofia, Siemens will manufacture digital telecommunications technology. The new company, which is called Digicom, plans to start production in 1994. Siemens will hold 40% of the shares in this, its ninth joint venture in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.-Kjell Engelbrekt HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE, BELARUS, MOLDOVA,-.-.-. In its annual report to Congress on the status of human rights around the world, the US State Department says Ukraine made "significant progress" in 1992, including establishment of a multiparty system and legislation to protect the civil and political rights of minorities- and despite many bureaucratic obstacles, the lack of a constitution to replace that of the Soviet era, and the inability of the legislature to function independently of the executive branch. Specific human rights problem areas mentioned in the 19 January report are ethnic tensions, especially in the Crimea, cases of intolerance between religious groups, and limitations on freedom of expression. In Moldova too, the situation has generally improved, the report says, but questions concerning ethnic minorities "remain pressing," and complaints of job discrimination in the government against nonspeakers of Romanian have been raised. Widespread allegations of human rights abuses in the contested Transdniester region are difficult to verify and are probably exaggerated by both sides, the report says. Despite what the report called "the limited extent of political reform" in Belarus, the country has progressed in human rights. Two problem areas singled out were freedom of the press and the continuing high level of dependence of the Belarusian economy on that of Russia. -Charles Trumbull .-.-. AND THE BALTICS. The State Department report notes that the three Baltic States have all reestablished themselves as sovereign, independent, and democratic states since 1991 and have moved to end Soviet-era human rights abuses. All three states, however, are grappling with the problem of keeping their native languages and cultures predominant while not stepping on the rights of minorities, notably the large number of Russians who settled in the area after World War II. Estonia, the report notes, reinstituted its 1938 citizenship law under the terms of which most non-ethnic Estonians-some 38% of the population-were not able to qualify for citizenship at the time of the constitutional referendum and parliamentary elections. Similarly, in Latvia, the State Department finds the unresolved status of the Russian residents, possibly numerous enough to control the balance of power in the country, to be the paramount human rights issue and the cause of "exacerbated tensions" among ethnic groups there. Both here and in Lithuania, new language laws are cited as potential levers for discrimination in jobs and elsewhere. In addition to the Russians, Lithuania is grappling with its sizable ethnic Polish population with whom relations "remain strained," the report says. -Charles Trumbull MORE HESITATION IN KIEV ON START RATIFICATION. Parliament Vice Chairman Vasyl Durdinets said on 20 January that Parliament considers security guarantees offered to Ukraine by the US and Russia to be insufficient for ratification of the START-1 Treaty, Western agencies report. Durdinets said that deputies want written guarantees on Ukraine's security, greater financial help for dismantling missile sites in Ukraine, and compensation from Russia for the uranium in the dismantled warheads. He added that consideration of START-1 is not on the agenda of the current parliamentary session, which means that ratification could not come until after the end of February. -Stephen Foye KUCHMA ON UKRAINIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS. Reeling off a long list of statistics on the economy, Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma told Ukrainian lawmakers on 20 January that "the reality today is a total, complex state crisis." The economic depression of 1990-92, he said, has now evolved to the point where "the very degradation of the socioeconomic structure of society has begun." Kuchma addressed a special meeting of Parliament that was convened under pressure from conservative deputies demanding closer integration within the CIS and a rollback of the government's market-oriented economic reform. Democratic deputies are boycotting the session. Kuchma's remarks were carried by Radio Ukraine. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINE ADOPTS NEW DECREE ON PRIVATIZATION. The Cabinet has passed a new package of decrees related to economic reform, Interfax and the Wall Street Journal reported on 20 January. The most important of these decrees calls for the transformation of a large number of state enterprises into joint-stock companies by 1 July 1993. Prime Minister Viktor Penzenyk says that initially the State Property Fund will control these companies until shares are placed into private hands. Workers will have first opportunity to acquire shares. Public auctions, which apparently will be open to foreigners, are to follow. -Erik Whitlock MOLDOVAN-UKRAINIAN MILITARY AGREEMENT. Adding to the information on the Moldovan-Ukrainian agreement for military cooperation initialed on 18-January in Chisinau, Moldovan Defense Minister Pavel Creanga told Interfax on 19 January that the accord also covers training in Ukraine of Moldovan officers and repairs in Ukraine of Moldovan military equipment. In December 1992 Moldova signed an agreement with Romania on military cooperation the most salient point of which appears to be training of Moldovan officers in Romania. The agreement with Ukraine seems more far-reaching than the known provisions of the agreement with Romania and, in any case, reflects Moldova's policy of cooperating militarily with both neighbors. -Vladimir Socor WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS FROM LITHUANIA. Col. Stasys Knezys, government commissioner for the army withdrawal, said on Lithuanian TV that 61 of the 288 units stationed in the republic have left the republic and the number of troops has decreased from 35,000 to 10,000, BNS reported on 20 January. He attributed the decrease in the number of railroad cars for the withdrawal requested by the Soviet army from 1,000 in December to 160 in January not as an indication of a slowdown, but the difficulties of relocation under winter conditions. A Lithuanian delegation headed by Gediminas Serksnys will hold talks with Russian Foreign Ministry officials headed by senior adviser to its Analysis and Forecast Department Rudolf Alekseev in Moscow on 21 January. -Saulius Girnius NO PROGRESS AT LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. An RFE/RL corespondent in Riga reported on 20 January that the most recent round of Latvian-Russian talks on issues related to the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia ended a day early because of lack of progress. The Latvian side was especially disappointed with the Russian side's continued unwillingness to specify a date for the completion of the withdrawal process, though it was pleased that at least some agreements were reached in the discussion of certain minor issues. -Dzintra Bungs [As of1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles TrumbullTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 July 1993 1 RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.