|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 11, 19 January 1993
RUSSIA RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT ISSUES CAUTIOUS STATEMENT ON IRAQ. In response to allied air strikes against Iraq carried out on 17 and 18 January, the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 18 January which said, "the key to normalizing the situation lies in Baghdad, which did not heed numerous warnings." The statement pointed out that "the solution lies in [Iraq's] full-scale fulfillment of the UN Security Council resolutions." Sounding a note of dissent about the operation, the Foreign Ministry statement said that "our firm position is that reaction to the actions of Iraq must be proportionate and proceed from agreed decisions." The statement also called on a review of the situation by the UN Security Council, Interfax reported on 18 January. Meanwhile, in an interview with Interfax, the acting chief of the Russian Foreign Ministry's Middle East Department, Viktor Gogitidze, sharply criticized the fact that civilians suffered because of the strikes, which he characterized as "counterproductive." Suzanne Crow SOME RUSSIAN POLITICIANS CRITICAL OF RAIDS AGAINST IRAQ. Evgenii Ambartsumov, Chairman of the Russian parliament's Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, said that while there was clear evidence of Iraq's violations of the UN Security Council resolutions, "Russia must not stay indifferent to the methods used to stop Iraqi action." He added: "I believe that we must be interested not in the expansion of military operations in the region, but in settling the conflict by peaceful, political means." Sergei Stankevich, a top political adviser to Russian President Yeltsin, said that attacks on targets in Iraq should be undertaken only after additional UN authorization has been obtained. Stankevich, in an interview with an RFE/RL correspondent in Warsaw, added that the UN should more clearly define the methods which can be used to enforce resolutions. More extreme reaction was registered by Russia's ultra-right; Liberal Democracy Party leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky announced that his party had formed a detachment of Afghan war veterans to help Saddam Hussein. Suzanne Crow RUSSIAN WARSHIPS IN GULF NOT PART OF COALITION. Admiral Feliks Gromov, the commander in chief of the Russian Navy, said on 18 January that the Russian warships in the Persian Gulf were performing their own mission and were not subordinated to the multinational forces in the region. As quoted by Interfax, Gromov said that the two ships--a guided-missile destroyer and a tanker--were in the Gulf to show Russia's support for the UN. sanctions against Iraq. He said there were no Russian warships in the Adriatic Sea near Yugoslavia. Doug Clarke MOSCOW, KIEV DISCUSS BLACK SEA FLEET, CITIZENSHIP. Evgenii Pudovkin, a member of the Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Relations in the Russian Supreme Soviet, told reporters on 18 January that he will head a working group tasked with examining the status of the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. According to Interfax, Pudovkin stressed his belief that the Crimea (and presumably Sevastopol in particular) should remain home to the Russian Black Sea Fleet. According to the same Interfax report, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters on 18 January that the Russian Foreign Ministry fully supports conclusion of an agreement with Ukraine on dual citizenship, which would presumably benefit principally Russians living in the Crimea. He said that the Russian and Ukrainian presidents had discussed the issue during their meeting on 15 January and that both sides had recognized the need to resolve the problems. Stephen Foye RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT REVERSES PRICE CONTROLS DECREE. On 18 January, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin signed a decree that effectively reversed the 31 December resolution on price/profitability limits. This was announced by Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov at a news conference reported by Russian and Western agencies. Fedorov attributed the 31 December decree to a "bureaucratic slip-up" and praised Chernomyrdin for his willingness to "change even his own decisions if something has gone wrong." Fedorov noted that he had been away from Moscow when the original decree was signed. The new edict stipulates that prices charged by some monopoly producers will be controlled, but that most prices will be allowed to float freely. Keith Bush HIGHER RUSSIAN FUEL PRICES. At the same news conference, Fedorov said that Russia can liberalize its economy only if it brings energy prices closer and closer to world levels, but he gave no timetable for achieving parity with world prices. On 15 January, Interfax had reported that draft presidential decrees envisaged raising the price of coal by 80-100% and of gas by 150-270%. The crucial price is that of oil. The present domestic price of crude oil is thought to be around 5,000 rubles a ton, or less than 10% of the world price at the current rate of exchange. Keith Bush RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION IN 1993. The Russian deputy prime minister in charge of privatization, Anatolii Chubais, told a conference of chairmen of regional privatization committees on 18 January that 1993 will be a decisive year for the privatization process, Interfax reported. He warned that anti-government forces in the parliament may "sharply aggravate" the political situation. Chubais predicted that the "communist opposition" will try to grant priority, rights, and benefits to the employees of privatized enterprises, which would mean that "property is being confiscated from one half of the population and handed over to the other." In such a case, servicemen, pensioners, doctors, teachers, and others would be swindled out of shares. Keith Bush RUSSIAN FINANCE MINISTER CRITICIZES PENSION INCREASES. The Russian Finance Minister, Vasilii Barchuk, criticized the decision announced yesterday to almost double old age pensions from 1 February, and claimed that parliament had not consulted his ministry before passing the resolution, Interfax reported on 18 January. According to Barchuk, the pension increase will lead to further increases in wages and a total of 4.8 trillion rubles will be needed to fund these measures. This would imply raising the planned budget deficit for 1993 from 6 to 10% of the GNP. Barchuk also announced that 350-400 billion rubles of extra credit will be granted to industrial enterprises in 1993 "for special purposes" and "within a "state assistance scheme." This would include measures such as reducing VAT and profit tax. Sheila Marnie ON THE FUTURE OF THE RUSSIAN CONGRESS. Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov told Radio Rossii on 17 January that all parliamentary deputies are convinced that the Congress of People's Deputies has outlived its usefulness and that it must be replaced by a professional parliament. At the same time, he stated that the balance of power between democratic institutions has already been established, and therefore he regards the upcoming referendum as superfluous. Khasbulatov, an opponent of the creation of a presidential republic, has sought to expand the power of the parliament. Meanwhile, five liberal deputies have called upon the Constitutional Court to examine article 104 of the present Constitution which names the Congress as the supreme institution of political power in Russia. Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN MEDIA CHIEF SHRUGS OFF OPPOSITION THREATS. On 18 January, the head of the Russian Federal Information Center, Mikhail Poltoranin, rejected charges by Ruslan Khasbulatov and other politicians that his center was set up to impose censorship. Poltoranin was quoted by Reuters and other agencies as saying "if this center tried to exert influence or introduce censorship it would be a violation of the law on mass media and the mass media could turn to the authorities to stop it." On 16 January, Khasbulatov also hinted that the parliament could try to abolish the center by refusing to allocate it money from the federal budget. In response, Poltoranin said the parliament "has no right to make any decision to close down the center." On 15 January, more than one thousand activists of the communist "Labor Russia" group picketed the Russian parliament building, demanding the abolition of the Information Center and the allocation to communists more broadcasting time on Russian TV, ITAR-TASS reported. Vera Tolz AUSHEV NOMINATED FOR INGUSH PRESIDENCY. An extraordinary congress of the peoples of Ingushetia in Nazran on 17 January decided to create the post of president of Ingushetia and to hold the election of the president on 24 January, the CIS media reported on 18 January. The only candidate nominated was 38-year-old Major- General Ruslan Aushev, the former interim head of the local administration who resigned in December accusing Russia's temporary administration of doing nothing to solve the North Ossetian- Ingush conflict. Aushev has been compared with Dzhokhar Dudaev, the president of Chechnya. The congress also decided that Ingushetia should remain part of Russia and not merge with Chechnya, and that Ingushetia should challenge the legality of the introduction of a state of emergency in the international court and the Russian Constitutional Court. One of Aushev's demands was that Russian troops be withdrawn from Ingushetia. Ann Sheehy HEARING ON NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT POSTPONED. The hearings concerning the legality of President Yeltsin's October 1992 decree banning the National Salvation Front opened in the Russian Constitutional Court on 15 January, according to Russian TV. The hearing, however, was postponed until February, because of the need to examine a more recent decree issued by Yeltsin entitled "On Measures for Strengthening Control over the Establishment and Activities of Public Organizations," which in fact annulled the provisions of his first decree Julia Wishnevsky TRANSCAUCASIA & CENTRAL ASIA "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN TAJIKISTAN? SANGAK SAFAROV, THE MOST PROMINENT PRO- COMMUNIST MILITARY COMMANDER DURING THE TAJIK CIVIL WAR, WAS QUOTED ON 18 JANUARY BY ITAR-TASS AS TELLING THE WEEKLY BIZNES I POLITIKA THAT TALES OF "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN SOUTHERN TAJIKISTAN ARE FALSE RUMORS SPREAD BY THE OPPOSITION. Safarov, who styles himself "Chairman of the Popular Front of Tajikistan," a group that seems to have grown out of pro-Communist military formations in Kulyab Oblast, has become famous for his intolerant attitude toward the nationalist-democratic and Islamic forces in the country. In the interview he claimed to be fighting only Islamic fundamentalists, but many Tajik anti- Communists believe that Safarov's definition of this term encompasses all opposition sympathizers. Bess Brown AKAEV TO ISRAEL. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev began an official visit to Israel on 18 January. Kyrgyz Foreign Minister Ednan Karabaev told Interfax that Akaev's delegation will present a package of agreements on trade and economic, cultural and scientific cooperation to the Israeli government. Kyrgyzstan is particularly interested in Israeli help with agricultural projects such as drip irrigation, dairy cattle breeding and food processing. Just before his departure for Israel Akaev announced that development of agriculture will have top priority in 1993. Interfax speculated that Israel may see Kyrgyzstan as a source of rare metals. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA CROAT-MUSLIM CLASHES INTENSIFY. Clashes between units of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) and the Muslim Bosnian army are spreading in central Bosnia. According to Radio Croatia on 18 January, some Muslim units ignored a Croatian ultimatum to withdraw from Gornji Vakuf and shelling has intensified. Both sides have exchanged fire in other towns in central Bosnia. Croatian sources say Muslims are stepping up the attacks because they do not recognize the area as a Croatian province that was drawn up by international mediators. Commanders on both sides are trying to end the fighting which they describe as "negative and unnecessary." Croatia's President Franjo Tudjman told reporters in Zagreb that Muslim leaders want to fight the war to the end, while Croatia is oriented towards peace and emphasized "different political orientations" between Croats and Muslims. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic told Radio Bosnia that Muslims and Croats have lived together for hundreds of years and accused "some hotheads in the HVO" for wanting to start the conflict. Milan Andrejevich BOSNIAN SERBS SET TO VOTE ON PEACE PLAN. The 80-member assembly of the self-proclaimed Serb Republic in Bosnia-Herzegovina will meet on 19 January in Pale near Sarajevo to decide whether to accept an internationally-mediated peace plan. Radio Serbia reported on 18 January that it is likely the plan will "barely win approval." The main opponents come from representatives in the Banja Luka area led by assembly president Momcilo Krajisnik. Initially opposed to the plan, Krajisnik told Radio Serbia on 17 January that the time has come to realize that "creating a greater Serbia cannot be accomplished by military force only." Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has accepted the plan in principle and says he will resign as President of the Serb Republic if the plan is rejected. The peace plan divides Bosnia into ten provinces along economic, geographic, and ethnic lines but retains a central government. Serbs seek a separate state, which the plan does not allow. Leaders in Serbia are urging the Bosnian Serbs to accept the plan. Milan Andrejevich TUDJMAN CONSIDERING EXTENSION OF UN MANDATE. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman said on 18 January that he is considering an extension of the UNPROFOR mandate in Croatia for a few more months--"provided that it will begin to carry out its tasks effectively." The mandate expires at the end of February. Tudjman previously accused the UN of failing to carry out its mission and had said he would not agree to an extension. He reiterated his charge that UN forces have failed to disarm Serb forces and warned that Croatia will no longer tolerate the occupation of a part of its territory by rebel Serbs. Radio Croatia carried the report. Milan Andrejevich CZECH-SLOVAK CUSTOMS UNION COUNCIL MEETS. At its first meeting in Bratislava on 18 January, the joint Czech-Slovak Customs Union council urged Czech and Slovak authorities to simplify procedures for customs posts and border crossings. CTK reports that Czech and Slovak representatives signed an agreement allowing the council to coordinate the two countries' trade and customs policies and represent them in negotiations with third countries. Czech Economy Minister Vladimir Dlouhy was elected chairman of the council for the next six months. The establishment of the council is part of an agreement on the Czech-Slovak Customs Union signed by Czech and Slovak leaders before the split of Czechoslovakia. Jiri Pehe CZECH PREMIER ON A VISIT TO GERMANY. Vaclav Klaus arrived in Frankfurt on 18-January for a meeting with Bundesbank Chairman Helmut Schlesinger. CTK reported that Klaus and Schlesinger are expected to focus on problems of Czech foreign exchange reserves and the split of Czechoslovakia. Before meeting Schlesinger, Klaus talked by phone with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. The two prime ministers discussed political and economic matters, including the issue of Czech foreign exchange reserves. Klaus also met in Dsseldorf with Johannes Rau, prime minister of North Rhine- Westphalia, to discuss industrial policy and environmental cooperation. Jiri Pehe POLISH ECONOMIC ROUNDUP. Krzysztof Krowacki, the newly appointed negotiator for Poland's debts to Western commercial banks, which total $12 billion, announced on 18-January that Poland will reduce its interest payments on short-term revolving credits to 20% as of 4 February. This move seems intended to induce the London Club to treat all of Poland's commercial debt as a single package and to offer reductions according to the principles agreed upon in 1991 with the Paris Club of government creditors. In other economic news, the Warsaw stock exchange index reached its highest level ever on 18-January. The Finance Ministry announced that tax forms and instructions for Poland's first year of income tax are in the mail. Industry Minister Waclaw Niewiarowski told reporters on his return to Poland on 18 January that Pakistan is prepared to conclude a major deal to purchase Polish armaments (believed to include T-82 tanks). Finally, former Deputy Prime Minister Leszek Balcerowicz told Radio Zet on 19 January that fiscal stability is possible only if the Sejm approves a deficit ceiling at or below the level proposed by the government. Louisa Vinton SKUBISZEWSKI PROMOTES REGIONAL COOPERATION. On a visit to Paris to mark the 30th anniversary of the signing of a German-French friendship treaty, Polish Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski on 18 January hailed the German-French reconciliation as an historic precedent. He urged that Poland be gradually included in the French-German "zone of cooperation." Skubiszewski added that current German-French cooperation efforts provide a good example for the four countries of the Visegrad regional arrangement. A visit to France by Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka had also been scheduled for the same day but its postponement was announced on 15 January. Louisa Vinton HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM PREPARES FOR CONGRESS. The 16-member "strategic work group" of the Hungarian Democratic Forum, comprising members of the national presidium and steering committee as well as the government, is preparing materials for discussion at the upcoming national congress, MTI reported on 18 January. The subjects include party strategy in 1993 and 1994, the HDF's three wings, European integration, carrying out the change of regime, and social problems. Minister of Industry and Trade Ivan Szabo said that the HDF seeks to change its image at home and abroad and make clear that it is a moderate middle-of-the-road party. HDF presidium member Istvan Csurka and several county party organizations criticized plans to begin the congress with leadership elections if candidates are given no chance to present their programs. Csurka said that such a procedure would turn the elections into "a mere formality" and ensure the reelection of current chairman Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. Csurka said that this is the reason he withdrew his candidacy for the post of chairman, and warned of the "danger of political rigidity" if the congress reelects Antall in a show of solidarity without prior debate. Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN TALKS. Returning from a trip to Romania where he attended the national congress of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, State Secretary Gyula Kodolanyi termed his talks with Romanian government and opposition figures "very successful," according to MTI of 18 January. Kodolanyi expressed satisfaction that Romanian government figures have agreed to meet with Geza Entz, the head of the Office for Hungarians Abroad,. who has until now been treated in a rather hostile manner in government circles. Kodolanyi said that the Romanian side is also interested in improving Hungarian-Romanian relations and suggested that a new round of official talks begin. Edith Oltay ROMANIAN PREMIER SEES END OF ECONOMIC DECLINE. Nicolae Vacaroiu said on 18-January that the country's current economic recession could end within six months. Speaking to reporters, Vacaroiu expressed hopes that a steep decline in production over the last three years can be stopped in the first half of 1993. He singled out domestic production of tractors and farm equipment as well as metallurgy as sectors where significant growth can be achieved in the near future. The prime minister rejected opposition criticism that his minority government dominated by the leftist Democratic National Salvation Front was trying to put the brakes on economic reforms. Vacaroiu's cabinet is due to present its four- year plan for economic and tax reforms to Parliament soon. Dan Ionescu BULGARIA TO RESTRICT "TRANSIT EMIGRATION." Airlines that bring foreigners without proper travel documents into Bulgaria will be fined (roughly $2,000) and held responsible for returning them home, Reuters reported on 18 January. Explaining the measure, which went into effect on the 19th, Bulgarian officials said it is an attempt to limit the flow of illegal immigrants arriving from Africa and Asia. At present there are over 15,000 illegal immigrants in Bulgaria, most of whom have been seeking to reach the West. Kjell Engelbrekt KRAVCHUK ON THE CIS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told a press conference in Kiev on 18 January that the draft CIS charter does not serve the interests of Ukraine and that from the legal standpoint it cannot be signed, Radio Ukraine reports. Kravchuk emphasized that the charter is not about improving the situation in the CIS but rather a political issue that is being exploited by certain political forces. He also told journalists that Ukraine will propose an economic agreement at the forthcoming CIS summit in Minsk. Roman Solchanyk PRO-NUCLEAR DEMONSTRATION IN KIEV. "Many thousands" reportedly participated in a demonstration organized in Kiev on 18 January demanding that Ukraine leave the CIS and that it retain a nuclear capability, ITAR-TASS reports. The demonstration was called to protest attempts by former communists in the parliament to convene an extraordinary session of the parliament that would consider the legalization of the Communist Party and mobilize support for Ukraine's adherence to the CIS charter. Roman Solchanyk UKRAINIAN COMMUNISTS CONTINUE ORGANIZING. Despite the continuing ban of the Communist Party in Ukraine, communists are continuing to regroup. New attempts to revive the CPU were made last weekend at meetings in Odessa and Luhansk, Ukrainian media report. President Leonid Kravchuk confirmed at a press conference on 18 January that a communist faction has begun collecting signatures among parliamentary deputies calling for the ban on the CPU to be lifted. That same day Ukrainian TV reported that several thousand demonstrators opposed to the legalization of the CPU picketed the parliament building and called for the CPU to be put on trial. Bohdan Nahaylo MOLDOVAN-UKRAINIAN MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT. On 18 January in Chisinau Moldovan Defense Minister Pavel Creanga and Ukrainian First Deputy Defense Minister Ivan Bizhan initialed an agreement that provides for the creation of a common air defense system, exchanges of military information of joint interest, and exchanges of military specialists. According to Basapress, the military agreement was drawn up on the basis of the basic treaty signed by Presidents Mircea Snegur and Leonid Kravchuk on 23-October 1992. Vladimir Socor LEBED TURNING AGAINST "DNIESTER" LEADERSHIP. Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, warned allegedly corrupt "Dniester republic" leaders at a news conference in Tiraspol that he is "sick and tired guarding the sleep and safety of crooks," according to Nezavisimaya gazeta of 14 January. The newspaper reported from Tiraspol that the army command is currently seeking to force out "Dniester republic" internal affairs and security officials believed to collude in the leadership's reported corrupt and criminal activities. The newspaper cited local observers on the possibility of a military move to replace Igor Smirnov's compromised group at the head of the self-proclaimed republic. While Lebed's warnings have become more frequent recently, his statements also indicate undiminished support for the "Dniester republic" as such. Vladimir Socor LITHUANIA'S NEGOTIATIONS WITH RUSSIA. At a press conference on 15 January Ceslovas Stankevicius, head of the Lithuanian state delegation negotiating with Russia, noted that Russia has essentially changed its stance, BNS reports. Russia has decided to take a "pause" in the talks until "Lithuania changes the composition of its delegation and its position" by agreeing with Russian demands "to accord legal status" to the Russian military personnel in the republic, endow them with civil and political rights, and agree with Russian property claims. Stankevicius added that Russia has begun to communicate via Ricardas Degutis, Lithuanian representative in Moscow, rather than with the official negotiating team. Saulius Girnius LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS RESUME. Troop withdrawal talks resume on 19 January in Jurmala, despite the fact that there has been no retraction of President Yeltsin's decision of 29 October 1992 to suspend the troop withdrawals from the Baltic States. On the eve of the talks the Russian side claimed that it has only 16,174 troops stationed in Latvia, while the Latvian side estimates the number at 27,000. Disagreement also remains in the count of military hardware in Latvia as well as over the handover of the Biryuzov Military Academy in Riga to Latvia, Diena reported on 15 and 18 January. Dzintra Bungs LAAR VISITS PALDISKI. After his visit to the Russian naval base at Paldiski on 18 January, Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar told reporters that Moscow's claims of secrecy at the base are only an excuse to delay the withdrawal of troops based there. Laar said that his talks with officers and others at the base as well as personal observations make it clear that the troops are prepared to leave Paldsiki as soon as they are ordered to do so. During the latest round of Estonian-Russian talks held last weekend near Moscow, Adm. Feliks Gromov, Russia's delegation chief for the military withdrawal basket of the talks, told Estonian chief negotiator Juri Luik that Russia will not allow international atomic energy inspectors to visit Paldiski because of Russian military secrets. Riina Kionka TANKER SPILL IN ESTONIA. A heavy storm raging in the Gulf of Finland is hampering efforts to rescue the crew of a grounded oil tanker and contain an oil spill off the coast of Estonia. According to Hommikuleht, the oil tanker Kihnu ran aground four kilometers from Tallinn harbor on 16 January, spilling 30-40 tons of oil. Local authorities fear the ship will break apart, spilling even more oil. Finland has dispatched a specially equipped ship to help clean up the spill, but its arrival has been delayed by the storm. The Kihnu was reportedly still in one piece on the morning of 19 January. Riina Kionka BRAZAUSKAS FORMALLY REGISTERED AS CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT. On 17-January Vaclovas Litvinas, the head of the Lithuanian presidential election commission, officially registered Lithuanian Democratic party chairman Algirdas Brazauskas as a candidate for the elections to be held on 14 February, BNS reports. While 20,000 signatures of eligible voters supporting his candidacy were required, over 40,000 were presented, but about a fourth of them were declared invalid. On 18 January Republican Party Chairman Kazimieras Petraitis officially withdrew. The other five candidates who have been nominated have until midnight 20 January to present the 20,000 signatures to be registered. Saulius Girnius LATVIAN FOOD INDUSTRY DECREASES OUTPUT. BNS reported on 18 January that production by Latvia's food industry declined in 1992 as compared with the output in 1991. In 1992 the output of dairy products declined by 12%, meat by 15%, and eggs by 20%. The yield of milk per cow was 2,549 kg, or a decrease of 19%. In 1992, Latvia produced 1,530 million tons of milk, 367,000 tons of meat, and 609 million eggs. Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles TrumbullTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.