|Logic, n. The act of thinking and reasoning in strict accordance with the limitations and incapacities of the human understanding. - Ambrose Bierce|
No. 10, 18 January 1993
RUSSIA MOSCOW SILENT ON LATEST RAIDS AGAINST IRAQ. No official response from the Russian government on the latest allied raids on Iraq has been observed as of about noon, Central European Time, on 18 January. At the start of hostilities on 13 January, Russia pulled back two ships stationed in the Persian Gulf to keep them out of fire. In comments to the Russian parliament on 15 January, Admiral Valentin Selivanov said: "When it became clear that the American action in Iraq was imminent, the staff withdrew the ships from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. One of them went to Bahrain and the other to the United Arab Emirates," Reuters reported. Suzanne Crow CIVIC UNION QUESTIONS RUSSIA'S ROLE IN STRIKES AGAINST IRAQ. Vasilii Lipitsky, chairman of the Civic Union's Executive Committee, was quoted by Interfax on 15 January as saying his party would like to know whether the Russian government had agreed to the plan for air strikes against Iraq. If so, Lipitsky said, this meant that a "very narrow circle of individuals had taken on the colossal responsibility for events which may have long term consequences." If Russia was not consulted, Lipitsky said that "this means that Russia is no longer considered a great power and member of the UN Security Council." Meanwhile, ITAR-TASS reported that several dozen Muscovites demonstrated in support of Iraq on 15 January in front of the Russian Foreign Ministry. Among those present were Liberal Democratic Party Chairman Vladimir Zhirinovsky, an ultra right-wing leader, and members of the Party of Rebirth. Suzanne Crow RUSSIAN OFFER OF NUCLEAR UMBRELLA FOR UKRAINE? AT HIS 15 JANUARY SUMMIT IN MOSCOW WITH LEONID KRAVCHUK, RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN STATED THAT RUSSIA WAS READY TO GUARANTEE UKRAINE'S SECURITY. The text of the joint communique, as given by ITAR-TASS and Ukrainian Radio, referred simply to Russia's "readiness" to "give Ukraine a guarantee of its security," adding that the "text of the guarantee will be prepared in the shortest time" and that the guarantee would come into force as soon as Ukraine ratified the START-1 treaty and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Reuters, however, quoted Yeltsin at the joint press conference following the summit as saying that "Russia gives a guarantee to preserve and safeguard the integrity of Ukraine and its borders and defend it from nuclear attack." Whether the Russian and Ukrainian parliaments will agree to this is another matter. Russia and Ukraine have already pledged to respect one another's sovereignty and territorial integrity (e.g., the agreement signed by Yeltsin and Kravchuk in November 1990) but the Russian parliament and various Russian political leaders have called for the return of Crimea from Ukraine to Russia. Moreover, Ukraine has been seeking guarantees from Western states precisely because of its fear of Russia. Bohdan Nahaylo and Doug Clarke RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN ACCORD ON MISSILES IN UKRAINE. Yeltsin and Kravchuk agreed to "define a system of material and technical provision" of the ex-Soviet missiles on Ukrainian territory that would permit the missiles' manufacturers to maintain the weapons. The SS-19s in Ukraine were built in Russia, whereas the SS-24s are from a factory in Pavlograd, Ukraine. The two leaders also instructed their governments to begin talks on settling all questions connected with the implementation of the START-1 treaty, including such things as the dismantling of the missiles and the destruction of their nuclear warheads. Ukrainian use of some of the reprocessed nuclear material as fuel for nuclear power plants is one of the questions that will be addressed. Doug Clarke RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN NEGOTIATIONS ON OIL AND DEBT. At a news conference after the meeting on 15 January of Presidents Yeltsin and Kravchuk, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin disclosed that Russian oil deliveries to Ukraine in 1993 would be subject to a ceiling of 20 million tons, Reuters reported. This amount is above the previous highest Russian offer of 15 million tons, although well below Ukraine's annual requirement, which is set at around 45 million tons. No agreement appeared to have been reached on the repayment of the external debt of the former Soviet Union, and talks continued over the weekend with the participation of representatives from Western creditor-nations. Keith Bush COMMANDER FOR BLACK SEA FLEET NAMED. The two presidents also agreed to appoint Russian Vice Admiral Eduard D. Baltin as commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Baltin, a submariner, currently heads the department for naval strategic studies at the Russian General Staff Academy and is a former first deputy commander of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. In their communique, the two presidents noted the slow pace of the Russian/Ukrainian negotiations on the future of the fleet, and complained that the package of documents called for by their August 1992 Yalta agreement had not been prepared. They instructed their delegations to complete this work as soon as possible. The only achievement they could point to was an agreement on naval emblems. Doug Clarke PRIVATIZATION OF LARGE-SCALE ENTERPRISES LAUNCHED. The privatization of Russia's medium and large state enterprises will be launched on 8 February, when shares in 20 enterprises employing over 50,000 workers will be sold at auctions in Volgograd, according to Reuters on 14 January. The shares can be purchased using the privatization vouchers which have now been distributed to about 90% of the population. In the next three months, it is planned to hold such auctions in 14 regions, with Nizhnyi Novgorod, Tomsk, Novosibirsk and Chelyabinsk reported to be among the venues. According to an article in the Washington Post on 15 January, about 500 large enterprises will be sold. So far more than 30,000 small enterprises have been privatized; however, practically no large factories have been involved. Sheila Marnie RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT RAISES PENSIONS. On 15 January, the Russian parliament approved an increase in minimum retirement pensions to 4,275 rubles a month effective 1-February, Interfax reported. Other alterations were made to pension levels in line with the recent law on the indexation of pensions. Minister of Finance Vasilii Barchuk warned that the increase in minimum pensions would automatically raise the minimum wage, and that additional payments of 15-16 trillion rubles would be needed from the state budget. He asked deputies to limit increases in minimum pension levels and not to index them, or to limit indexation of pensions in excess of 10,000 rubles a month. He appears to have been overruled. Keith Bush YELTSIN MEETS DEMOCRATS. President Yeltsin stressed in a meeting with leaders of the liberal bloc "Democratic Choice" in the Kremlin that the 11 April 1993 referendum "should not be lost," ITAR-TASS reported on 14 January. The leader of the bloc, Sergei Yushenkov, said later that Yeltsin was concerned that not enough people may show up for voting. Yeltsin's team is worried about opposition to the referendum from the leadership of the parliament. Yeltsin's spokesman, Vyacheslav Kostikov, stated that parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov "fears the referendum." The head of the presidential staff, Sergei Filatov, warned of the possible emergence of a dictatorship led by emerging from Khasbulatov. Alexander Rahr RUSSIA TO PUSH ARMS SALES. Victor Glukhikh, the head of the Russian defense industries committee, told reporters on 15 January that Russia planned to exhibit previously top-secret military equipment at an arms exhibit in Abu Dhabi in February in an effort to recapture a greater share in the world's arms trade, according to Interfax and Western agencies. Glukhikh said that the USSR was the top arms seller in late 1980s, with nearly 39% of the world market compared with the United States' 30% share. In 1992, he said, the Russian slice dropped to 17% while US sales rose to 56%. Glukikh attributed the decline to a curtailment of arms sales to "troubled areas" like the former Yugoslavia, and he reckoned that Russia had thereby lost some $7.5 billion. He named China and India as the chief customers for Russian arms exports in 1993, and mentioned that other former Soviet republics were providing competition on the world arms market. Keith Bush and Doug Clarke DIPLOMAT APPOINTED TO RUSSIAN SECURITY COUNCIL. On 14 January Interfax reported that Yuri Nazarkin had been appointed Deputy Secretary of the Russian Security Council. ITAR-TASS also reported that he had been appointed head of the Strategic Security Department, presumably a new Security Council department intended to oversee arms control and disarmament issues. Nazarkin started his diplomatic career specializing in Africa, but from 1986-87 headed the Soviet Foreign Ministry's Section for the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Space and participated in the START negotiations from 1989- 92. Before joining the Security Council Nazarkin headed the Russian Foreign Ministry department for arms control and disarmament. John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA & CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK REFUGEES APPARENTLY RELUCTANT TO RETURN. On 17 January Interfax quoted officials of the Russian border guard units stationed on the Tajik-Afghan border as saying that of the approximately 60,000 Tajik refugees who fled into Afghanistan in December to escape fighting in their homeland, only about 1% have returned. The same source reported the previous day that several thousand Tajiks who had gathered on the Afghan border had not crossed into the neighboring country but had returned to their homes. The border guard officials also reported that border units continue to encounter armed groups trying to leave or enter Tajikistan; the officials believe that Tajikistan's head of state, Supreme Soviet Chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, will raise the issue of border defense at the CIS summit on 22 January. Bess Brown AKAEV CALLS FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev told an emergency meeting of the country's government on 15 January that Kyrgyzstan's economic performance in 1992 was worse than that of Armenia and, according to certain criteria, that of Tajikistan, Interfax reported. Akaev wanted the government to devise a package of emergency measures to "avert disaster"; the highest priorities are to be given to agriculture and law enforcement. Akaev accused law enforcement agencies of tolerating the existence of armed bands and hinted that their activities were not only criminal but could lead to interethnic clashes that could bring about a Tajik-style conflict. Bess Brown UN MISSION TO GEORGIA. The UN plans to send a team of experts on a ten-day mission to Georgia beginning on 20 January to assess the need for emergency humanitarian aid, in particular to victims of inter-ethnic violence in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported on 15 January. Liz Fuller ABKHAZ LEADER DENIES REPORTS OF ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE. Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba told ITAR-TASS on 15 January that a report by Ostankino TV that he had been wounded by gunfire in an attempt to kill him during a conference of Abkhaz troop commanders in Gudauta was untrue. Ardzinba alleged that the original report was a fabrication by the Georgian intelligence service. Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ESCALATING WAR THREATENS BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS. Radios Serbia and Croatia report on 17 January that heavy fighting continues across Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnian Croat military commanders of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) have given Bosnian Muslims--their nominal allies--an ultimatum to withdraw by midnight from the town of Gornji Vakuf in central Bosnia and place themselves under Croatian command. The HVO also ordered a curfew in the area after several days of fighting between Bosnian Croat and Muslim forces. Bosnian Defense Minister Bozo Rajic, a Croat, told Croatian TV he ordered three Muslim units to come under Croatian control and two units of the HVO to come under the command of the Bosnian Muslim army. Rajic explained the move complies with the Geneva peace plan by placing army units under the control of the respective forces in provinces clearly designated as Croat or Muslim-run. Meanwhile, the Yugoslav army says it "responded fiercely" to Bosnian artillery attacks near the town of Perucac in Serbia on 16 and 17 January. Officials in Belgrade say no ground troops were involved and only Muslim targets in Bosnia were shelled. This is the first time the federal army acknowledged involvement in the war since formally withdrawing from Bosnia on 19 May 1992. Milan Andrejevich ZHELEV WARNS OF BALKAN RELIGIOUS WAR. In an interview on Bulgarian radio on 15-January, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev warned that armed ethnic conflicts in former Yugoslavia could exacerbate religious tensions in the Balkans. Referring to the long and bloody history of Christian-Muslim confrontation on the Balkan peninsula, Zhelev said the arrival in Bosnia of Islamic religious warriors to assist Muslims in the struggle against the well-equipped Serbs could have serious, long-term effects for the region. He said the West is losing credibility, making his argument by pointing out that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic recently left the peace talks in Geneva in order to participate in a meeting with the Islamic Conference. Kjell Engelbrekt SERBIAN NATIONALISM ASTIR IN MACEDONIA. On 16 January a reported 500 Serb nationalists gathered in Kucheviste, north of Skopje, to protest the breaking up by police of a Serbian rally on New Year's Eve in the same village. Tanjug reports that organizers issued a declaration that states in part that "if Serbs continue to be mistreated by the Macedonian authorities they will be forced to take measures for self-protection, making use of all legal means available." At a press conference in Skopje that same day, Dobrivoje Tomic, vice president of the Democratic Party of Macedonian Serbs, adopted the same stance. While the Serbian minority in Macedonia represents only about 2% of the population, many observers fear that they could serve as a pretext for a Serbian invasion of the Republic of Macedonia in a manner reminiscent of the events that sparked the war in Bosnia. In a related story carried by Reuters, meeting reporters in Zagreb on 17 January after visiting Macedonia, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, UN special envoy for human rights, noted that the failure of Western countries to recognize Macedonia has made that land an ethnic powder keg. Duncan Perry SERBIA'S BRAIN DRAIN. Belgrade's independent media continue to report that highly skilled technicians, scientists, and students are leaving Serbia at an alarming rate. Federal officials estimate that the departure of some 20% of the country's 5,000 researchers in 1992 will cost the country more than $2 billion in lost contributions to education and research. The main reasons cited for emigration are economic and political factors. The number of professionals and university students seeking emigration visas increased dramatically after Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic was reelected on 20 December. Since 1991 an estimated 80,000 "Yugoslavs" have left the country, either to avoid conscription or to rebuild lives shattered by the war. Serbia's government has called concerns about a brain drain "alarmist." Radio B92 carried the report on 16 January. Milan Andrejevich PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES IN SLOVAKIA, CZECH REPUBLIC. At a meeting in Jahodna on 16 January, the leadership of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Slovakia's ruling party, selected Deputy Prime Minister Roman Kovac as its candidate for the post of president. According to international and Slovak media, the party leadership rejected another candidate, Michal Kovac, who is a former chairman of the Federal Assembly. The presidential elections are to be held on 26 January. In the Czech Republic, after initial reluctance, all government parties have now said that they will support the candidacy of former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel for the post of Czech president. The leadership of the Civic Democratic Party, the largest party in the Czech Republic, met on 16 January and agreed to support Havel's candidacy. CTK reports that the opposition Social Democrats have also decided to support Havel. After the 16 January meeting, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told reporters that the current political situation in the Czech Republic makes it necessary to elect the president as quickly as possible. Jiri Pehe CZECH, SLOVAK REPUBLICS BECOME EBRD MEMBERS. On 15 January the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development admitted the Czech Republic and Slovakia as new members. CTK reports that both states are considered successors to Czechoslovakia. Since its founding in 1991, the EBRD has invested more than $423 million in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It is now scheduled to extend $216 million in loans for developing Czech and Slovak telecommunications and highway systems. Jiri Pehe WALESA VETOES POLICE PENSION BILL. President Lech Walesa vetoed a controversial bill governing "uniformed" pensions (the preferential pensions awarded to professional soldiers and police and security service employees) on 15 January. As approved by the Sejm, the bill would have reduced pensions for secret police employees from 1944 to 1989 if they participated in the repression of opposition figures. It would likewise have eliminated all pension privileges for military prosecutors and other officers if they had persecuted Poles engaged in activities dedicated to restoring Poland's independence. Walesa said that the bill violated the principle of equal protection before the law, imposed collective responsibility, and vested nonjudicial bodies with judicial powers. The internal affairs minister had earlier criticized the bill, warning that it would undermine stability in the police force. The Sejm needs a two-thirds majority to override a presidential veto. Louisa Vinton POLISH PRODUCTION UP 3.5% IN 1992. Poland's Main Statistical Office reported on 15-January that industrial production was 3.5% higher in 1992 than in 1991. Production in December 1992 was 5.3% higher than in November. Prices rose 43% in 1992. The central planning bureau announced on 15 January that real wages in 1992 were 4% lower than in the preceding year; pensions declined 5.7%; and wages paid from the budget dropped 9%. Deputy Labor Minister Michal Boni told a press conference on 15 January that 2.5 million people, or 13.6% of the work force, were registered as unemployed at the end of 1992. Unemployment grew much more slowly in 1992 than in the previous year, Boni noted. Employment offices found work for some 650,000 people. Louisa Vinton POLISH DEFENSE MINISTER ON SECURITY CONCERNS. During a one-day visit to Washington on 15 January, Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz told reporters that Poland is concerned by Ukraine's reluctance to give up the long-range nuclear weapons deployed on its territory. An RFE/RL correspondent says Onyszkiewicz stressed that Poland does not feel threatened by Ukraine, but is concerned that Ukraine's stance on nuclear arms could undermine the nonproliferation process. Poland and Ukraine are to sign a military cooperation agreement in February, Onyszkiewicz noted. On his return to Warsaw on 16-January, he told reporters that the "USA accepts the inevitability of Poland's entry into NATO." Louisa Vinton UKRAINIAN MODERATES AGAINST RATIFICATION OF START-1. The Chairman of the Ukrainian Republican Party and the Congress of National Democratic Forces, a center-right grouping, told a Ukrainian radio audience on 15 January that, having given up all its short-range nuclear arms, Ukraine should not eliminate the rest of its nuclear arsenal unless other nuclear powers do so. According to Interfax, Mykhailo Horyn, also a parliamentary deputy, added that Western countries have "failed to appreciate Ukraine's noble gesture of eliminating its tactical nuclear capability. . . ." Deputy CNDF leader Mykola Porovsky, also a parliamentary deputy, commented that transferring nuclear arms to Russia would be "like Kuwait surrendering its weapons to Iraq and becoming an Iraqi protectorate." The Ukrainian parliament is expected shortly to debate the ratification of START-1. Doug Clarke and Bohdan Nahaylo KRAVCHUK CONFIRMS UKRAINIAN REJECTION OF CIS CHARTER. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 15 January after his summit meeting with Boris Yeltsin, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk confirmed that Ukraine will not sign the proposed CIS charter at the forthcoming CIS summit in Minsk on 22 January, CIS and Western agencies report. He said that Ukraine will, however, be prepared to sign an economic agreement for CIS members. Meanwhile, the Ukrainian media are reporting the continuing campaigns by both supporters and opponents of Ukraine's closer integration in the CIS. Bohdan Nahaylo NEW DEVELOPMENT IN HUNGARIAN MEDIA WAR. According to a statement published by the prime minister's press office on 15 January, the formal endorsement of the president of the republic is not needed for the recent resignations of the heads of Hungarian Radio and TV, MTI reports. The statement says that the prime minister and the chief prosecutor agree that under the law on public employees the employment of the media heads will automatically cease two months after the date of their resignations. The statement urges the media chiefs not to wait to quit their posts until the two months expire, however, because they would only contribute to maintaining at the radio and TV "adverse conditions that continue to inhibit objective reporting." Prime Minister Jozsef Antall was reacting to a recent statement by the national steering committee of the Alliance of Young Democrats that urged President Arpad Goncz not endorse the resignations. Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN SMALLHOLDERS TO SET UP "RIGHT-WING BLOC." Jozsef Torgyan, the Chairman of the Independent Smallholders Party, announced at a party meeting in Jaszbereny on 16 January that he will set up a right-wing bloc named Christian solidarity, to ward off the threats posed by the "liberal left-wing bloc," MTI reports. Torgyan did not disclose which parties and organizations will make up the bloc, saying only that his party has signed cooperation agreements with various organizations. He urged solidarity to "save the Hungarian people," pledging that if elected in the 1994 elections, his party will "create order in two and a half hours and achieve what the government failed to do in two and a half years." The Smallholders faction led by Torgyan left the governing coalition in February 1992. Edith Oltay ROMANIAN HUNGARIAN PARTY ADOPTS MODERATE LINE. The third congress of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania ended on 17 January with calls for more rights for Romania's ethnic Hungarians. A final statement, read by HDFR honorary chairman and Reformed bishop Laszlo Tokes, urged Bucharest to help the country's Magyar minority preserve its identity, culture, language, religion and education. But it dropped the idea of "communitarian autonomy" on ethnic grounds, which had figured high on the agenda of the three-day congress. Western agencies quoted HDFR senator Gyorgy Frunda as advocating a policy of small steps towards more self-administration which should not fuel concern among the Romanian majority. The congress elected writer Bela Marko as the party's new leader, but only after Tokes withdrew from the race. Outgoing party chairman Geza Domokos praised Marko, as a moderate. Tokes is generally seen as a radical. Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN CABINET'S BIG ECONOMIC PROGRAM. The Romanian government is preparing a package of some 50 new laws, most designed to promote economic reforms. In an interview broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 15 January, Valer Dorneanu, minister for parliamentary relations , said the cabinet will give top priority to laws dealing with the stock exchange, taxes on profits, value-added taxes, public debt, bankruptcy, and credits to encourage private farming. Dorneanu's statement appears to be an indirect response to recent accusations by Romania's opposition that the cabinet dominated by the Democratic National Salvation Front is trying to slow down economic reforms. Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN INTELLIGENCE CHIEF KEEPS UP PRESSURE ON CHISINAU. Interviewed in the Moldovan weekly Glasul natiunii, as cited by Basapress of 15 January, Romanian Intelligence Service chief Virgil Magureanu said that he "would wish to integrate Romania's and Moldova's intelligence services in order to neutralize external organs that can foil reunification," and that he is awaiting proposals for cooperation from Chisinau. Magureanu, a former Securitate officer, recently told a festive gathering in Bucharest that his service actively works for Romanian-Moldovan unification, prompting an official protest from the Moldovan government. Vladimir Socor KOZLODUY CONSIDERED TOP PRIORITY. Experts of the G-24 developed countries have declared that Bulgaria's Kozloduy nuclear power plant will be given priority in an assistance program aimed at rebuilding Soviet-designed nuclear stations in Eastern Europe, Reuters reported on 17 January. Following a meeting of G-24 nuclear experts at Kozloduy over the weekend, Yanko Yanev, chairman of the Bulgarian Atomic Energy Committee, said Kozloduy will be the first plant in the former Soviet bloc to receive substantial foreign aid to update equipment and improve safety. Although the authorities have neglected the plant for years, Bulgaria badly needs the energy supply. While Kozloduy theoretically can cover 40% of the country's power needs, it is currently running at half capacity. Kjell Engelbrekt LATVIA, RUSSIA AGREE ON EXTRADITION. On 16 January representatives of the two state procuracies signed a joint protocol in Riga providing for extradition of criminals, sentenced on the territory of the other country, to serve their sentences in their homeland. In light of this agreement, Sergei Parfenov, former deputy commander of the Riga OMON, who is serving a sentence for abuse of power in Latvia, is expected to be transferred to a penal institution in Russia. Russia's Deputy Procurator General Evgenii Lisov told BNS on 16 January that he could not guarantee Parfenov's full-term confinement in Russia, since Parfenov might be released earlier or amnestied in compliance with Russian laws. Dzintra Bungs IMF EXPERTS WARN OF FURTHER ECONOMIC DECLINE IN LATVIA. After meetings with Latvian economic officials, IMF experts expressed concern about the country's continuing economic decline. They said that the high exchange rate that the Latvian Central Bank has set for the Latvian ruble against the CIS currencies, is a major problem because Latvian products are too highly priced and less competitive. They noted that the situation may improve in a few months when price differences with the CIS level out, BNS and Baltfax reported on 16-January. Dzintra Bungs IMF DELEGATION IN LITHUANIA. On 15 January a delegation led by Adalbert Knobl, the IMF Baltic Section head, met with Lithuanian Prime Minister Bronislavas Lubys, BNS reports. The delegation's visit is to prepare a quarterly report on Lithuania's implementation of the Economic Policy Memorandum that is necessary to receive IMF aid. The meeting discussed ways to strengthen the coupon (Lithuania's provisional money), possibly by requiring enterprises to sell 30% of their hard currency income to commercial banks. The delegation will hold talks with Acting President Algirdas Brazauskas this week. Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles TrumbullTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. 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