When in doubt, tell the truth. - Mark Twain
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 1, 04 January 1993


ceremony, the Presidents of Russia and the United States signed
the START II strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty, thus pledging
their countries to do away with roughly two-thirds of their most
powerful nuclear weapons. According to Interfax, President Yeltsin
described the treaty as surpassing all the other disarmament
agreements ever signed, and called it a "treaty of hope." It
said that it strengthened Russia's security rather than weakening
it, and noted that it would be considerably cheaper to destroy
the strategic weapons than to maintain them. Doug Clarke/Russia

YELTSIN ON EFFORTS TO END YUGOSLAV WAR. During his press conference
with U.S. President George Bush on 3 January, Russian President
Boris Yeltsin said that he and Bush had discussed the crisis
in former Yugoslavia and claimed that "we are close in our stands"
on the Yugoslav crisis. Yeltsin added that Russia supports "the
U.S. stand on adopting a UN Security Council resolution," apparently
in reference to the proposed no-fly zone in Bosnia. Yeltsin stated
that Russia "will carry on pursuing a similar policy line," but
added that "we would like to try, more actively than we have
ever done before, to pursue a policy aimed at establishing a
truce in Serbia and Yugoslavia as a whole," Russian TV reported.
Suzanne Crow/Russia

YELTSIN'S NEW YEAR'S ADDRESS. In his New Year's address to the
Russian people, broadcast by Russian TV on 30 December, Russian
President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged that he had been wrong when
he predicted that there would not be any major prize rises in
1992. Yeltsin said that he will now devote himself more to foreign,
security, and social matters and leave economics more to the
cabinet. He called upon the people to support the creation of
a democratic Russian state in the April referendum. He promised
that there will be no departure from market reforms. He thanked
former Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar for having introduced
a market economy in Russia. He stated that Gaidar will return
to politics in future. Alexander Rahr/Russia

PROGRESS OF RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION. By the end of 1992, 600 large
state enterprises and more than 40,000 small businesses such
as stores had been privatized in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported on
2 January. The sale of enterprises last year brought 85 billion
rubles. The State Property Committee reckons that 4,700 more
large enterprises will be sold off during 1993. Keith Bush/Russia

LAND REFORM IN RUSSIA. Russian citizens now have the right to
buy and sell private plots of land, as long as it is used for
gardening or the construction of private housing, i.e. not for
commercial purposes. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 31 December
1992, a total 10-million hectares of land has been acquired by
citizens since 1990, and 20 million families have acquired private
plots, of which 16 million families are urban dwellers. The increase
in private plot ownership is said to contribute to solving the
problem of food supplies. There are currently 173,000 private
commercial farmers, 2,300 agricultural cooperatives, and 19,000
livestock collectives, but the purchase of land for commercial
farming is still reported to be hampered by red tape. Sheila

from jail for his alleged participation in the failed August
1991 coup, former Soviet parliament speaker Anatolii Lukyanov
took part in a meeting organized by former Communist Party leaders
dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the USSR, according to Russian
TV on 30 December. He told the meeting, which was also attended
by nationalist leaders such as Viktor Alksnis and Vladimir Zhirinovsky,
that "the USSR will live forever." Other speakers condemned the
leadership of President Yeltsin and his reform policy and also
called for the reestablishment of the Soviet Union. Alexander

Department announced on 29-December that Russia had missed another
agricultural loan repayment, pushing the total arrears to $100-million.
The Journal of Commerce of 31 December suggested that Russia
will wait until the Paris Club restructures its foreign debt
before resuming payments under the US Export Credit Guarantee
Program. And on 29 December, a South Korean official told Reuters
that Russia had failed to pay interest by the due date of 15
December on a loan of $465 million granted by Seoul to the former
Soviet Union. Robert Lyle & Keith Bush/Russia

RUSSIA DRAWS DOWN IMF CREDIT. Russia has finally drawn down the
IMF credit of about $1 billion that was extended in early August,
Reuters reported on 31-December. The delay was attributed partly
to the IMF's insistence that the money be added to Russia's hard-currency
reserves rather than be used to finance imports. Russian officials
have also expressed reservations about the republic's ability
to repay the principal and interest. Keith Bush/Russia

Melikyan, the Russian Minister of Labor, has forecast that 5-6
million people could be out of work in 1993, according to an
Interfax report of 12-December 1992. Approximately 500,000 out
of a workforce of 70 million were registered as unemployed in
December 1992, but Melikyan reckons that the number of unemployed
(including those not registered) is nearer 2 million. He is also
reported as saying that consumer prices increased by 25 times
in 1992 (apparently from February to December), whereas incomes
increased by only 7.4 times. Sheila Marnie-/Russia

regulations in Russia and some other CIS states went into effect
on 1 January, Russian and Western agencies reported. The law
was initially adopted in 1991 by the USSR Supreme Soviet. It
gives citizens the right to leave the country and return, and
the right to hold travel documents for five years. The law abolishes
exit visas which were needed to leave the USSR and Russia. Only
people with access to state secrets may be barred from leaving
the country for periods of up to five years. The law is designed
to end the practice through which the government could arbitrarily
permit or forbid citizens to travel. However, high travel costs
and tight visa regulations that have been introduced by many
countries in anticipation of a possible flood of refugees from
the former USSR, may continue to prevent many citizens from traveling
abroad. Vera Tolz/Russia

factory which produces the "Dukat" brand of cigarettes are striking
in protest against the decision taken by Moscow city authorities
to sell the factory to the US company "Brook Mill," according
to an ITAR-TASS report of 31 December 1992. The workers are demanding
that the factory be transformed into a private enterprise, with
shares being sold to Russians, and factory employees being given
priority in the purchase of shares. Sheila Marnie/Russia

CHILD ABUSE IN RUSSIA. An official of the Russian Children's
Scientific Research Institute has claimed that child abuse is
a growing problem in Russia, according to Reuters on 30 December
1992. Approximately 2,000 children and adolescents are reported
to have committed suicide in 1992. In Moscow alone 5,000 homeless
children a year are picked up from the streets, most of whom
have run away from home to escape some form of violence. Sheila

Andrei Kozyrev told Interfax on 3 January that he had sent messages
to his counterparts in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan-the three
other ex-Soviet republics where strategic nuclear weapons are
based-informing them of the basic elements of the START II treaty.
He said that groups of experts would be traveling to the other
countries soon to familiarize their officials with the details
of the new treaty. Kozyrev indicated that Ukraine had already
announced its willingness to receive the experts. Although the
other three states are not parties to the new agreement, it will
not enter into force until the START I treaty does. Doug Clarke/Russia

had planned to modernize this missile and continue to produce
it. He pointed out, however, that these missiles were built in
Ukraine, and it would have been too costly to move the production
to Russia. Grachev said that the service life of the current
missiles would expire about the time they must be destroyed under
the terms of the new treaty, and Russia would have had to destroy
them any way. Doug Clarke/Russia

ALL RUSSIAN TROOPS OUT OF MONGOLIA. The Mongolian National Defense
Ministry announced on 30 December 1992 that Russia had completed
the withdrawal of its troops from Mongolia, according to ITAR-TASS.
In the mid-1980s there were an estimated 50,000-70,000 Soviet
military forces in Mongolia. Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
announced a partial unilateral pullout in 1989, and the two governments
signed an agreement for a complete withdrawal on 1 March 1990.
Doug Clarke/Russia


On 2 January Azerbaijan's opposition Movement for Democratic
Reform issued a statement condemning the violent dispersal by
Azerbaijani security forces of participants in a demonstration
in Baku on 24 December convened by the independent Turan trade
union, Interfax reported. Two hundred of the demonstrators, who
were calling for the resignation of the Azerbaijani government
and its replacement by a new coalition, were detained; four have
declared a hunger strike. The 2-January statement calls on the
Azerbaijani government to release the detainees, dissolve the
existing parliament, and to hold new multi-party elections. Liz

DAMAGE TO TAJIK ECONOMY ASSESSED. Tajikistan's government has
issued a report on the damage sustained by the country's economy
as a result of the civil war in 1992, ITAR-TASS reported on 31
December. According to the report, Tajikistan's economy is nearly
at a standstill, industrial production declined 23%, and economic
losses exceeded 90 billion rubles. The report gave a figure of
537,000 refugees officially registered in Tajikistan, and around
70,000 who have fled to Afghanistan. The assessment says that
Tajikistan will need help from other CIS states and foreign countries
to overcome the effects of the war. On 2-January German TV reported
that three Western human rights organizations have condemned
abuses by Tajikistan's new government, which is accused of countenancing
executions of anti-Communist fighters. Bess Brown/Tajikistan


CZECHOSLOVAKIA SPLITS. At midnight on 31 December Czechoslovakia
split into two independent states-the Czech Republic and the
Slovak Republic. CTK reports that the celebrations of independence
in both new countries were low-key. In Bratislava some ten thousand
people gathered in the city's main square to watch the raising
of the new Slovak flag and fireworks and to listen to speeches
by Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and Parliament chairman Ivan
Gasparovic. No official ceremonies were held in the Czech capital
of Prague. In speeches broadcast on federal TV and radio shortly
before midnight, Czechoslovak Prime Minister Jan Strasky and
Federal Assembly Chairman Michal Kovac praised the peaceful nature
of the split. Federal radio and TV as well all other federal
institutions ended their existence at the stroke of midnight.
Relations between the two new states will be governed by a number
of intergovernmental agreements and 25-interstate treaties, including
those on forming a customs union and maintaining a common currency
for the time being. CTK reports that on 30 December Czech Foreign
Minister Josef Zieleniec and Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko
established diplomatic ties between their two countries. -Jiri
Pehe/Czech Republic/ Slovakia

CZECH, SLOVAK DECLARATIONS. The two parliaments issued declarations
in which they vow to be democratic states. CTK reported that
the declaration adopted by the National Council of the Slovak
Republic on 31 December states that "by taking over obligations
following from international treaties, the Slovak parliament
confirms its decision to live in a pluralistic democracy." It
also says that Slovakia will respect human rights and fundamental
freedoms and is ready to become a member of the United Nations
and the Council of Europe. According to the declaration, the
Slovak Republic "is ready to establish diplomatic relations will
all democratic countries of the world." The declaration approved
by the Parliament of the Czech Republic at its inaugural session
on 1 January stated that the Czech Republic will be a stable,
democratic state and a reliable political and economic partner
in foreign relations. -Jiri Pehe/Czech Republic/ Slovakia

INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION. A number of countries have declared
their intention to recognize officially the independent Czech
and Slovak republics. By 31-December, France, Germany, China,
Belgium, and a number of other states had done so, international
agencies report. The US followed suit with an annoucement on
2 January. On 1 January both republics became members of the
International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The Commission on Security
and Cooperation in Europe has also said it considers both states
to be its members as of 1-January. The two new states should
become regular United Nations members in mid-January and members
of the Council of Europe in the spring. An RFE/RL Washington
correspondent reports that the IMF executive board says both
new republics will have one month to accept the division of assets
and liabilities and notify the fund whether they agree to be
successor states to Czechoslovakia. -Jiri Pehe/Czech Republic/

EXPLOSION ON CZECH-SLOVAK BORDER. Czech officials announced on
2 January that unknown attackers attempted to blow up a Czech
customs shed on the Czech-Slovak border, CTK reports. The explosives
were set off near the Moravian city of Uherske Hradiste in the
night of 1 January. Nobody was hurt and the damage was minimal.
The Czech Republic began setting up border crossings in late
December and, according to official information, they will begin
operating on 4 January. -Jan Obrman/Czech Republic/ Slovakia

to reporters on 31 December, Prime Minister Meciar said that
1993 will be a year in which Slovakia will be preoccupied with
setting up its structures, currency, and finances. He pledged
there will be no problems in Slovakia's relations with the Czech
Republic. Meciar also said that Slovakia faces austerity as it
begins "year zero." He blamed the straitened economic situation
on the loss of traditional eastern markets. Asked whether he
had any regrets over Czechoslovakia's breakup, Meciar said that
"the question of feelings is irrelevant. The question is whether
any other solution was possible." Meciar also said that "the
Hungarian minority in Slovakia has been assimilated." He claimed
that "there are only a few ethnic Hungarians [in Slovakia] who
are faithful to their nation." In his opinion, "some political
forces would like to revise the Trianon Treaty, in particular,
change the Slovak-Hungarian border." Meciar argued this is the
same tactic as "those used in Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine."
Meciar's statements were reported by CTK. -Jiri Pehe/Slovakia/Hungary

Prime Minister Jozsef Antall talked about foreign policy on Radio
Budapest. He said that his country supports the political objectives
of the ethnic Hungarian minorities in the various neighboring
countries. The government assumes that their representatives
know best what can be done to improve minority rights. Antall
singled out the political aspirations of Magyars living in rump
Yugoslavia, whether individual, cultural, or territorial autonomy,
and said Hungary will support them. -Judith Pataki/Hungary

failed to pass the long awaited media law after a more-than-10-hour-long
vote that started on 30 December and lasted into the next morning.
Major sections of the law required a two-thirds majority for
passage, but less important sections could have been passed by
a simple majority vote. Since the opposition refrained from voting
on the important sections, they did not pass and the law was
so much reduced in substance that its other sections could not
be passed either. Both the ruling parties and the opposition
blame each other for having failed to pass the law. -Judith Pataki/Hungary

talks on ending the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina resumed in Geneva.
On 3-January the three warring sides reportedly narrowed their
differences somewhat. It was the first time since the war began
in late March that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic and Bosnian
Serb leader Radovan Karadzic sat together to discuss the future
of the republic. Since August, Izetbegovic had reiterated that
he would never sit in the same room with Karadzic, whom he called
a "war criminal." Discussion focused on details of a plan proposed
by Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen for dividing Bosnia into ten autonomous
provinces making Sarajevo an open city. Vance said agreement
was reached on only seven of the proposed provinces because of
objections raised by both the Muslims and Serbs. Izetbegovic
rejected the Sarajevo plan, and sharp differences also arose
between Croat leader Mate Boban and Izetbegovic over northern
areas of the republic. Talks resume on 4-January. Radio Serbia
and international media carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich/Bosnia/Herzegovina

December he will not resign as prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia
and will resist being ousted prematurely from office by the nationalist-socialist
majority in the federal assembly. On 29 December deputies in
both chambers of the federal assembly passed a vote of no-confidence
against Panic and then named Deputy Prime Minister Radoje Kontic
as acting prime minister. A statement read by Panic's press office
noted that under the federal constitution only the President
of the Republic, currently Dobrica Cosic, has the authority to
name a successor. Panic says he will remain in office until Cosic
makes a decision. Meanwhile, Panic is in the US to try to dissuade
US officials from possibly taking military action against Serb
forces in Bosnia. On 3 January, a second round of parliamentary
elections was held in Serbia-Montenegro in polling areas where
irregularities invalidadted results or where candidates were
forced into runoffs. Radio Serbia and Politika carried the reports.
-Milan Andrejevich/Serbia/Macedonia

SERBIAN PROTEST IN MACEDONIA. On 31 December a village ten miles
north of Skopje was the scene of a pro-Serbian demonstration
which turned violent. According to Western sources, some 150
young ethnic Serbs fought police and fireman seeking to remove
pictures of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and other Serb
nationalist leaders from a merry-go-round. Tear gas was used
to break up the demonstration as Serb nationalists shouted "this
is Serbian land." Six people were injured, including one policeman
and three police cars were damaged. This is among the most serious
clashes involving the Serbian minority and the authorities in
Macedonia since independence from Yugoslavia was declared in
September 1991. Many Macedonians fear the small minority of Serbs
living in Macedonia (estimated at 43,000, or about 2% of the
population) could serve as a pretext for a Serbian invasion of
Macedonia. -Duncan Perry/Serbia Macedonia

POLES DENY ILLEGAL ARMS DEAL. Responding to a German TV report
that showed footage of a Polish company allegedly involved in
negotiating the sale of armed transporters to Yugoslavia in defiance
of the UN embargo, the Polish Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations
demanded a written explanation from the company concerned. In
separate statements carried by PAP on 30 and 31 December the
chairman of the Cenzin company, one of the three Polish companies
licensed by the government to trade in arms, and the director
of the Northern Shipyard, which was to have built the 15-transporters,
both denied that there had been any mention of Yugoslavia in
the course of initial meetings with the potential purchaser.
On the contrary, the Poles had clearly said that the type of
ships in question would require special authorization and insisted
on seeing the "end user's certificate." Polish observers believe
the TV report, which apparently contained factual inaccuracies,
was prompted by international competition. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka/Poland

POLISH STRIKE TALKS SUCCESSFUL. After talks between striking
miners and government representatives ended on 30 December with
agreement on the immediate implementation of some of the miners'
demands and principles and timetables for the implementation
of others, Solidarity's Regional Strike Committee recommended
suspension of the strike as of 4 January and maintenance of "strike
readiness" until all the demands are fully implemented. PAP quoted
the strike committee as saying that the miners' strike had achieved
"a rescue program for today with guarantees of jobs and decent
pay." Final decisions on the suspension of the strike will be
made by the miners as they familiarize themselves with the terms
of the agreement. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka/Poland

UKRAINE AND START-1 & START-2. Ukrainian leaders have welcomed
the signing of the US-Russian START-2 treaty but have emphasized
that Ukraine will not be "rushed" into ratifying the START-1
treaty. Parliament, which has cut short its winter break because
of the economic crisis in the country and is due to reconvene
shortly, is expected to discuss Ukraine's adherence to the START-1
treaty later this month or at the beginning of February. Ukrainian
TV reports that President Leonid Kravchuk issued a statement
on 3 January acknowledging the political importance of the Start-2
treaty, reiterating Ukraine's intention to become a nonnuclear
state, and expressing his belief that Parliament will agree to
the ratification of START-1. Volodymyr Yavorivsky, the leader
of the Ukrainian Democratic Party, was quoted by Ukrainian TV
on 2 January as saying that "Ukraine should hurry, but not rush
with the realization of its nonnuclear status." -Bohdan Nahaylo/Ukraine

to international pressure on Ukraine to speed up its ratification
of START-1, Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk is traveling
to Washington this week to explain his country's position. He
told Reuters on 3 January that "Ukraine has so far not received
a single cent from the United States or any other state," to
help cover the huge cost of eliminating the nuclear weapons based
on its territory. "Instead of real help to destroy intercontinental
missiles, it is getting only 'negative stimuli,'" he complained.
Despite the economic cost and what Reuters described as "continuing
suspicion of Russia," Tarasyuk said that Ukraine is determined
to rid itself of nuclear weapons. -Bohdan Nahaylo/Ukraine

a diplomatic note on 31 December saying that it will no longer
abide by a protocol signed in November, ITAR-TASS reported. The
protocol stipulated that Russia would assume Ukraine's 16% share
of the debt of the former Soviet Union while Ukraine gave up
any claim to money owed to the former Soviet Union by third countries.
Reuters reports from Kiev that Ukraine renounced the accord because
Russia did not provide a list of the former Soviet property abroad
that is to be divided up. -Keith Bush/Ukraine

BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVED. On 30 December a new Bulgarian
government was approved by the National Assembly, Western and
Bulgarian media report. The cabinet is headed by economics professor
Lyuben Berov, a former advisor to President Zhelyu Zhelev. While
most UDF legislators boycotted the vote, Berov and his ministers
won approval through a cross-party alliance of deputies from
the MRF and the BSP as well as UDF deputies who broke ranks.
Only BSP hard-liners and members of the socialist-allied Fatherland
Party of Labor voted against the Berov government, protesting
that it had been nominated by the predominantly Turkish MRF party.
-Kjell Engelbrekt/Bulgaria

BEROV PRESENTS LINE-UP. On the same day Parliament endorsed the
cabinet lineup as proposed by Prime Minister-elect Berov. Although
mainly consisting of technocrats, three ministers are parliamentary
deputies. One of three deputy prime ministers is Evgeni Matinchev,
an ethnic Bulgarian elected on an MRF ticket. The other two are
Valentin Karabashev and Rumen Bikov from the Alternative Social
Liberal Party, a UDF member organization until its expulsion
last week. Karabashev will share the job as deputy premier with
Matinchev and nonaffiliated Neycho Neev. Bikov will remain industry
minister, a post he held in the previous cabinet. In other key
positions, Slavi Pashovski-Bulgaria's UN ambassador-has accepted
the post of foreign minister, and Stoyan Aleksandrov-head of
the tax department of the ministry of finance-has been confirmed
as finance minister. Valentin Aleksandrov, a lawyer and defense
ministry expert on national security, is the country's new defense
minister. -Kjell Engelbrekt/Bulgaria

Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis said over Lithuanian TV
that he will not run for president in the 14 February elections.
He urged Acting President Algirdas Brazauskas, who was nominated
as a candidate by the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party on 31-December,
to drop his candidacy in favor of Stasys Lozoraitis, ambassador
to the US, who has, however, not yet declared his candidacy.
On 30 December former Social Democratic Party Chairman Kazimieras
Antanavicius was officially registered as a presidential candidate.
-Saulius Girnius/Lithuania

ENERGY, WATER SHORTAGES IN ROMANIA. Hard winter conditions have
affected Romania's limited energy resources. Romanian TV announced
over the weekend that gas deliveries for the industry had to
be drastically reduced in order to cover private needs. Crude
reserves are also said to be limited, and the government admitted
at its 30 December meeting that financial problems are hampering
oil imports. In some urban areas central heating has ceased altogether.
Hardest hit was Suceava, where thousands shiver in unheated apartments
following the four-day closure of a local heating plant after
an explosion on 30 December. In another development, new prices
for gasoline go into effect on 4 January. Last month the government
decided to reduce prices but also to end a dual system allowing
motorists to buy 40-liters of gasoline each month for less than
half the free-market price. In addition to the fuel problems,
Bucharest has now been hit by a serious shortage of water for
domestic use. -Dan Ionescu/Romania

1 January the Lithuanian government raised the price of energy
for industrial enterprises and other organizations from 8,400
to 8,800 coupons for 1-gigacalorie, Baltfax reports. The rates
for natural gas will increase from 23,080 to 35,000 coupons per
1,000 cubic meters. The prices for other consumers will remain
the same. -Saulius Girnius/Lithuania

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull

THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. RFE/RL Daily Report

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook

1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver


News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole