|The greatest happiness is to know the source of unhappiness. - Dostoevsky|
No. 1, 04 January 1993
RUSSIA BUSH AND YELTSIN SIGN START II TREATY. In a 3-January Moscow ceremony, the Presidents of Russia and the United States signed the START II strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty, thus pledging their countries to do away with roughly two-thirds of their most powerful nuclear weapons. According to Interfax, President Yeltsin described the treaty as surpassing all the other disarmament agreements ever signed, and called it a "treaty of hope." It said that it strengthened Russia's security rather than weakening it, and noted that it would be considerably cheaper to destroy the strategic weapons than to maintain them. Doug Clarke/Russia YELTSIN ON EFFORTS TO END YUGOSLAV WAR. During his press conference with U.S. President George Bush on 3 January, Russian President Boris Yeltsin said that he and Bush had discussed the crisis in former Yugoslavia and claimed that "we are close in our stands" on the Yugoslav crisis. Yeltsin added that Russia supports "the U.S. stand on adopting a UN Security Council resolution," apparently in reference to the proposed no-fly zone in Bosnia. Yeltsin stated that Russia "will carry on pursuing a similar policy line," but added that "we would like to try, more actively than we have ever done before, to pursue a policy aimed at establishing a truce in Serbia and Yugoslavia as a whole," Russian TV reported. Suzanne Crow/Russia YELTSIN'S NEW YEAR'S ADDRESS. In his New Year's address to the Russian people, broadcast by Russian TV on 30 December, Russian President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged that he had been wrong when he predicted that there would not be any major prize rises in 1992. Yeltsin said that he will now devote himself more to foreign, security, and social matters and leave economics more to the cabinet. He called upon the people to support the creation of a democratic Russian state in the April referendum. He promised that there will be no departure from market reforms. He thanked former Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar for having introduced a market economy in Russia. He stated that Gaidar will return to politics in future. Alexander Rahr/Russia PROGRESS OF RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION. By the end of 1992, 600 large state enterprises and more than 40,000 small businesses such as stores had been privatized in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported on 2 January. The sale of enterprises last year brought 85 billion rubles. The State Property Committee reckons that 4,700 more large enterprises will be sold off during 1993. Keith Bush/Russia LAND REFORM IN RUSSIA. Russian citizens now have the right to buy and sell private plots of land, as long as it is used for gardening or the construction of private housing, i.e. not for commercial purposes. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 31 December 1992, a total 10-million hectares of land has been acquired by citizens since 1990, and 20 million families have acquired private plots, of which 16 million families are urban dwellers. The increase in private plot ownership is said to contribute to solving the problem of food supplies. There are currently 173,000 private commercial farmers, 2,300 agricultural cooperatives, and 19,000 livestock collectives, but the purchase of land for commercial farming is still reported to be hampered by red tape. Sheila Marnie/Russia LUKYANOV, ZHIRINOVSKY JOIN HARDLINE MEETING. After being released from jail for his alleged participation in the failed August 1991 coup, former Soviet parliament speaker Anatolii Lukyanov took part in a meeting organized by former Communist Party leaders dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the USSR, according to Russian TV on 30 December. He told the meeting, which was also attended by nationalist leaders such as Viktor Alksnis and Vladimir Zhirinovsky, that "the USSR will live forever." Other speakers condemned the leadership of President Yeltsin and his reform policy and also called for the reestablishment of the Soviet Union. Alexander Rahr/Russia RUSSIAN ARREARS WITH THE US AND SOUTH KOREA. The US Agricultural Department announced on 29-December that Russia had missed another agricultural loan repayment, pushing the total arrears to $100-million. The Journal of Commerce of 31 December suggested that Russia will wait until the Paris Club restructures its foreign debt before resuming payments under the US Export Credit Guarantee Program. And on 29 December, a South Korean official told Reuters that Russia had failed to pay interest by the due date of 15 December on a loan of $465 million granted by Seoul to the former Soviet Union. Robert Lyle & Keith Bush/Russia RUSSIA DRAWS DOWN IMF CREDIT. Russia has finally drawn down the IMF credit of about $1 billion that was extended in early August, Reuters reported on 31-December. The delay was attributed partly to the IMF's insistence that the money be added to Russia's hard-currency reserves rather than be used to finance imports. Russian officials have also expressed reservations about the republic's ability to repay the principal and interest. Keith Bush/Russia LABOR MINISTER MAKES UNEMPLOYMENT FORECAST FOR 1993. Gennadi Melikyan, the Russian Minister of Labor, has forecast that 5-6 million people could be out of work in 1993, according to an Interfax report of 12-December 1992. Approximately 500,000 out of a workforce of 70 million were registered as unemployed in December 1992, but Melikyan reckons that the number of unemployed (including those not registered) is nearer 2 million. He is also reported as saying that consumer prices increased by 25 times in 1992 (apparently from February to December), whereas incomes increased by only 7.4 times. Sheila Marnie-/Russia TRAVEL LAW GOES INTO EFFECT IN RUSSIA. A law governing travel regulations in Russia and some other CIS states went into effect on 1 January, Russian and Western agencies reported. The law was initially adopted in 1991 by the USSR Supreme Soviet. It gives citizens the right to leave the country and return, and the right to hold travel documents for five years. The law abolishes exit visas which were needed to leave the USSR and Russia. Only people with access to state secrets may be barred from leaving the country for periods of up to five years. The law is designed to end the practice through which the government could arbitrarily permit or forbid citizens to travel. However, high travel costs and tight visa regulations that have been introduced by many countries in anticipation of a possible flood of refugees from the former USSR, may continue to prevent many citizens from traveling abroad. Vera Tolz/Russia MOSCOW CIGARETTE FACTORY WORKERS ON STRIKE. Workers at the Moscow factory which produces the "Dukat" brand of cigarettes are striking in protest against the decision taken by Moscow city authorities to sell the factory to the US company "Brook Mill," according to an ITAR-TASS report of 31 December 1992. The workers are demanding that the factory be transformed into a private enterprise, with shares being sold to Russians, and factory employees being given priority in the purchase of shares. Sheila Marnie/Russia CHILD ABUSE IN RUSSIA. An official of the Russian Children's Scientific Research Institute has claimed that child abuse is a growing problem in Russia, according to Reuters on 30 December 1992. Approximately 2,000 children and adolescents are reported to have committed suicide in 1992. In Moscow alone 5,000 homeless children a year are picked up from the streets, most of whom have run away from home to escape some form of violence. Sheila Marnie/Russia RUSSIA INFORMS NUCLEAR THREE OF NEW TREATY. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told Interfax on 3 January that he had sent messages to his counterparts in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan-the three other ex-Soviet republics where strategic nuclear weapons are based-informing them of the basic elements of the START II treaty. He said that groups of experts would be traveling to the other countries soon to familiarize their officials with the details of the new treaty. Kozyrev indicated that Ukraine had already announced its willingness to receive the experts. Although the other three states are not parties to the new agreement, it will not enter into force until the START I treaty does. Doug Clarke/Russia ABANDONING THE SS-18S A "RATIONAL MEASURE" RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV WAS QUOTED BY INTERFAX ON 3 JANUARY AS EXPLAINING THAT RUSSIA'S DECISION TO GIVE UP ALL OF ITS GIANT SS-18 LAND-BASED MISSILES WAS AN "EXCLUSIVELY RATIONAL MEASURE." The Russian military had planned to modernize this missile and continue to produce it. He pointed out, however, that these missiles were built in Ukraine, and it would have been too costly to move the production to Russia. Grachev said that the service life of the current missiles would expire about the time they must be destroyed under the terms of the new treaty, and Russia would have had to destroy them any way. Doug Clarke/Russia ALL RUSSIAN TROOPS OUT OF MONGOLIA. The Mongolian National Defense Ministry announced on 30 December 1992 that Russia had completed the withdrawal of its troops from Mongolia, according to ITAR-TASS. In the mid-1980s there were an estimated 50,000-70,000 Soviet military forces in Mongolia. Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced a partial unilateral pullout in 1989, and the two governments signed an agreement for a complete withdrawal on 1 March 1990. Doug Clarke/Russia TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJANI OPPOSITION PROTESTS GOVERNMENT CRACKDOWN ON DEMONSTRATORS. On 2 January Azerbaijan's opposition Movement for Democratic Reform issued a statement condemning the violent dispersal by Azerbaijani security forces of participants in a demonstration in Baku on 24 December convened by the independent Turan trade union, Interfax reported. Two hundred of the demonstrators, who were calling for the resignation of the Azerbaijani government and its replacement by a new coalition, were detained; four have declared a hunger strike. The 2-January statement calls on the Azerbaijani government to release the detainees, dissolve the existing parliament, and to hold new multi-party elections. Liz Fuller/Azerbaijan DAMAGE TO TAJIK ECONOMY ASSESSED. Tajikistan's government has issued a report on the damage sustained by the country's economy as a result of the civil war in 1992, ITAR-TASS reported on 31 December. According to the report, Tajikistan's economy is nearly at a standstill, industrial production declined 23%, and economic losses exceeded 90 billion rubles. The report gave a figure of 537,000 refugees officially registered in Tajikistan, and around 70,000 who have fled to Afghanistan. The assessment says that Tajikistan will need help from other CIS states and foreign countries to overcome the effects of the war. On 2-January German TV reported that three Western human rights organizations have condemned abuses by Tajikistan's new government, which is accused of countenancing executions of anti-Communist fighters. Bess Brown/Tajikistan CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CZECHOSLOVAKIA SPLITS. At midnight on 31 December Czechoslovakia split into two independent states-the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. CTK reports that the celebrations of independence in both new countries were low-key. In Bratislava some ten thousand people gathered in the city's main square to watch the raising of the new Slovak flag and fireworks and to listen to speeches by Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and Parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic. No official ceremonies were held in the Czech capital of Prague. In speeches broadcast on federal TV and radio shortly before midnight, Czechoslovak Prime Minister Jan Strasky and Federal Assembly Chairman Michal Kovac praised the peaceful nature of the split. Federal radio and TV as well all other federal institutions ended their existence at the stroke of midnight. Relations between the two new states will be governed by a number of intergovernmental agreements and 25-interstate treaties, including those on forming a customs union and maintaining a common currency for the time being. CTK reports that on 30 December Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec and Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko established diplomatic ties between their two countries. -Jiri Pehe/Czech Republic/ Slovakia CZECH, SLOVAK DECLARATIONS. The two parliaments issued declarations in which they vow to be democratic states. CTK reported that the declaration adopted by the National Council of the Slovak Republic on 31 December states that "by taking over obligations following from international treaties, the Slovak parliament confirms its decision to live in a pluralistic democracy." It also says that Slovakia will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and is ready to become a member of the United Nations and the Council of Europe. According to the declaration, the Slovak Republic "is ready to establish diplomatic relations will all democratic countries of the world." The declaration approved by the Parliament of the Czech Republic at its inaugural session on 1 January stated that the Czech Republic will be a stable, democratic state and a reliable political and economic partner in foreign relations. -Jiri Pehe/Czech Republic/ Slovakia INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION. A number of countries have declared their intention to recognize officially the independent Czech and Slovak republics. By 31-December, France, Germany, China, Belgium, and a number of other states had done so, international agencies report. The US followed suit with an annoucement on 2 January. On 1 January both republics became members of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe has also said it considers both states to be its members as of 1-January. The two new states should become regular United Nations members in mid-January and members of the Council of Europe in the spring. An RFE/RL Washington correspondent reports that the IMF executive board says both new republics will have one month to accept the division of assets and liabilities and notify the fund whether they agree to be successor states to Czechoslovakia. -Jiri Pehe/Czech Republic/ Slovakia EXPLOSION ON CZECH-SLOVAK BORDER. Czech officials announced on 2 January that unknown attackers attempted to blow up a Czech customs shed on the Czech-Slovak border, CTK reports. The explosives were set off near the Moravian city of Uherske Hradiste in the night of 1 January. Nobody was hurt and the damage was minimal. The Czech Republic began setting up border crossings in late December and, according to official information, they will begin operating on 4 January. -Jan Obrman/Czech Republic/ Slovakia MECIAR ON THE FUTURE OF SLOVAKIA, HUNGARIAN MINORITY. Speaking to reporters on 31 December, Prime Minister Meciar said that 1993 will be a year in which Slovakia will be preoccupied with setting up its structures, currency, and finances. He pledged there will be no problems in Slovakia's relations with the Czech Republic. Meciar also said that Slovakia faces austerity as it begins "year zero." He blamed the straitened economic situation on the loss of traditional eastern markets. Asked whether he had any regrets over Czechoslovakia's breakup, Meciar said that "the question of feelings is irrelevant. The question is whether any other solution was possible." Meciar also said that "the Hungarian minority in Slovakia has been assimilated." He claimed that "there are only a few ethnic Hungarians [in Slovakia] who are faithful to their nation." In his opinion, "some political forces would like to revise the Trianon Treaty, in particular, change the Slovak-Hungarian border." Meciar argued this is the same tactic as "those used in Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine." Meciar's statements were reported by CTK. -Jiri Pehe/Slovakia/Hungary ANTALL STATEMENT ON HUNGARIAN MINORITIES. On 3-January Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall talked about foreign policy on Radio Budapest. He said that his country supports the political objectives of the ethnic Hungarian minorities in the various neighboring countries. The government assumes that their representatives know best what can be done to improve minority rights. Antall singled out the political aspirations of Magyars living in rump Yugoslavia, whether individual, cultural, or territorial autonomy, and said Hungary will support them. -Judith Pataki/Hungary NO LAST-MINUTE MEDIA LAW IN HUNGARY. According to MTI, Parliament failed to pass the long awaited media law after a more-than-10-hour-long vote that started on 30 December and lasted into the next morning. Major sections of the law required a two-thirds majority for passage, but less important sections could have been passed by a simple majority vote. Since the opposition refrained from voting on the important sections, they did not pass and the law was so much reduced in substance that its other sections could not be passed either. Both the ruling parties and the opposition blame each other for having failed to pass the law. -Judith Pataki/Hungary MIXED ASSESSMENTS OF BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS. On 2-January UN-EC-mediated talks on ending the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina resumed in Geneva. On 3-January the three warring sides reportedly narrowed their differences somewhat. It was the first time since the war began in late March that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic and Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic sat together to discuss the future of the republic. Since August, Izetbegovic had reiterated that he would never sit in the same room with Karadzic, whom he called a "war criminal." Discussion focused on details of a plan proposed by Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen for dividing Bosnia into ten autonomous provinces making Sarajevo an open city. Vance said agreement was reached on only seven of the proposed provinces because of objections raised by both the Muslims and Serbs. Izetbegovic rejected the Sarajevo plan, and sharp differences also arose between Croat leader Mate Boban and Izetbegovic over northern areas of the republic. Talks resume on 4-January. Radio Serbia and international media carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich/Bosnia/Herzegovina PANIC SAYS HE IS STILL PRIME MINISTER. Milan Panic said on 30 December he will not resign as prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia and will resist being ousted prematurely from office by the nationalist-socialist majority in the federal assembly. On 29 December deputies in both chambers of the federal assembly passed a vote of no-confidence against Panic and then named Deputy Prime Minister Radoje Kontic as acting prime minister. A statement read by Panic's press office noted that under the federal constitution only the President of the Republic, currently Dobrica Cosic, has the authority to name a successor. Panic says he will remain in office until Cosic makes a decision. Meanwhile, Panic is in the US to try to dissuade US officials from possibly taking military action against Serb forces in Bosnia. On 3 January, a second round of parliamentary elections was held in Serbia-Montenegro in polling areas where irregularities invalidadted results or where candidates were forced into runoffs. Radio Serbia and Politika carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich/Serbia/Macedonia SERBIAN PROTEST IN MACEDONIA. On 31 December a village ten miles north of Skopje was the scene of a pro-Serbian demonstration which turned violent. According to Western sources, some 150 young ethnic Serbs fought police and fireman seeking to remove pictures of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and other Serb nationalist leaders from a merry-go-round. Tear gas was used to break up the demonstration as Serb nationalists shouted "this is Serbian land." Six people were injured, including one policeman and three police cars were damaged. This is among the most serious clashes involving the Serbian minority and the authorities in Macedonia since independence from Yugoslavia was declared in September 1991. Many Macedonians fear the small minority of Serbs living in Macedonia (estimated at 43,000, or about 2% of the population) could serve as a pretext for a Serbian invasion of Macedonia. -Duncan Perry/Serbia Macedonia POLES DENY ILLEGAL ARMS DEAL. Responding to a German TV report that showed footage of a Polish company allegedly involved in negotiating the sale of armed transporters to Yugoslavia in defiance of the UN embargo, the Polish Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations demanded a written explanation from the company concerned. In separate statements carried by PAP on 30 and 31 December the chairman of the Cenzin company, one of the three Polish companies licensed by the government to trade in arms, and the director of the Northern Shipyard, which was to have built the 15-transporters, both denied that there had been any mention of Yugoslavia in the course of initial meetings with the potential purchaser. On the contrary, the Poles had clearly said that the type of ships in question would require special authorization and insisted on seeing the "end user's certificate." Polish observers believe the TV report, which apparently contained factual inaccuracies, was prompted by international competition. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka/Poland POLISH STRIKE TALKS SUCCESSFUL. After talks between striking miners and government representatives ended on 30 December with agreement on the immediate implementation of some of the miners' demands and principles and timetables for the implementation of others, Solidarity's Regional Strike Committee recommended suspension of the strike as of 4 January and maintenance of "strike readiness" until all the demands are fully implemented. PAP quoted the strike committee as saying that the miners' strike had achieved "a rescue program for today with guarantees of jobs and decent pay." Final decisions on the suspension of the strike will be made by the miners as they familiarize themselves with the terms of the agreement. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka/Poland UKRAINE AND START-1 & START-2. Ukrainian leaders have welcomed the signing of the US-Russian START-2 treaty but have emphasized that Ukraine will not be "rushed" into ratifying the START-1 treaty. Parliament, which has cut short its winter break because of the economic crisis in the country and is due to reconvene shortly, is expected to discuss Ukraine's adherence to the START-1 treaty later this month or at the beginning of February. Ukrainian TV reports that President Leonid Kravchuk issued a statement on 3 January acknowledging the political importance of the Start-2 treaty, reiterating Ukraine's intention to become a nonnuclear state, and expressing his belief that Parliament will agree to the ratification of START-1. Volodymyr Yavorivsky, the leader of the Ukrainian Democratic Party, was quoted by Ukrainian TV on 2 January as saying that "Ukraine should hurry, but not rush with the realization of its nonnuclear status." -Bohdan Nahaylo/Ukraine "WEST NOT YET HELPING KIEV ELIMINATE NUCLEAR ARMS." Responding to international pressure on Ukraine to speed up its ratification of START-1, Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk is traveling to Washington this week to explain his country's position. He told Reuters on 3 January that "Ukraine has so far not received a single cent from the United States or any other state," to help cover the huge cost of eliminating the nuclear weapons based on its territory. "Instead of real help to destroy intercontinental missiles, it is getting only 'negative stimuli,'" he complained. Despite the economic cost and what Reuters described as "continuing suspicion of Russia," Tarasyuk said that Ukraine is determined to rid itself of nuclear weapons. -Bohdan Nahaylo/Ukraine UKRAINE RENOUNCES DEBT ACCORD WITH RUSSIA. Ukraine sent Russia a diplomatic note on 31 December saying that it will no longer abide by a protocol signed in November, ITAR-TASS reported. The protocol stipulated that Russia would assume Ukraine's 16% share of the debt of the former Soviet Union while Ukraine gave up any claim to money owed to the former Soviet Union by third countries. Reuters reports from Kiev that Ukraine renounced the accord because Russia did not provide a list of the former Soviet property abroad that is to be divided up. -Keith Bush/Ukraine BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVED. On 30 December a new Bulgarian government was approved by the National Assembly, Western and Bulgarian media report. The cabinet is headed by economics professor Lyuben Berov, a former advisor to President Zhelyu Zhelev. While most UDF legislators boycotted the vote, Berov and his ministers won approval through a cross-party alliance of deputies from the MRF and the BSP as well as UDF deputies who broke ranks. Only BSP hard-liners and members of the socialist-allied Fatherland Party of Labor voted against the Berov government, protesting that it had been nominated by the predominantly Turkish MRF party. -Kjell Engelbrekt/Bulgaria BEROV PRESENTS LINE-UP. On the same day Parliament endorsed the cabinet lineup as proposed by Prime Minister-elect Berov. Although mainly consisting of technocrats, three ministers are parliamentary deputies. One of three deputy prime ministers is Evgeni Matinchev, an ethnic Bulgarian elected on an MRF ticket. The other two are Valentin Karabashev and Rumen Bikov from the Alternative Social Liberal Party, a UDF member organization until its expulsion last week. Karabashev will share the job as deputy premier with Matinchev and nonaffiliated Neycho Neev. Bikov will remain industry minister, a post he held in the previous cabinet. In other key positions, Slavi Pashovski-Bulgaria's UN ambassador-has accepted the post of foreign minister, and Stoyan Aleksandrov-head of the tax department of the ministry of finance-has been confirmed as finance minister. Valentin Aleksandrov, a lawyer and defense ministry expert on national security, is the country's new defense minister. -Kjell Engelbrekt/Bulgaria CANDIDATES FOR LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT. On 3 January former Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis said over Lithuanian TV that he will not run for president in the 14 February elections. He urged Acting President Algirdas Brazauskas, who was nominated as a candidate by the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party on 31-December, to drop his candidacy in favor of Stasys Lozoraitis, ambassador to the US, who has, however, not yet declared his candidacy. On 30 December former Social Democratic Party Chairman Kazimieras Antanavicius was officially registered as a presidential candidate. -Saulius Girnius/Lithuania ENERGY, WATER SHORTAGES IN ROMANIA. Hard winter conditions have affected Romania's limited energy resources. Romanian TV announced over the weekend that gas deliveries for the industry had to be drastically reduced in order to cover private needs. Crude reserves are also said to be limited, and the government admitted at its 30 December meeting that financial problems are hampering oil imports. In some urban areas central heating has ceased altogether. Hardest hit was Suceava, where thousands shiver in unheated apartments following the four-day closure of a local heating plant after an explosion on 30 December. In another development, new prices for gasoline go into effect on 4 January. Last month the government decided to reduce prices but also to end a dual system allowing motorists to buy 40-liters of gasoline each month for less than half the free-market price. In addition to the fuel problems, Bucharest has now been hit by a serious shortage of water for domestic use. -Dan Ionescu/Romania FUEL, ENERGY PRICES INCREASE FOR ENTERPRISES IN LITHUANIA. On 1 January the Lithuanian government raised the price of energy for industrial enterprises and other organizations from 8,400 to 8,800 coupons for 1-gigacalorie, Baltfax reports. The rates for natural gas will increase from 23,080 to 35,000 coupons per 1,000 cubic meters. The prices for other consumers will remain the same. -Saulius Girnius/Lithuania [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles TrumbullTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. RFE/RL Daily Report
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