We are so bound together that no man can labor for himself alone. Each blow he strikes in his own behalf helps to mold the universe. - K. Jerome
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 249, 30 December 1992



A Publication of the RFE/RL Research Institute



SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

START II TREATY UP TO YELTSIN AND BUSH. Russian and American
negotiators have agreed on the text of a strategic arms treaty
that would cut each country's nuclear arsenal to roughly 3,500
warheads by 2003 and have submitted the draft to their presidents.
Western and Russian agencies on 29 December reported that this
was the outcome of the Geneva talks between Russian Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev and Defense Minister Pavel Grachev on the one
hand, and U.S. Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger on the
other. According to UPI, White House press secretary Marlin Fitzwater
said that he expected the two presidents to make a formal announcement
on 30 December that they have accepted the text. Interfax reported
that the treaty would probably be signed in Sochi, Russia, on
2 or 3-January. (Doug Clarke)

UKRAINIAN POSITION ON NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL. At a Moscow press
conference on 29 December, two Ukrainian officials said that
Russian- Ukrainian negotiations on the ex-Soviet nuclear weapons
stationed in Ukraine would start shortly in Moscow. Vladimir
Kryzhanovsky, the Ukrainian ambassador to Russia, and Konstantin
Grishchenko, head of the disarmament department in the Ukrainian
foreign ministry, were quoted by Interfax as warning there would
be some conditions. Ukraine expects as much as $1.5 billion in
foreign assistance, including aid from Russia. It also wants
security guarantees from the nuclear powers. In addition, Grishchenko
and Kryzhanovsky said that Ukraine will insist on maintaining
control over any nuclear weapons facilities remaining on its
soil. The two officials also stressed that Ukraine wants a "clear-cut"
admission by the Russian government that the plutonium and uranium
in the weapons now deployed in Ukraine belong to Kiev. Grishchenko
said that Ukraine would fulfill its obligations under the START
treaty, and that it intends to become a non-nuclear (weapons)
state. (Doug Clarke & Hal Kosiba)

CHINA SAID TO RECRUIT RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN SCIENTISTS. The Japanese
paper Yomiuri Shimbun on 29 December, quoting a "reliable source
in Beijing," said that China had recruited "hundreds" of Russian
and Ukrainian military and nuclear scientists and engineers.
The paper said that China had obtained specialists in cruise
missiles, antisubmarine warfare, missile and nuclear technology
who were presently working in Chinese factories. Offices had
been set up in Russia and Ukraine to recruit the scientists.
(Doug Clarke)

FEDOROV FORESEES CONFLICT WITH RUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER. The outspoken,
newly-appointed deputy prime minister in charge of economic reform
strategy, Boris Fedorov, expects conflict in his relationship
with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, the International Herald
Tribune reported on 30 December. Fedorov said that the two had
different views on many issues and that he would be vocal in
his opposition to measures he did not agree with. Fedorov appeared
modest in his ambitions in policy-making, however. "If we can
keep from going backwards, that would already be a success,"
he said. (Erik Whitlock)

INDEPENDENT TV STATION TO START BROADCASTING IN MOSCOW. Russia's
first independent TV channel, TV-6 Moscow, will begin broadcasting
on 1 January, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported on 29-December.
The agencies quoted the president of the channel, Eduard Sagalaev,
as saying that TV-6 Moscow will broadcast mostly entertainment.
It will begin broadcasting five hours a day, increasing later
to 20 hours and finally to round-the-clock programming. The station
is a joint venture with the American Turner Broadcasting System
(TBS), which operates the cable news network CNN. TV-6 Moscow
will show CNN news in Russian translation. Eduard Sagalaev is
chairman of the Confederation of the Unions of Journalists of
the CIS; in 1991 he was director general of Channel 1 of Soviet
central TV. (Vera Tolz)

RUSSIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTES TO BE TAX-EXEMPT. Russian Prime Minister
Viktor Chernomyrdin has ordered that several scientific institutes
be exempted from land rental fees and property taxes to help
ease their financial problems, ITAR-TASS reported on 29-December.
The agency said that the order covers almost all leading industrial
scientific institutes, including those involved in the military
industry. Chernomyrdin's order says the measure was taken in
accordance with the law on changes in Russia's tax system. Research
institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, whose financial
situation is generally catastrophic, do not seem to be affected
by the order. ITAR-TASS quoted an unidentified top government
official as saying "the order is the first step of the new government
in favor of the lobby of industrial directors." He added, however,
that the measure was correct, since Russia could not "allow its
scientific potential, including the one aimed at developing military
industry, to become ineffective as a result of financial difficulties."
(Vera Tolz)

UKRAINE PASSES DECREES ON WAGES AND TRADE. The Ukrainian Council
of Ministers issued several decrees concerning wage and trade
regulations on 29 December, Interfax reported. One decree revises
the pay scale for state sector employees setting the maximum
ratio between highest and lowest salary categories at eight to
one. Another decree doubles the minimum wage from 2,300 to 4,600
karbovantsi per month. A third decree defines regulations for
the production and sale of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.
Finally, a fourth decree requires the reregistration of and outlines
new regulations for quasi-private firms established by state
enterprises. Entitled "On regulation of the activity of small
enterprises and cooperative based on state enterprises," the
decree seems designed to prevent asset stripping in the state
sector. (Erik Whitlock)

TAJIK-AFGHAN TALKS ON REFUGEES. Officials of Tajikistan's Foreign
Ministry met with representatives of the military council of
Afghanistan's northern provinces and Afghanistan's Islamic Movement
in Dushanbe on 28 December, Interfax reported on 29-December,
to discuss the 100,000 Tajik refugees who have fled to Afghanistan.
The report noted that many of the refugees are in regions controlled
by the Hezbi Islami of Afghan fundamentalist leader Gulbuddin
Hekmatyar, over whom the Kabul government has no control. Tajikistan's
pro-Communist government wants the refugees back, but there is
probably little Kabul can do to force sympathizers of the Islamic
Renaissance Party, which is reported to have received assistance
from Hekmatyar, to return to Tajikistan. (Bess Brown)

YELTSIN ISSUES DECREE ABOLISHING OFFICIALS' RIGHT TO STATE DACHAS.
President Yeltsin issued a decree denying officials a right to
state dacha (country house), Radio Rossii reported on 29 December.
The decree states that it is illegal to provide dachas as a special
privilege to people occupying high-level official posts. Work
toward implementing the decree should be completed by the end
of 1994. The state committee on property and Yeltsin's administration
must now submit proposals by February 1993 on the procedure for
using dachas and similar establishments under federal authority.
(Vera Tolz)

RUSSIA TO SIGN UN CONVENTION ON CHEMICAL WEAPONS. On 29 December
the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that Russian
representatives would attend the January 1993 Paris signing ceremony
for the United Nations convention banning chemical weapons. According
to Interfax, the ministry expressed the wish that this document
would become international law, ensuring a reliable ban on this
entire class of "barbaric weapons of mass destruction." (Doug
Clarke)

RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY: TROOPS ABROAD WILL PROTECT THEMSELVES.
The Russian defense ministry has declared that its troops outside
Russia will take "the most decisive measures, including armed
actions to defend their honor, dignity, and life" if "unlawful
actions" against them and their families continue. Krasnaya zvezda
on 30-December revealed that there had been some 600 such actions
in 1992, resulting in the death of 73 servicemen and injury to
more than 160 others. Interfax quoted the declaration as saying
that Russians historically had been "forced to do their army
service outside Russia, and the present generation of Russian
servicemen should not be blamed for being sent to territories
that are now foreign." (Doug Clarke)

SUKHUMI ATTACKED BY ABKHAZ FORCES AS GEORGIAN MINISTER ARRIVES
IN MOSCOW. The Georgian city of Sukhumi, held by Georgian government
troops, came under artillery fire from Abkhaz forces on 29 December,
Western and Russian news agencies reported on the same day. Also
on December 29, Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani arrived
in Moscow for talks with the Russian Army Command. Kitovani told
Interfax that the discussions would concern military and political
issues, including the withdrawal of Russian military units deployed
in Abkhazia. He also stated that a peaceful resolution of the
conflict "greatly depends" on Russia. (Hal Kosiba)

UKRAINIAN-KAZAKHSTAN OIL AGREEMENT DISCUSSED. A Ukrainian government
delegation has signed several agreements with Kazakhstan on economic
cooperation between the two countries, Interfax reported on 29
December. The most important of the agreements provide for Ukrainian
participation in the development of Kazakhstan's oil and gas
industries and for payment procedures that must be changed because
of Ukraine's withdrawal from the ruble zone. The agreement stipulates
that payments for trade after 16 November will be made in the
currencies of the two states using the current exchange rate.
Exchanges prior to that date may be paid for in rubles. Ukraine
also asked to buy 1.1-million tons of wheat from Kazakhstan.
(Bess Brown)

UKRAINIAN-TURKMEN GAS NEGOTIATIONS. The Ukrainian delegation
that held successful talks in Alma-Ata went on to Ashgabat on
29 December to discuss payments for Turkmen gas in 1993, Interfax
reported. A major dispute over the price Ukraine would pay for
Turkmen gas estranged the two countries for several months in
1992; agreement was finally reached on price, but now there is
a major trade imbalance between the two states. The Chairman
of Turkmenistan's State Committee for Supplies, Nurmukhamed Khanamov,
told Interfax that the imbalance in 1993 was likely to be 100
billion rubles, and Turkmenistan is asking that Ukraine sharply
increase the volume of its exports to Turkmenistan. The Ukrainians
proposed purchasing Russian goods and supplying them to Turkmenistan,
permitting Turkmenistan to reexport goods from Ukraine to Afghanistan,
and for some payments for gas to be in hard currency. (Bess-Brown)


POLISH FOREIGN MINISTER MAKES WORKING VISIT TO KIEV. Poland's
Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski arrived in Kiev on 29
December for a two-day working visit, Polish and Ukrainian news
agencies reported. During his stay in the Ukrainian capital,
he will exchange ratification documents of the Ukrainian-Polish
Friendship and Cooperation Treaty signed last spring and lay
the groundwork for a visit to Kiev next month by Polish Prime
Minister Hanna Suchocka. Meanwhile, on 28 December the newspaper
Zycie Warszawy reported that four Ukrainian air force officers
have been arrested in Ukraine for smuggling 29-Indians and Pakistanis
into Poland last month by helicopter. (Bohdan Nahaylo)

BELARUS BANNS PUBLICATIONS PROPAGATING VIOLENCE AND PORNOGRAPHY.
The Belarus government issued a resolution banning pornographic
publications and films and those propagating violence. Belinform-TASS
said the ban has become effective on 29December. The resolution
also prohibits the production and sale of "objects of pornographic
nature." The resolution said any production intended for public
showing in cinemas and video-salons or for radio and TV broadcasts
will be subjected to "obligatory state registration." The government
intends to set up at the ministry of culture a state registration
office to oversee film and video programs. (Vera Tolz)

MOLDOVAN-ROMANIAN POLEMIC ESCALATES. Last week's Bucharest dailies,
including Evenimentul Zilei, cited Virgil Magureanu, the head
of the Romanian Information Service (the Securitate's successor)
as informally telling journalists that his Service was "spearheading"
Romania's efforts to reunify with Moldova, and was using "its
specific methods" in this effort. The Moldovan government issued
an official protest which was carried by the Moldovan press on
28 December. On 29 December, the Romanian media carried a retort
from the Romanian Information Service which said that its chief's
statement had been quoted "selectively and in a distorted manner"
by the journalists and that it had only been made "to a small
circle and unofficially." It added that the Moldovan government's
reaction "can only poison bilateral relations." This is the latest
in a series of polemical exchanges triggered by recent Romanian
statements pressing for unification, answered by Moldovan protests.
(Vladimir Socor)

MOLDOVAN POLLS ON HYPOTHETICAL UNIFICATION WITH ROMANIA. Recent
opinion polls in Moldova show between 7% and 10% of the population
describing unification with Romania as "necessary," between 10%
and 10% calling it "possible after a long transition period,"
and around 70% deeming it "undesirable" and firmly favoring independent
Moldovan statehood, Interfax reported on 29 December. It also
cited the Vice-Chairman of the Moldovan Parliament, Victor Puscasu,
as refuting Romania's thesis about the need to "repair the historic
injustice of 1940" (the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia from
Romania). There is no need to restore the status-quo of 1940
because Moldova existed as an independent state long before that,
Puscasu said. (Vladimir Socor)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

NO MORE PANIC IN BELGRADE? International media reported on 29
December that rump Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic lost a
vote of confidence in both houses of Parliament and is expected
to resign shortly. Panic took office in July and has survived
two previous votes of confidence proposed by radical nationalists.
His recent defeat in the Serbian presidential election by President
Slobodan Milosevic appears, however, to have cost him the previously
crucial support of Montenegrin deputies, although Reuters quoted
a US State Department spokesman as saying that the election "failed
to meet international standards for a free and fair democratic
process." The 30 December New York Times quotes Panic as saying
that he still feels a responsibility to his native country and
will stay on to organize antinationalist forces, especially among
the intellectuals and students. He may well have his work cut
out for him: Western news agencies report that 100-150,000 educated
professionals left Serbia-Montenegro in 1992, and that there
are currently 5,200 job openings for academics, engineers, and
doctors. (Patrick Moore)

BRITAIN CAN NOW "IMAGINE ARMED ACTION" AGAINST SERBS. The BBC
on 30-December reports that Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd told
the Daily Express that "the bloody-minded cruelty of the Serbs
in Bosnia, and the growing risk of a wider conflict have raised
the stakes." London consequently "can imagine armed action against
[the Serbs] to prevent a general Balkan war." He added that Serbia
"should note this change" in Britain's attitude, which was previously
opposed to intervention since it might endanger British and other
UN troops already in Bosnia. (Patrick Moore)

BOSNIAN UPDATE. Reuters reports on 30 December that Muslim forces
continue to group south of Sarajevo for a possible assault. German
radio stations quote rump Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic as
warning that any increase in violence could hamstring efforts
aimed at restoring peace. Western news agencies also report the
first deaths in Sarajevo from the winter cold. Finally, the 30
December Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung says that often strained
relations between Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and Bosnian
Muslim leader Alija Izetbegovic have taken a turn for the worse
in conjunction with the two men's recent failure to agree on
Bosnia's political future. Izetbegovic is believed to be still
resisting Tudjman's demands for a partition along ethnic lines,
although the Muslim leader no longer insists on maintaining a
unitary state. Moreover, in interviews Tudjman has repeatedly
done little to hide his basic distrust of Muslims. (Patrick Moore)


ROMANIA AGAIN DENIES INVOLVEMENT IN YUGOSLAV FIGHTING. Following
an earlier statement by the Foreign Ministry, the Romanian Defense
Ministry in turn has now denied allegations that Romanian officers
and other volunteers are involved in the fighting in former Yugoslavia.
The denials were prompted by Croatian President Franjo Tudjman's
recent statement that Romanians were fighting on the Serbian
side. A Romanian Defense Ministry statement carried by Radio
Bucharest on 29 December emphasized that "no Romanian soldier
is involved in combat action." It added that "Romania observes
the economic sanctions against Yugoslavia out of conviction."
(Vladimir Socor)

WIDE RECOGNITION OF CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA. Many neighbor states
have indicated that they will recognize the independent Czech
Republic and Slovakia upon the breakup of Czechoslovakia on 1
January. The Hungarian ambassador in Prague passed a note on
23 December promising recognition and indicating that the consulate
in Bratislava will be upgraded to an embassy, Magyar Hirlap reported
on the 24th. PAP reports that Foreign Minister Skubiszewski informed
the Czechoslovak Ambassador in Warsaw on the 24th that Poland
would recognize the new states. AFP reported on the 29th that
the rump Yugoslav federal government will recognize both, and,
according to ITAR-TASS, Russian President Yeltsin signed a decree
ordering talks on diplomatic recognition that same day. Romania,
Ukraine, Cuba, and China have also indicated their intentions
recognize the independent republics. (RFE/RL RI staff).

CZECH PARLIAMENT PASSES CITIZENSHIP LAW. On 29 December the Czech
National Council approved a law on the citizenship of the Czech
Republic. CTK reports that all people who are citizens of Czechoslovakia's
Czech Republic (Czechoslovak citizens born in the Czech Republic)
will automatically become citizens of the Czech Republic on 1
January 1993. The Czech Republic will not allow dual citizenship.
Only those people who held Czech citizenship and the citizenship
of another country before 1-January 1993 will be allowed to keep
dual citizenship. Noncitizens who apply for Czech citizenship
will be required to prove that they have resided in the Czech
Republic for the past five years, have given up the citizenship
of any other state, have not been sentenced for committing a
crime, and have knowledge of Czech. The last requirement will
not apply to citizens of Slovakia applying for Czech citizenship.
Slovak citizens will be able to gain Czech citizenship if they
have resided in the Czech Republic for the past two years, have
given up Slovak citizenship, and have not been sentenced for
committing a crime in the past 5 years. (Jiri Pehe)

CZECH PARLIAMENT CONDEMNS RACISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM. A resolution
passed by the Czech National Council on 29 December states that
"the Czech National Council is alarmed by the occurrence of apparent
manifestations of anti-Semitism and racism." The parliament "is
turning to all citizens and state institutions to show, through
unambiguous and resolute actions aimed against these unacceptable
sentiments, that [Czech] society is democratic." Citizens should
"contribute to [creating the] atmosphere of tolerance and reject
all forms of hatred." CTK carried the text of the resolution."
(Jiri Pehe)

CZECH GOVERNMENT PARTIES AGREE ON NEW MINISTERS. According to
an agreement reached by leaders of the Czech government parties
on 29 December, Antonin Baudys, a member of the People's Party
and deputy prime minister in the outgoing federal government,
will become the first Czech minister of defense, and Jan Strasky,
a member of the Civic Democratic Party and the federal prime
minister, will be Czech minister of transportation. If approved
by the presidiums of the government parties, Czech Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus will submit the nominations to the Presidium of
the Czech National Council for approval on 30 December. Following
the meeting of the government parties' leaders, Klaus told CTK
that the Czech president is likely to be elected in the second
half of January. (Jiri Pehe)

SEJM ACCEPTS "CHRISTIAN VALUES" AMENDMENT TO TV LAW. After debating
the Senate's amendments to the Law on Broadcasting and Television,
the Sejm voted to approve two of the most controversial amendments
to the law it had first passed on 15 October, in spite of the
fact that the Sejm's legislative and cultural committees and
most caucuses opposed them, PAP reported on 29 December. The
new provisions include stipulations that radio and television
programs should respect the Christian value system and should
not promote activities that violate the law or the interests
of the state nor opinions that conflict with morality and the
public good. The Sejm also approved an amendment anchoring the
National Broadcasting Council in the Constitution. The law still
needs to be signed by the president before it can take effect.
(Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

POLISH ECONOMY IS "HALF PRIVATE." Minister of Industry and Trade
Waclaw Niewiarowski reported to the Sejm on the state of privatization
and the government's privatization plans for 1993. PAP quoted
him on 29 December as saying that the economy is already "half
private," meaning that it is "more independent of politics and
politicians." This trend will be continued in 1993. The government
expects the proceeds of privatization to contribute some 8.8-trillion
zloty to the state budget if the plans can be realized without
any hitches. Niewiarowski praised the booming private sector.
He denied that only the most prosperous state-owned enterprises
are being privatized. The Sejm approved the plans for 1993 but
rejected Niewiarowski's report. (Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

WALESA SLANDER TRIAL BEGINS. The trial of two students, one of
whom is also a municipal councilor, charged by the public prosecutor
with slandering Poland's President Lech Walesa opened before
the regional court in Brzeg on 29 December, PAP reported. The
two, members of the radical Freedom Party, are accused of having
shouted "Down with Lech Walesa, KGB agent!" during rallies on
13 June and 13 July 1992. (Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

PUBLIC SERVICE PRICES INCREASE IN HUNGARY. MTI reported that
on 1 January 1993 prices of railroad and bus tickets, mail, water,
sewage service, and television fees will be raised. The new increases
will be necessary because of the new 6% turnover tax and rising
costs, which reached 15.5% in September compared to the December
1991 level. The transportation price increases will average 20-22%;
water and sewage service prices will go up between 26 and 68%;
and postal charges will be raised by 17% on average. The monthly
TV charge will be raised from 250 to 300 forint (about $3.60).
(Karoly Okolicsanyi)



BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT VOTES TO FREE LUKANOV. Nearly six months
after the arrest of Andrey Lukanov, former prime minister and
prominent member of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, the Bulgarian
National Assembly voted to set him free, BTA reports. Late on
29-December the parliament partially repealed a previous decision,
taken on 7-July, to lift Lukanov's parliamentary immunity and
arrest him. Although the Constitution precludes the restoration
of Lukanov's immunity, on 30-December Duma quoted his lawyer
that Lukanov plans to return directly to parliament. He could
be freed through an agreement between the BSP and the mainly
Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms. (Kjell Engelbrekt)


UDF EXCLUDES DISSENTING ORGANIZATIONS. Meanwhile, on 29 December
the UDF National Coordinating Council expelled two of the coalition's
member organizations, BTA reports. The Alternative Social Liberal
Party and the Union of Free Democrats were forced to leave after
refusing to distance themselves from the attempt to form a government
by Lyuben Berov, an MRF nominee. Whereas the UDF leadership has
categorically rejected participation in Berov's cabinet, several
prominent ASLP members have been mentioned as likely candidates
for key ministerial posts. Reuters reports that some 20,000 UDF
sympathizers demonstrated in the evening in Sofia to express
support for their leaders and calling for new elections. (Kjell
Engelbrekt)

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION DECLINES IN ESTONIA AND LATVIA. The Estonian
Statistics Department announced that industrial production during
the first 11 months of 1992 decreased by 39.5% over the same
period last year, BNS reported on 29-December. Production in
building materials declined 59.3%, glass by 57.8%, mechanical
and metals industry-55.8%, and the chemical industry-44%. Production
of textiles, leather goods, jackets, food concentrates, butter,
and skim milk powder, however, increased. The Latvian State Statistics
Committee reported that industrial production in the same 11-month
period decreased by 33 billion Latvian rubles (34.4% in comparable
prices) from 1991 to 1992. By the end of November the production
decline was 13.5 billion Latvian rubles in wholesale prices,
including food industry inventories worth 2.5 billion rubles.
(Saulius Girnius)

MEN OF THE YEAR IN BALTIC STATES. Public opinion studies conducted
in November and early December by the Center for Public Opinion
Studies (in Lithuania), EMOR (in Estonia), and LASOPEC (in Latvia)
show that Lithuania's Acting President Algirdas Brazauskas, Latvian
Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs, and former Estonian
Supreme Council Chairman Arnold Ruutel were considered the "Man
of the Year" in their republics, Baltfax reported on 29 December.
US President George Bush was acknowledged to be the "Man of the
Year" on the international level in all three countries. The
"temperature" of the national economies (on a scale from -100
to +100) was -72 in Lithuania, -72 in Latvia, and -50 in
Estonia. The "temperatures" of the household economies were -41
in Lithuania, -64 in Latvia, and -31 in Estonia. Some 29% of
the population in Lithuania expect the economic situation to
improve by the end of 1993; 23% expect it to worsen. The corresponding
figures for Latvia were 12% and 57% and in Estonia 23 and 46%.
(Saulius Girnius)

LOZORAITIS VISITS VILNIUS. Lithuania's ambassador to the US,
Stasys Lozoraitis, arrived in Lithuania on 28 December to decide
whether to be a candidate in the 14 February presidential elections.
On 29-December he met briefly with Democratic Labor Party faction
chairman Justinas Karosas and later with Acting President Brazauskas,
BNS reports. He will meet with former Supreme Council chairman
Vytautas Landsbergis in early January. Lozoraitis said that he
does not wish to run against Brazauskas or Landsbergis and sees
his candidacy as helping "to guarantee a new period in the political
life of Lithuania, in which the opposition and the government
would start working together or debate differences in a civilized
way." (Saulius Girnius) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba
& Charles Trumbull




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