Upon the education of the people of this country the fate of this country depends. - Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 241, 16 December 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

CHERNOMYRDIN'S FIRST NEWS CONFERENCE. Judging by Russian and
Western agencies' coverage, Viktor Chernomyrdin's pronouncements
at his first news conference as prime minister on 14 December
were, as might have been expected, cautious, largely noncommittal,
and mostly vague. He repeatedly pledged to pursue the path of
reform, although his definition of reform and the speed with
which he carries it out may differ from that of Egor Gaidar.
In his rare specific utterances, Chernomyrdin adhered to Gaidar's
policies on continuing to regulate energy prices, retaining kolkhozes
and sovkhozes, eschewing wage and price freezes, pursuing privatization,
and working with the published draft budget for 1993. His major
departures from the Gaidar line appeared to be his declared emphasis
on output recovery rather than curbing inflation and his support
for heavy industry. (Keith Bush)

YELTSIN REASSURES KOHL ON REFORM BUT CABINET CHANGES EXPECTED.
President Boris Yeltsin told visiting German Chancellor Helmut
Kohl that he had worked with the new Russian Prime Minister Viktor
Chernomyrdin for "a long time" and that he is convinced that
"there will be no departure from reforms," ITAR-TASS reported
on 15-December. Commenting on the outcome of the Congress, Yeltsin
said that "the main result was that we managed to maintain our
reform course, despite great pressure from the conservative wing
. . . " Reuters reported. Izvestiya, however, stated on the same
day that at least four key reformist ministers would resign.
The Boston Globe quoted presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich
on the same day as saying that "[former Acting Prime Minister
Egor] Gaidar will be part of the presidential team, as his main
intellectual adviser." (Alexander Rahr & Suzanne Crow)

RUSSIA STILL DEFAULTING ON FOOD LOAN REPAYMENTS. The US Department
of Agriculture has reported that Russia failed to make another
$10.9 million payment on loans from commercial banks to buy US
grain and other farm products. Russia has been suspended from
the credit guarantees program since November due to its failure
to make repayments, and is now $40 million in arrears. The United
States had made a total of $5,000 million available in the form
of guarantees to American commercial banks to lend to Russia
to buy farm products. (Sheila Marnie & Robert Lyle)

BREAD PRICES TO RISE SHARPLY IN ST. PETERSBURG. Bread prices
in St. Petersburg will increase by 150% starting on 16 December,
according to Interfax on 15 December. The current price of a
loaf is 20 rubles; this will rise to 35 rubles. The increase
is due to the fact that the city budget cannot afford subsidies
for bread and flour. The city currently has enough flour stocks
to last five days. (Sheila Marnie)

RUSSIA, GEORGIA TRADE ACCUSATIONS OVER HELICOPTER DOWNING. On
16-December representatives of the Russian and Georgian military
commands inspected the site where a Russian military helicopter
crashed two days earlier after being hit by a ground-to-air missile.
The bodies of 38-women and children have been recovered; the
death toll may reach 64, ITAR-TASS reported. Both the Georgian
Defense Ministry and Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze
have reiterated denials that Georgia was responsible for the
incident, arguing that the missile was fired from Abkhaz-controlled
territory. The Georgian Defense Ministry further claimed that
the Russian military had rejected a Georgian request that Russian
helicopters avoid overflying the area in which the helicopter
was shot down, and that Russian military officials had replied
to the Georgian request by stating that "Russian helicopters
land on the territory of Russian military units, which is the
territory of the Russian Federation." Whether the latter assertion
has any basis in international law is doubtful. (Liz Fuller)


KRAVCHUK ON RUSSIAN "IMPERIAL THINKING." Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk has once again raised the problem of "the disease
that is called imperial thinking." Referring to the recent decision
of the Russian Congress of People's Deputies to raise the question
of the status of the Crimean city of Sevastopol, Kravchuk explained
that the step was taken by people who still believe in the idea
that "all of the peoples [of the former Soviet Union] live under
the leadership of the great Russian people." The result, he continued,
is that such people feel free to interfere in the internal affairs
of others in order to "impose order." Kravchuk's remarks were
made in an interview on 10 December with the Ukrainian National
Information Agency and state television. (Roman Solchanyk)

KRAVCHUK AND YELTSIN TO MEET. The presidents of Ukraine and Russia
will meet on 24-December in Moscow, Radio Ukraine reported on
15-December. It is expected that the two leaders will sign a
package of economic agreements that are currently being finalized.
(Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINE NEEDS MORE TIME TO STUDY ARMS TREATY. Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk on 15 December said that the Ukrainian parliament
was entitled to more time to examine the Strategic Arms Reduction
Treaty (START) before ratifying it. He was quoted by Reuters
as saying that the parliament had to safeguard the republic's
economic and strategic interests. Ukrainian Foreign Minister
Anatolii Zlenko gave U.S. Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger
the same message when they met in Stockholm. He explained that
the parliament would have to "resolve several complex issues"
and would not have enough time in the one-week session planned
for December. He added that the parliament would reconvene on
16-January. (Doug Clarke)

RUSSIA TO SPEED TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM GERMANY. During meetings
in Moscow on 15 December, Chancellor Helmut Kohl and President
Yeltsin agreed that all Russian forces will depart Germany by
mid-1994, some six months ahead of schedule, Reuters reported.
In a 15 December radio interview, German Finance Minister Theo
Waigel suggested that Germany might offer Russia an additional
DM-500,000,000 ($315,000,000) to hasten the withdrawal. On the
same day ITAR-TASS reported that the first German-built housing
project for the withdrawing troops, a 1,160-unit settlement in
Vladikavkaz, would be officially turned over to the Russian ministry
of defense on 16 December. (Doug Clarke and John Lepingwell)


YELTSIN DECREE ON RUSSIAN-GERMAN FOUNDATION. On 15 December President
Yeltsin expressed his support for the "Russian Germans" Foundation
set up by Russian Germans to ensure their social, economic, and
cultural development, ITAR-TASS reported. Yeltsin signed a decree
providing for state financial and other assistance to the foundation.
An accompanying press release said the decree was aimed at implementing
the April 1991 Russian law "On the Rehabilitation of the Repressed
Peoples" and the presidential decree on urgent measures to rehabilitate
the Russian Germans. (Ann Sheehy)

ITAR-TASS: CORRESPONDENTS NOT WORKING FOR INTELLIGENCE AGENCY.
Vitalii Ignatenko, director-general of the main Russian government
news agency ITAR-TASS, said in an interview with Literaturnaya
gazeta on 16 December that the agency's foreign correspondents
are prohibited from working for the Russian foreign intelligence
service. But later in the same interview, Ignatenko added that
he did not care if his staff members were sharing their information
with the secret service, provided that they did excellent journalistic
work. Ignatenko said the current situation is different from
that of the past, when some Soviet KGB agents used their correspondent
positions as cover for intelligence work. (Several Russian journalists
have claimed in the Russian press, however, that the practice
of intelligence officers working under journalistic cover continues.)
(Vera Tolz)

GORBACHEV ON THE CONGRESS. Mikhail Gorbachev gave high marks
to the Congress of People's Deputies, which met in Moscow from
1 to 14-December. According to Russian TV, Gorbachev viewed the
election of Chernomyrdin as a victory of healthy, centrist forces.
Gorbachev stated that Chernomyrdin will continue the market-oriented
reforms. Western agencies and an RFE/RL correspondent also reported
that Gorbachev had criticized Yeltsin over his confrontation
with the Congress, calling him "capricious," and accusing him
of taking advice only "from a very narrow group of...personally
devoted but rather incompetent people." Gorbachev also voiced
contempt for Andrei Kozyrev's exercise in "shock diplomacy" at
the Stockholm CSCE conference. (Julia Wishnevsky)

RUBLE EXCHANGE RATE HOVERS. The ruble appreciated slightly vis--vis
the dollar on 15-December at the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange,
various Western and Russian sources reported. At the end of the
session the dollar bought 418 rubles, down a ruble from previous
trading. Trade volume was $57.6 million. (Erik Whitlock)

RUSSIAN ARMED FORCES NEARLY ONE MILLION SHORT. The Russian defense
ministry press service announced on 14 December that there was
currently a shortfall of 960,000 people in the Russian armed
forces. As quoted by Interfax, the ministry said that only about
20% of the 1,500,000 people potential draftees actually end up
in the service. The others find various reasons for a waver.
The ministry said that 41,581 young men failed to show up at
their induction centers. (Doug Clarke)

RUSSIAN FIGHTERS DELIVERED TO CHINA. Radio Vladivostok announced
on 15-December that 20-Su-27 jet fighters had been flown to China
from the Yurii Gagarin aircraft factory in Komsomolsk-on-the-Amur.
The report said that it was the first time in the history of
export deliveries from this plant that the aircraft had not been
shipped by rail or ship. Interfax had announced the deal in August
of this year, but in October had indicated that the transaction
had been annulled by the Chinese. (Doug Clarke)

RATINGS OF UKRAINIAN POLITICAL PARTIES. A survey conducted in
four Ukrainian oblasts in November shows widespread public apathy
towards political parties. Asked whom they would vote for among
fifteen political parties if elections were held now, almost
76% responded that they could not say. But 31% of those questioned
said that they would not vote at all. "Rukh" had the greatest
number of sympathizers among those who had made their choice.
The results were reported by Ukrainian TV on 8 December. (Roman
Solchanyk)

FIGHTING CONTINUES IN DUSHANBE. The new chairman of Tajikistan
National Security Committee (formerly the Tajik KGB), Saidamir
Zukhurov, said on 15 December that fighting between small opposition
groups and units loyal to the new government was continuing in
Dushanbe, but major armed opposition formations had been driven
out of the city, ITAR-TASS reported. Government attempts to persuade
opposition groupings outside Dushanbe to end their resistance
were reported to have been unsuccessful. The deputy commander
of the Pyandzh border guard unit told Interfax that weapons are
still being brought into Tajikistan from Afghanistan, and one
smuggler reportedly told the border guards who detained him that
his group in Kurgan-Tyube's Kumsangir Raion, an opposition stronghold,
has acquired two Stinger missiles. (Bess Brown)

RUSSIAN BORDER GUARDS CLASH WITH TAJIK GOVERNMENT SUPPORTERS.
The press center of the Russian border troops in Tajikistan told
Interfax on 15 December that the pro-Communist Kulyab Popular
Movement, a mainstay of the new government in Tajikistan, had
besieged a border post the previous day, demanding that ten Russians
who had sought refuge at the post from fighting between Tajik
groups be handed over to the Kulyabis. The Russian refugees were
evacuated to Dushanbe by helicopter and the Kulyabis were eventually
persuaded to abandon the siege, but the attack indicates that
the Russian military in Tajikistan remains in a tense position
between factions-not an encouraging basis for initiating a peacekeeping
mission. (Bess Brown)

WESTERN FIRMS SHOW INTEREST IN KYRGYZSTAN'S MINERAL RESOURCES.
Kyrgyzstan took the novel step earlier this year of employing
a western businessman and former US ambassador as their agent
in the United States, and empowered him to negotiate the sale
of mineral and petroleum rights on its behalf, according to an
article in the Journal of Commerce on 8 December. The man involved
is Arnold Saltzman, president of the New York firm "Windsor Productions."
Kyrgyzstan has undeveloped deposits of gold, silver, mercury,
tin and petroleum, and several western companies are already
involved in negotiations. According to Interfax on 9 December,
the Canadian Cameco corporation has signed an agreement to develop
the Kumtor gold deposit through the creation of a joint venture
with the Kyrgyz state concern, "Kyrgyzzoloto." The joint venture
plans to produce 16-tons of gold a year. (Sheila Marnie)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

INTERNATIONAL MOVES ON THE BOSNIAN ISSUE. International media
reported on 15-December that the CSCE foreign ministers' meeting
in Stockholm urged the UN Security Council to "urgently consider"
measures to enforce the no-fly zone over Bosnia. The session
did not make similar recommendations on lifting the arms embargo
on Bosnia, however, but merely urged the UN to discuss the matter.
The 16-December Los Angeles Times quoted Bosnian Foreign Minister
Haris Silajdzic as saying in response: "we were entitled to expect
more as our people are dying, being killed, or frozen to death
. . . . It is absurd to have our hands tied while we are being
massacred." Elsewhere, on 15 December the BBC said that NATO
was making contingency plans to enforce the no-fly zone and possibly
take additional steps toward military intervention in the crisis.
Some observers suggested that there was nothing unusual in drafting
such contingency plans, while other analysts indicated that NATO
was trying to put pressure on the Serbs. Austrian Foreign Minister
Alois Mock told Austrian TV that "things are moving" in the direction
of armed foreign intervention in Bosnia, although he again ruled
out any direct role for Austria. (Patrick Moore)

CROATIAN PRIME MINISTER VISITS HUNGARY. Croatian Prime Minister
Hrvoje Sarinic will pay a one-day working visit to Hungary on
16 December at the invitation of Prime Minister Jozsef Antall,
MTI reported on 15 December. Accompanied by his ministers in
charge of foreign trade, agriculture, and communications, Sarinic
will meet with President Arpad Goncz and Speaker of the Parliament
Gyorgy Szabad. The two countries will sign a basic treaty governing
their relationships. The two countries stressed that their increasingly
warm ties are not directed against any states of former Yugoslavia.
(Judith Pataki)

EC OBSERVERS IN HUNGARY. In accordance with an agreement signed
between Hungary and the European Community, eight members of
an EC observation team have arrived in Szeged. The team will
monitor problems on Hungary's southern border arising as a result
of the civil war in rump Yugoslavia. The EC mission includes
participants from Great Britain, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy;
all are unarmed. They will cooperate with the Hungarian authorities
including the police, the army and the border guards. Should
the need arise, more observers would be called in, MTI reported
on 15 December. (Judith Pataki)

CSCE ADMITS CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA. The Conference on Security
and Cooperation in Europe admitted the two successor states of
Czechoslovakia as new members on 15 December, various news agencies
reported. Foreign ministers of the CSCE member countries announced
the decision in Stockholm; the measure will go into effect on
1-January 1993. In a separate development, Austria announced
that it will establish full diplomatic relations with the Czech
and Slovak republics after the split of Czechoslovakia. The Austrian
consulate in Bratislava will be upgraded to an embassy. Austrian
Chancellor Franz Vranitzky made a statement to this effect during
Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus's visit to Vienna on 15 December.
(Jan Obrman)

CZECH PARLIAMENT TO VOTE ON CONSTITUTION TODAY. The Czech National
Council is expected to vote on the Czech draft constitution on
16-December. The initial draft was amended following talks between
the ruling coalition of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and the left
opposition parties. The new draft proposes a three-fifths majority
for constitutional changes (instead of a simple majority favored
by the ruling coalition) and features references to environmental
protection and fundamental human rights, and provides for the
possibility of holding referendums. The new draft also gives
the future Czech president the right to send back to parliament
all laws for re-evaluation. It is widely expected that at least
15 opposition deputies will support the draft, which makes it
likely that it will be approved. (Jan Obrman)

KOVAC TO BECOME SLOVAK PRESIDENT? In an interview with the Czech
communist daily Rude pravo published on 15 December, Michal Kovac,
chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly (that will be dissolved
before 1 January 1993), said that leading officials of the Movement
for a Democratic Slovakia offered him the presidency of the future
independent Slovak state. Kovac, 62, also served as finance minister
in the first postcommunist Slovak government and has been a supporter
of Slovakia's independence. A former communist, he was expelled
from the party in 1970 and is believed to enjoy the support of
Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, which makes his election by the
Slovak parliament very likely. The Slovak president will probably
be elected sometime in January 1993. (Jan Obrman)

ZHELEV ASKS MRF TO FORM BULGARIAN CABINET. On 15 December Bulgarian
President Zhelyu Zhelev asked the Movement for Rights and Freedoms,
the predominantly Turkish party that makes up the third largest
parliamentary caucus, to try to form a government, BTA reports.
Spokeswoman Sherife Mustafa confirmed earlier statements that
the MRF will negotiate with the UDF to create a coalition cabinet,
but MRF Chairman Ahmed Dogan said there would also be consultations
with the BSP and parties not represented in the present parliament.
Dogan rejected the possibility of MRF forming a minority cabinet.
In the meantime, Edvin Sugarev, deputy chairman of the UDF parliamentary
group, announced his resignation in protest over renewed UDF
attempts to negotiate with the MRF. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

RESCHEDULING BULGARIA'S DEBT. According to a Paris Club press
release on 15-December, an agreement has been reached between
Bulgaria and its 14 creditor nations. Western agencies say that
government creditors are satisfied with Bulgaria's economic reform
program and have therefore agreed to rescheduling the debt payments
over ten years, including a six-year grace period. The agreement
covers Bulgaria's $2 billion debt to government creditors; another
$8.5 billion is owed to private banks. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

ROMANIAN PRINTERS BEGIN NATION-WIDE STRIKE. The Romanian Printers'
Union, representing some 14,000 members, called a nation-wide
strike at state-owned publishing houses to begin on 16 December.
In interviews with Radio Bucharest and Western agencies, union
leaders said that the strike will continue until the government
meets the strikers' pay demands. The printers are asking that
their pay be doubled. The government has offered a pay raise
of up to 50%, warning, however, against raising printing rates,
which could scare off customers and eventually lead to the elimination
of jobs in the printing industry. Union spokesmen say the strike
will stop publication of five national newspapers, 35 local dailies,
and some 50 weeklies. (Dan Ionescu)

1989 UPRISING COMMEMORATED IN TIMISOARA. Official ceremonies
begin on 16-December in the western Romanian city to mark the
third anniversary of the events of 1989. The uprising, which
eventually led to Nicolae Ceausescu's overthrow, erupted in Timisoara
on 16 December 1989 when Romanian authorities tried to evict
dissident ethnic Hungarian pastor Laszlo Tokes from his church.
According to official reports, 97 persons were killed in that
city alone. The number of people killed throughout Romania was
put in a recent report by military prosecutors at 1,104. On 15
December, Radio Bucharest broadcast a message from President
Ion Iliescu to the citizens of Timisoara hailing the "heroes
and martyrs of Timisoara," but making no mention of Tokes's role.
(Dan Ionescu)

WALESA DEBATES MIODOWICZ, AGAIN. Polish President Lech Walesa
sparred with former OPZZ federation chief Alfred Miodowicz for
an hour on 15-December, four years after the two men met in the
live televised debate that signaled the return of Solidarity
to the public stage. In the 1988 debate, Walesa ran rings around
Miodowicz-then also a Politburo member-foiling the authorities'
plan to dilute the Solidarity leader's message of pluralism and
freedom in a sauce of trade union issues. This time round, more
attention was directed at Walesa's reasons for accepting Miodowicz's
challenge than at the debate itself. Walesa admitted that all
of his associates had urged against giving any new legitimacy
to a figure from a bygone era (Miodowicz heads the marginal Working
People's Movement), but stressed that open discussion is necessary.
Miodowicz charged during the debate that market reforms had brought
only poverty and despair; Walesa countered that the changes of
1988-89 have opened vast possibilities. Gazeta Wyborcza of 16
December called the debate "boring." (Louisa Vinton)

STRIKES SPREAD IN SILESIA. PAP reports early on 16 December that
38 of Poland's 63-coal mines have joined the general mine strike
proclaimed by Solidarity. Two former official unions and the
Solidarity '80 splinter union endorsed the strike on 15 December,
adding their own political demands-including new elections-to
the initial list. Solidarity ruled out a joint strike with the
other unions. The head of Solidarity's mine branch said the strike
could last as long as two months, until coal reserves are exhausted.
The miners are demanding that the government reverse declines
in real wages and bail out indebted mines, but official concessions
are unlikely. Only 22 mines turn a profit; 41 create losses.
A government spokesman expressed concern that the miners' strike
could endanger the signing of the "pact on state firms," which
is expected by year's end. (Louisa Vinton)

TIGHTER CONTROLS FOR POLAND'S BORDERS. Poland's Internal Affairs
Ministry has approved measures designed to limit the influx of
travelers from the countries of the former Soviet Union. Upwards
of 10-million former Soviet citizens crossed Poland's eastern
border in 1992, PAP reported on 15 December. New plans call for
a system of police registration of invitations issued to visitors
from Bulgaria, Romania, and all countries of the former Soviet
Union except Lithuania. Poles issuing the invitations would have
to pay a one-million-zloty fee to cover potential deportation
and health-care costs. German border officials say that the number
of crossings this year has doubled over last; some 18,000 people
were caught trying to cross illegally. Finally, Polish and German
government officials announced on 15 December that talks will
be held within a month "to find a solution to the problem of
asylum-seekers satisfactory to both sides." (Louisa Vinton)

SAJUDIS TO REFORM, LATVIAN RADICALS ORGANIZE. BNS reported on
13 December that Vytautas Landsbergis, honorary chairman of Sajudis,
has been authorized to form a committee to reorganize the Lithuanian
popular movement. The movement failed to win a majority in the
recent parliamentary elections in Lithuania. That same day in
Riga, 133-delegates founded the Latvian National Association
Tevzeme (Fatherland). The new organization draws its support
mainly from the radical members of the People's Front of Latvia
who split from the PFL after its last congress in October. (Dzintra
Bungs)

BALTS ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. On 11 December Lithuania's Acting
President Algirdas Brazauskas visited Latvia, his first official
visit abroad since his Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party won
the elections. Together with Latvia's head of state, Anatolijs
Gorbunovs, Brazauskas appealed for financial aid to accelerate
the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic States. The
appeal, subject to further coordination with Tallinn and Moscow,
is addressed to CSCE member states, Baltfax reported on 11 December.
Meanwhile, on 15-December in Stockholm, Estonian Foreign Minister
Trivimi Velliste told the CSCE foreign ministers meeting that
of all Estonian territory held by Russian troops, only 6% has
been returned and that some 200-separate sites are still under
Russian military control in and around Tallinn alone. While the
number of Russian military personnel in Estonia is decreasing,
he said, it is because Estonia has not permitted new conscripts
to replace those who have completed their military service, an
RFE/RL correspondent reports. (Dzintra Bungs)

LITHUANIA, NORWAY AGREE ON NO-VISA ENTRY. On 15 December Lithuanian
Foreign Minister Voldemaras Katkus and Norwegian Ambassador Per
Gullik signed an agreement in Vilnius on visa-free travel between
the two countries, Baltfax reports. (Dzintra Bungs)

GORBUNOVS DENIES ALLEGATIONS OF ANTI-SEMITISM. Prompted by a
recent article in Life magazine alleging anti-Semitism in Latvia,
Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs assured the press
on 15 December that in all its laws, official documents, and
policies Latvia adheres strictly to the 19 September 1990 declaration
"On the Condemnation and Impermissibility of Genocide and Anti-Semitism
in Latvia." As reported by BNS on 15-December, Gorbunovs also
invited anyone concerned about the status of the Jewish community
to come to Latvia to see for themselves. (Dzintra Bungs)

ROMANIA, MOLDOVA SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. Returning from an official
visit to Moldova, on 15 December Romanian Defense Minister Lt.
Gen. Nicolae Spiroiu provided details on a bilateral military
agreement signed in Chisinau the day before. Radio Bucharest
quoted Spiroiu as saying that the new agreement offers a legal
framework for cooperation between the two armies. Romania will
help train and arm the nascent Moldovan forces. The two sides
also pledged to promote contacts between their armies in the
field of culture, sports, and science. Spiroiu also held talks
with his Moldovan counterpart Gen. Pavel Creanga, and was received
by President Mircea Snegur and Premier Andrei Sangheli. (Dan
Ionescu)

POLAND-BELARUS MILITARY TALKS. PAP reported on 15 December that
the Polish and Belarusian defense ministers had that day in Warsaw
signed a "statement on establishing cooperation" between the
two ministries. The document provides for establishing permanent
contacts. The report said that an agreement on military cooperation
will be signed when Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz
visits Belarus next year. (Doug Clarke)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull






[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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