The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. - Thomas Carlyle 1975-1881
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 233, 04 December 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

YELTSIN, RUTSKOI SEEK MORE POWER AT PARLIAMENT'S EXPENSE. Russian
President Boris Yeltsin has asked Congress to provide him special
powers, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Moscow on 2 December.
Yeltsin presented a draft resolution that would empower him to
submit to the parliament draft legislation on economic reform
issues. Parliament would have to consider the president's draft
laws in the first reading without examining them in committee.
Parliament would have no right to alter the proposed law without
consulting the president. Hardliners immediately asserted that
Yeltsin was now seeking not only additional, but emergency powers.
Aleksandr Rutskoi also demanded an increase in his vice presidential
powers, Radio Rossii reported on 2 December. (Alexander Rahr)


RUSSIAN CONGRESS CRITICIZES CABINET, SEEKS NEW POWERS. After
ending debates on the state of the economy, legislators are expected
to adopt a resolution describing the cabinet's performance as
"unsatisfactory," ITAR-TASS reported on 3 December. First Deputy
Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko stated that anyone who wants
Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar replaced should be regarded
as an opponent of reform, according to "Novosti" on 3 December.
In the next few days, the legislators want to adopt amendments
to the existing Constitution, altering one fifth of its provisions.
They especially want to strengthen legislative control over the
executive branch. The Congress' focus on altering the Constitution
may delay the adoption of a new Constitution, which President
Yeltsin regards as a prerequisite to continuing the reform process.
(Alexander Rahr)

REGIONAL LEADERS TO SUPPORT GAIDAR, BUT . . . President Yeltsin
met with the leaders of the republics and regions of the Russian
Federation, and asked them whether they would support the candidacy
of Egor Gaidar for the post of prime minister. Gaidar is now
the acting prime minister. On 3 December, "Novosti" quoted "very
informed Kremlin insider sources" as saying that the republican
and regional leaders agreed to support Gaidar in the first round
of voting, but stated that if Gaidar failed the first time to
receive the necessary majority, they would not again support
his candidacy. They reportedly suggested that if Gaidar is rejected
by the Congress, Yeltsin should nominate the present Secretary
of the Security Council, Yurii Skokov. (Alexander Rahr)

CIVIC UNION SAYS IT WILL SUPPORT GAIDAR. Speaking with reporters
on 3 December, Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin said that
after long discussions the Civic Union had decided to support
Egor Gaidar's candidacy for the post of prime minister, Radio
Rossii reported. The same day, Interfax quoted President Yeltsin's
press secretary Vyacheslav Kostikov as saying the president will
formally nominate Gaidar for the prime minister's post at the
Congress on 4 December. Kostikov said Yeltsin did not have a
candidate better able to deal with the economy. (Vera Tolz)

BRAWL ERUPTS AT RUSSIAN CONGRESS. A fist fight erupted at the
Congress of People's Deputies on 3 December, and it was covered
live by Russian radio and TV. The brawl began when the Congress
was considering possible changes in the Russian Constitution
suggested earlier by parliament. One amendment would require
parliamentary approval of key government posts, including those
of the prime minister and his deputies. When the speaker, Ruslan
Khasbulatov, suggested a vote on this proposed amendment by secret
ballot, liberal supporters of Egor Gaidar and his market-oriented
reforms rushed to the rostrum to argue with the speaker. Khasbulatov
requested that other deputies "safeguard" him. Fist fights and
shoving immediately ensued. (Julia Wishnevsky)

COMMUNISTS EXPRESS HOPE FOR REVIVAL OF STRONG PARTY. Inspired
by the Russian Constitutional Court ruling that President Yeltsin
should not have banned local Communist Party cells, the last
first secretary of the once-banned Russian Communist Party (RCP),
Valentin Kuptsov, expressed hopes that local CP organizations
would be restored by the end of the year and that at least one-third
of the Party's former members would return. In an interview with
Interfax on 3 December, Kuptsov called on Russia's officially
registered pro-Communist groups: the Communist Union, the Socialist
Party of Working People, the Russian Party of Communists and
the Russian Communist Workers' Party, to join him in reviving
the RCP. Kuptsov claimed that the RCP could easily become the
largest political party in Russia. The same day, Pravda called
for a congress of the RCP in Moscow on 5-6 December. (Vera Tolz)


CPD RESOLUTION ON ECONOMIC REFORMS. The drafting commission of
the Russian Congress of People's Deputies has drawn up a resolution
on the progress of economic reforms, Interfax reported on 3-December.
This recommends that the Congress confirm the strategy of transition
to a free market economy, but lists a series of alleged mistakes
by the government in the implementation of this goal. It calls
for priority to be given to measures to halt the fall in production
and for adjustment in the terms of trade between agriculture
and industry. It suggests that the government submit to the parliament
within one month a program of anti-crisis measures. (Keith Bush)


RUTSKOI CONCEDES FAILURE OF AGRICULTURAL REFORM. In his speech
on 2-December to the Congress of People's Deputies, Vice President
Aleksandr Rutskoi admitted that "reform in the countryside had
come to nothing," Russian and Western agencies reported. Rutskoi,
who has the no-win portfolios on agriculture, conversion, and
health, blamed the impasse on the fact that he had been given
"responsibility without authority-a particularly Russian invention."
He reckoned that it costs 30 million rubles to set up a private
farm, but no funds had been allocated. Rutskoi asked the Congress
to pass legislation on agricultural reform. (Keith Bush)

RUSSIAN WHEAT PURCHASE PRICES DOUBLED. A Russian government decree
of 30-November doubles the prices paid for above-plan sales of
bread-quality wheat, Interfax reported on 3 December. The previous
price averaged 12,000-12,500 rubles a ton: the new prices will
approximate market levels. The government's decision appears
to concede defeat in the confrontation with farmers who have
been withholding their grain. Against an annual requirement of
some 20 million tons for bread-quality wheat, the state has so
far purchased about 11.6 million tons. In addition to the higher
price, farms will also be granted a 40% discount on the purchase
of agricultural equipment and preferential credit rates of 28%.
(Keith Bush)

PROPOSED INDEXATION OF SAVINGS CHALLENGED. In an interview with
Interfax on 2-December, Russian Social Security Minister Ella
Panfilova described as "unrealistic" President Yeltsin's call
during his speech to the Congress on 1 December for all savings
to be indexed. (Yeltsin had not specified how frequently the
indexation was to be carried out). Panfilova preferred a program
of selective indexation, targeting the more vulnerable groups.
She cited estimates that put 80% of the population on or below
the poverty level. (Keith Bush)

DEPUTIES ATTACK ECONOMIC REFORM. Of 22-deputies to have addressed
the Congress during a discussion of economic reform on 3 December,
only one had anything nice to say about the Gaidar cabinet, and
even this praise was quite limited. Russian radio and TV broadcast
speeches during which delegates complained about Gaidar's "bankrupt
government," and such statements were welcomed with applause
from the audience. However, only a minority of deputies seemed
prepared to impeach a popularly elected president; far more appeared
ready to sack Gaidar, Gennadii Burbulis (who is especially unpopular
among delegates), and other Yeltsin aides. Supporters of democratic
change appeared to have given up trying to defend the reform
program, preferring instead to concentrate on supporting constitutional
changes that would enable Yeltsin to enact reforms without parliamentary
approval. (Julia Wishnevsky)

RUBLE EXCHANGE RATE RISES AGAIN. The ruble is continuing to rise
against the dollar, trading at the Moscow Interbank Currency
Exchange for 398 to one US dollar on 3 December, according to
Reuters on the same day. Interfax reports an official of the
Russian Central Bank as attributing the current halt in the ruble's
decline against the dollar to: positive general economic trends,
such as the fact that privatization is now underway and a revival
in interenterprise trading; the blocking of the flow of rubles
from former republics; a crack down on "speculative activities"
on the part of the Central Bank; and an increase in the demand
for rubles due to the fact that the fiscal year is coming to
an end. Volume traded on the exchange was $54.48 million. (Sheila
Marnie)

KHASBULATOV MOVES AGAINST PARLIAMENTARY PRESS COMMITTEE. Parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov suggested that the Congress abolish
the parliamentary Committee for Mass Media and Information, Ekho
Moskvy reported on 2 December. This committee includes liberals
who fiercely opposed Khasbulatov's recent attempts to curb the
freedom of the press. Other lawmakers stated that the committee
should be restructured, but not abolished. In a move to gain
support from deputies, Khasbulatov proposed that the Congress
convene every three months instead of at irregular, less formal
intervals, as is now the case. He also suggested that the Congress
end by Saturday, Radio Rossii reported on 3-December. Alexander
Rahr)

YELTSIN ENLISTS ALEKSANDR YAKOVLEV. On 3-December, President
Yeltsin decreed the establishment of a commission for the rehabilitation
of the victims of political oppression, and appointed former
Politburo member Aleksandr Yakovlev as its chairman, Russian
radio and TV newscasts reported. The decree stated that the commission
will include the minister of security and the head of the state
archives committee. The move is politically significant because
it involves the recruitment by Yeltsin of a long-time Gorbachev
adviser. Recently, the media has criticized the Russian government
for using information in the CPSU archives against certain politicians,
including Yakovlev. (Julia Wishnevsky)

TATAR CALLS FOR VOLGA-URAL CONFEDERATION. At its session on 2
December the presidium of the milli-mejlis, the unofficial Tatar
national parliament, supported the initiative of the All-Union
Tatar Public Center and various national movements of Chuvashia
and Mari-El for the creation of a Confederation of Peoples of
the Volga and Ural regions, Interfax reported on 3 December.
A member of the presidium suggested it could start as a social
union, and then become something similar to the Confederation
of the Peoples of the Caucasus. The purpose of creating the confederation-in
which Tatars would play a major role-would be the economic integration
of the republics and oblasts of the two regions and help in developing
national cultures. (Ann Sheehy)

DISARMAMENT OF ILLEGAL FORMATIONS IN NORTH OSSETIA AND INGUSHETIA.
Sergei Shakhrai, the head of the interim administration in North
Ossetia, said on 3 December that the authorities had started
disarming illegal formations in the conflict zone, and the interior
troops had confiscated a rocket launcher, an air defense gun,
as well as machine guns and other weapons, ITAR-TASS and Interfax
reported. Shakhrai told ITAR-TASS that information coming in
suggested that there were forces on both sides who intended to
resume hostilities after 10 December when the traditional 40-day
mourning period will end. At a press conference in Moscow on
3 December, the chairman of the North Ossetian parliament, Akhsarbek
Galazov, reiterated that Ingushetia had no right to the Prigorodnyi
raion and therefore the Ingush proposal that the raion be put
under direct presidential or federal rule was unacceptable. (Ann
Sheehy)

KABARDIAN CONGRESS PUTS BORDER QUESTIONS ON ICE TILL 1995. The
chairman of the Congress of the Kabardian People, former USSR
deputy Yurii Kalmykov, told Interfax on 3 December that the congress
had decided not to pursue the question of a separate Kabardian
republic until the Russian Federation's moratorium on border
changes expires in 1995. The Balkars, who share a republic with
the Kabardians, also want their own republic. The decision of
the Kabardian Congress has eased relations with the Kabardino-Balkar
authorities who were intending to proscribe the Congress. (Ann
Sheehy)

ADMIRAL KASATONOV LEAVING BLACK SEA FLEET. Admiral Igor Kasatonov,
the former commander of the ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet, will be
leaving on 8 December to take up his new post as first deputy
commander in chief of the Russian Navy. Interfax on 3 December
reported that some residents of Sevastopol-where the fleet's
headquarters are located-plan to send a petition to the Congress
of People's Deputies requesting that his transfer be canceled.
Reportedly, the petition charges that the move is a concession
to Ukraine which will have a negative effect on the fleet. According
to Radio Rossii, the Russian Navy's press center denied the charge.
Rear Admiral Vitalii Larionov will be the acting commander of
the fleet. (Doug Clarke)

NEW TAJIK GOVERNMENT MOSTLY PRO-COMMUNIST. Western agencies confirmed
on 3-December that the government approved by the Communist-dominated
Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan on 2 December consists mostly of
members of pro-Communist groups from Kulyab Oblast. The same
day ITAR-TASS reported that before adjourning the Supreme Soviet
voted to merge Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube Oblasts again into a Khatlon
Oblast. The two oblasts were united under this name from 1988
to 1990, when they were separated again due to friction between
inhabitants of Kurgan-Tyube and Kulyab. The two oblasts have
been the scene of much of the fighting in this summer's civil
war; Kulyab supported deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev while
Kurgan-Tyube supported the democratic-Islamic coalition. Interfax
reported that fighting is continuing at Orzhonikidzeabad near
Dushanbe and elsewhere. (Bess Brown)



CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

PANIC CANDIDACY REJECTED. On 3 December the Serbian Electoral
Commission rejected federal Prime Minister Milan Panic's candidacy
for president in the 20 December elections. The commission ruled
that Panic does not meet the requirement that candidates for
president must have resided in Serbia for at least one year.
Panic, who called the decision as "insane and, above all, unconstitutional"
provided proof that he signed a rental contract on a Belgrade
apartment over a year ago. The commission said the document was
"inadmissible" as evidence of residency because Panic inhabited
the apartment "as a foreign citizen." Chairman Caslav Ignatovic
rejected accusations that his commission's decision was politically
motivated. Panic has filed an appeal with Serbia's Supreme Court-which
is also chaired by Ignatovic. A decision is expected by 7 December.
The commission rejected seven other presidential candidates and
confirmed seven. Among those confirmed are incumbent Slobodan
Milosevic, main opposition leader Vuk Draskovic, and Dragan Vasiljkovic,
popularly known as "Captain Dragan." Radio Serbia carried the
report. (Milan Andrejevich)

REACTIONS TO THE DECISION. According to the independent Belgrade
radio B92, Panic and opposition leaders have bitterly criticized
the commission's decision. At an emergency session the executive
committee of the Democratic Opposition coalition DEPOS, announced
that it might boycott the elections if the decision is not overruled
by the Supreme Court. Panic's press office and most opposition
leaders reportedly find it absurd that the Socialist-dominated
parliament would nominate and elect Panic as federal Prime Minister
in July and then in November-when it became clear that Panic
could defeat Milosevic-would adopt a residency requirement to
try to keep him from running. Vojislav Seselj, head of the second
largest party in the federal parliament, the ultranationalist
Radical Party, said the commission should accept Panic's candidacy
in order to avert the threat of violence. He added that his party
will bring up another confidence vote on Panic at the next parliamentary
session. Two previous attempts have failed. (Milan Andrejevich)


DEFENSE MINISTRY CRITICIZES PANIC. On 4-December the Federal
Defense Ministry Collegium issued a statement distancing itself
from Panic, who also holds the post of defense minister, accusing
him of a heavy political bias that threatens the military's political
neutrality . Radio Serbia reported on 3-December that the collegium
demands that Panic yield his defense minister post; Panic responded
by saying that he intends to appoint a defense minister as soon
as possible. He added that his activities in connection with
seeking office are not party-oriented since he represents no
single party. (Milan Andrejevich)

TENSIONS IN KOSOVO. Radio Serbia reported on 3-December that
one ethnic Albanian was killed and another wounded in a clash
with Serbian-controlled police in Pristina. Police officials
said the two illegal cigarette dealers were injured when they
tried to escape arrest. The Serbian province's main Albanian
party, the Democratic League, said one of the men died after
being beaten by police, who then proceeded to arrest bystanders
and opened fire against the unarmed crowd, wounding many others.
Neither version of the incident has been independently confirmed.
Radio Croatia reports that a crowd gathered outside a Pristina
hospital after the wounded were taken there, and combat aircraft
flew low over the city and military convoy movements were also
observed in several other parts of Kosovo. An RFE correspondent
reports from Washington that a State Department envoy is on his
way to Kosovo to assess the situation. (Milan Andrejevich)

PROTECTION SOUGHT FOR ETHNIC HUNGARIANS IN SERBIA. Gyula Szelei,
Hungary's representative, told the UN General Assembly's Social,
Humanitarian and Cultural Committee that Hungary is seeking more
effective international protection of the human rights of ethnic
Hungarians in Serbia's province of Vojvodina, Western agencies
report. He said that tens of thousands of ethnic Hungarians have
fled their homes in Vojvodina because of a "well-founded fear
of persecution and serious violations of their human rights."
Szelei proposed that the rights of ethnic Hungarians be protected
by instituting "autonomous territorial and cultural units under
effective international guarantees and controls" and by deploying
international monitors in Vojvodina. Szelei also expressed concern
about the situation of ethnic Hungarians in Romania, citing reports
of "deliberate discrimination against minorities." (Edith Oltay)


ROMANIA REOPENS DANUBE SLUICE. On 3 December opened its sluice
at the Iron Gates hydroelectric dam to allow shipping be resumed
on the Danube. Water traffic had come to a halt on 2 December
when Belgrade ordered a sluice on the Serbian side of the river
closed in retaliation for Romania's enforcement of the UN embargo
against rump Yugoslavia. The Romanian sluice was closed for maintenance
and was not expected to be opened until later this month. Radio
Bucharest said that repair work was completed ahead of schedule
due to "tireless efforts" by Romanian workers. Belgrade also
detained a Romanian tugboat and six barges. The Romanian Foreign
Ministry has threatened to take the case to international bodies
if the vessels are not released immediately. (Dan Ionescu)

RUSSIA CRITICIZES STATEMENT BY ROMANIAN OFFICIAL. On 3 December
the Russian Foreign Ministry criticized a statement by Adrian
Nastase, chairman of Romania's Chamber of Deputies and former
foreign minister. Upon returning from a three-day visit to Chisinau
on 30 November, Nastase said that Russia was trying to bind Moldova
to its side through membership in the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS). The Russian statement, quoted by Interfax, denounced
Nastase's appeal to Moldovan legislators to "think twice" before
voting for Moldova to join the CIS as an attempt to scare them.
Moldova has been taking part in the work of CIS but its parliament
has not voted on membership. (Dan Ionescu)

ESTONIAN PRESIDENT NOMINATES CANDIDATES FOR TOP POSTS. On 3 December,
after consulting various parliament groups, President Lennart
Meri nominated candidates to several top posts for parliamentary
approval, BALTFAX reports. Prof. Uno Mereste, former head of
the statistics department at Tallinn Technical University and
adviser to the Economics Ministry was nominated as chairman of
the board of the Bank of Estonia. Eerik-Juhan Truuvali, who taught
at the Estonian Institute of History and Tartu University and
headed the Electoral Commission, was proposed for the post of
Chancellor of Justice. Alexander Einseln, a colonel in the US
army, was nominated as commander of the Estonian Defense Forces.
In an address to the Estonian parliament Einseln said that if
there were a war between Estonia and the US, he would fight for
the US side for he had sworn an oath of allegiance to that country.
(Saulius Girnius)

DATE FOR LITHUANIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS SET. On 3 December
the Seimas voted 119 to 0 with 3 abstentions to hold presidential
elections on 14 February 1993, Radio Lithuania reports. The Lithuanian
Democratic Labor Party (LDLP) had suggested that they be held
on 31 January, but the opposition Homeland Concord felt that
this was too soon. (Saulius Girnius)

CONFLICT SHARPENS OVER POLAND'S CONTROL OFFICE. The Supreme Chamber
of Control (NIK), the central accounting office headed by Lech
Kaczynski, is the new focus for political combat. Kaczynski has
been charged with using NIK to conduct partisan investigations;
his inquisitorial style in audits of the privatization and finance
ministries and the prime minister's office has irked the government.
Kaczynski's twin brother, Jaroslaw, heads the Center Alliance
and spearheads the opposition to the president and the government.
President Lech Walesa called for "changes in NIK" on TV's Panorama
on 3-December; his spokesman called NIK "a tool in a political
game" on Radio Z the following day. Public administration minister
Jan Maria Rokita likewise charged Kaczynski with "militant opposition
to the government" and accused the Center Alliance of wanting
to turn NIK into a "Cheka." The Sejm chooses the NIK chairman,
and the political rumor mill has already selected a candidate
to replace Kaczynski: the Peasant Party's Aleksander Luczak.
No formal action has yet been taken, however. (Louisa Vinton)


POLAND'S MARTIAL LAW PLANS STILL "TOP SECRET." Responding to
an inquiry from an opposition parliamentary deputy, Defense Minister
Janusz Onyszkiewicz said on 3-December that the "guidelines for
martial law" should still remain secret. The guidelines, prepared
by the Polish General Staff in 1981, contain classified information
about Poland's military command systems still relevant to national
security, Onyszkiewicz said. The minister added that the parliamentary
commission considering the constitutionality of martial law had
had access to the documents. He denied that the government was
attempting to interfere with "a just assessment of the deeds
and motives of that period." Onyszkiewicz's statement followed
the publication of extracts from the documents by Zycie Warszawy,
which asked why the plans for martial law were still kept under
wraps. (Louisa Vinton)

HUNGARY, BRITAIN SIGN DEFENSE AGREEMENT. Col. Gen. Kalman Lorincz,
commander of the Hungarian Army, and Field Marshal Sir Richard
Vincent, chief of Britain's defense staff, signed an agreement
on 3 December in Budapest that provides for closer cooperation
between the two countries' armed forces. Training colleges, academies,
units, and military experts will exchange visits between 1993
and 1995. (Edith Oltay)

FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN SLOVAKIA DROPS. Figures released by the
Slovak National Agency for Foreign Investment on 3 December show
that in the first nine months of 1992 Slovakia's share of foreign
investment in Czechoslovakia was only 7.7%. Slovakia's population
is one third of that of Czechoslovakia. In 1991 Slovakia attracted
27% of the foreign capital. Reuters quotes an official from the
Slovak National Agency for Foreign Investment as saying that
the main obstacle to foreign investment is Slovakia's poor image
abroad. He argued that when potential investors actually visit
Slovakia they are surprised that things are normal and "that
there are no riots or nationalist propaganda." The CTK news agency
also reports that Slovakia plans to impose a tax of one koruna
per pack on cigarettes as soon as that nation becomes independent
on 1-January. The revenues, which could amount to 400 million
koruny ($10.4 million), will be used to help fund research on
cancer and heart disease. (Jiri Pehe & Charles Trumbull)

SIEMENS DROPS JOINT-VENTURES WITH SKODA. Siemens, one of Germany's
largest companies, has decided not to set up two joint ventures
with Skoda, the largest engineering firm in the Czech Republic.
International media report that Siemens has pulled out of plans
to establish two joint companies-Skoda Transport and Skoda Energo-
because of "new and unacceptable demands on the part of Skoda's
new management." (Jiri Pehe)

LUBYS TALKS WITH BALTIC FLEET COMMANDER. On 3 December in Vilnius
Lithuanian Prime Minister Bronislavas Lubys told Russian Baltic
Fleet commander Adm. Vladimir Egorov that Lithuania will not
change its policy on the withdrawal of Russian troops, Radio
Lithuania reports. Lubys noted that they discussed the transit
of Russian troops through Lithuania to Kaliningrad, the building
of housing for withdrawing officers, and other commercial transactions
that Lithuania wants to be decided on a parity basis. (Saulius
Girnius)

ANDREJEVS URGES RESUMPTION OF TALKS. Latvian Minister of Foreign
Affairs Georgs Andrejevs told the press on 3 December that Russian
President Yeltsin's directive of 29-October suspending the withdrawal
of Russian military forces from the Baltic States is the main
obstacle to resuming Latvian-Russian negotiations on the issue
and urged that the necessary steps be taken to resume the talks.
Andrejevs said that the negotiations should take place both at
the delegation and the presidential levels and suggested that
a meeting of the two heads of state take place in January 1993.
(Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIA TEMPORARILY BARS PASSAGE OF RUSSIAN TANKS. Ilgonis Upmalis,
head of the Latvian office coordinating the withdrawal of Russian
troops, told the press that his office has prohibited transit
of 105 Russian tanks, BALTFAX reported on 3 December. The Russian
military authorities want to move the tanks from Estonia to the
Kaliningrad region. Upmalis said that the transit of foreign
military hardware is not permitted under Latvia's customs regulations
and that the prime minister must decide the case. (Dzintra Bungs)


RUSSIAN BORDER GUARDS LEAVE VENTSPILS AREA. Col. Leonid Korotovskikh,
commander of the Russian border guard detachment in Latvia's
Ventspils district, told BALTFAX on 2 December that earlier that
day he had handed over the last border guard station under his
command to the local home guards. He pointed out that compensation
for most of the property left behind, valued at over 40 million
rubles, still had to be paid by the Latvian authorities. (Dzintra
Bungs)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull




[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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