History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 229, 30 November 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

YELTSIN URGES CREATION OF PRESIDENTIAL PARTY. President Yeltsin
called on his supporters on 29 November to set up a joint political
force (a presidential party) to help him implement reforms and
fight against conservative resistance to change, ITAR-TASS reported.
At a forum of pro-reform movements in Moscow, attended by approximately
two thousand people, Yeltsin said that "radical reforms need
a strong social base" and an appropriate political structure.
Yeltsin said he would be part of such a joint reformist political
force. In the past, Yeltsin has refused to identify himself directly
with any specific political group. In late 1991 and early 1992,
the Democratic Russia movement tried to become a presidential
party, but it failed to receive the necessary support from Yeltsin.
(Vera Tolz)

YELTSIN ASKS BURBULIS TO HELP LEAD PRESIDENTIAL PARTY. President
Yeltsin wants Gennadii Burbulis, who has just lost his post as
State Secretary, to become deputy leader of a new presidential
party, which Yeltsin has proposed to create and personally head,
Ekho Moskvy reported on 26 November. Deputy Premier Aleksandr
Shokhin told Interfax on the same day that Burbulis's transfer
to the post of head of Yeltsin's advisory group was not a demotion.
His new job reportedly will carry the same status as that of
a deputy prime minister. But Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on
27 November that Burbulis's demotion was real and that Yeltsin
had originally considered sending his long-time ally abroad to
take up an ambassadorship. (Alexander Rahr)

NEW DEMOCRATIC BLOC SET UP. Representatives of the same congress
of reformist parties addressed by President Yeltsin on 29 November
have set up a new political bloc, called the "Democratic Choice,"
ITAR-TASS reported. Organizers of the bloc announced at a press
conference that day that they would rather establish a loose
movement, rather than a properly structured political party as
urged by President Yeltsin in his speech at the forum. A draft
program document of "Democratic Choice" urges the strengthening
of presidential power in Russia, the speeding up of the privatization
process, and a legal confirmation of people's right to own private
land. The idea to establish the Democratic Choice bloc was expressed
for the first time by reformist movements in Moscow as early
as July 1992. (Vera Tolz)

RESPONSE TO GOVERNMENT CHANGES. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi
complained that President Yeltsin did not consult him on the
recent personnel changes in the government, according to ITAR-TASS
on 27 November. A co-leader of the Civic Union, Nikolai Travkin,
said that the Civic Union has failed to force Yeltsin to change
the reform course and conduct more serious changes in the cabinet.
For his part, Yeltsin told journalists that he will not name
any candidate for the post of prime minister until the final
law on the government has been adopted, ITAR-TASS reported on
28 November. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told the Congress
of the Intelligentsia that he does not want to remain in his
post "as [former Soviet foreign minister Andrei] Gromyko] for
thirty years." (Alexander Rahr)

PARLIAMENT REJECTS GAIDAR'S ECONOMIC PROGRAM. The Russian parliament
has rejected Prime Minister Egor Gaidar's proposed economic reform
program as "unsatisfactory" ITAR-TASS reported on 27 November.
The parliament urged the government to devise a new program and
incorporate into it proposals from the parliament's own economic
council, as well as those from the Central Bank. Parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov called upon the government to "take
the [parliamentary] resolution to heart" and come up with a new
compromise plan. Gaidar had previously said that he was not prepared
to make further compromises on the economic reform program. The
Civic Union had accused Gaidar of having ignored many of the
centrists' amendments to the program. (Alexander Rahr)



DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA HOLDS MEETING; CRITICIZES YELTSIN. The Democratic
Russia movement opened a session in Moscow on 28 November to
decide whether to support a referendum on dissolving the Congress
of People's Deputies, Interfax reported. The referendum is advocated
by several "democratic" groups, including the Russian Movement
for Democratic Reforms. The Republican Party, which is a member
of the Democratic Russia, has expressed opposition to holding
the referendum. Meanwhile, on 27 November, Democratic Russia
issued a statement criticizing Yeltsin's latest attempts to reach
an agreement with centrist and conservative forces on the eve
of the Congress. Democratic Russia was especially critical of
the latest dismissal by Yeltsin of several reformists in the
government as well as the sacking of Egor Yakovlev as head of
Ostankino TV. (Vera Tolz)

GOVERNMENT ACTION ON STRATEGIC EXPORTS, CORRUPTION, NEPOTISM.
The anti-crisis program presented by Acting Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar to the parliament includes a provision for the temporary
introduction of state control of the export of strategic raw
materials and goods, according to ITAR-TASS on 26 November and
Voice of Russia on 28 November. According to the program, beginning
on January 1, 1993, the export of all strategic materials will
be possible only through organizations belonging to the ministry
of foreign economic trade. The new regulations against corruption
and nepotism will include a ban on government officials establishing
and co-owning foreign trade and other foreign commercial firms.
Government and elected officials will also be prohibited from
becoming involved in business activities. Moreover, there will
be a careful screening of commercial bids submitted by relatives
of government officials. (Victor Yasmann)

SOVIET DEBT NEGOTIATIONS STILL TROUBLED. Obstacles still remain
to scheduling the repayment of the external debt of the former
Soviet Union. The main sticking point is a divergence of opinion
concerning how much Russia can afford to service the debt in
1993, Reuters reported on 27 November. The Russian government,
which assumed full responsibility for the debt last week, has
announced that it would not be able to pay more than $3 billion
of the $38 billion due to creditors next year. Western creditors
reportedly want at least $5 billion. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr
Shokhin characterized $5 billion as an "unrealistic" sum, and
said to make such payments Russia would have to increase arms
exports and sell more oil to the West at the expense of domestic
and other consumers of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Erik Whitlock)

RUSSIAN 1992 DEFICIT TO EXCEED GOVERNMENT TARGET. Aleksandr Khandruev,
a deputy chairman of the Russian Central Bank, told parliament
on 29 November that the state's consolidated budget deficit would
total about 1.5 trillion rubles, Reuters and Interfax reported.
The government was still claiming it would keep the deficit below
one trillion rubles as late as mid-September. The new figure,
which seems in excess of 10% of Russian GDP, is also much higher
than the target promised to the IMF and World Bank in early spring.
Khandruev announced that the central bank, for its part, would
greatly curtail money growth next year. (Erik Whitlock)

RUSSIAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' STRIKE. Russian air traffic
controllers are planning an indefinite nation-wide strike beginning
Tuesday morning (1 December) at 10:00 Moscow time. Fifty-seven
out of 130 regional airports are expected to be affected, according
to western press agencies on 28 November. An air controllers'
spokesman has said that the strike will not initially affect
international flights to and from Sheremetevo. Talks between
the Air Traffic Controllers' Federation and the government broke
down, because of the government's refusal to guarantee that courts
will drop legal proceedings against air controllers who went
on strike last August. (Sheila Marnie)

WORK ON DRAFT CIS CHARTER COMPLETED. Belinform-TASS reported
on 27 November that work on the draft CIS charter had been completed
that day in Minsk and initialled by the head of the delegations
of all the republics. The draft will now be submitted to the
CIS heads of government and then to the CIS heads of state at
their December summit. Evgeniy Ambartsumov, chairman of the Russian
parliament's International Affairs and Foreign Economic Relations
Committee complained on 27 November that the draft laid so much
stress on independence and non- intervention that it would be
useless since "it would virtually deprive Russia of the opportunity
to defend human rights," Interfax reported. (Ann Sheehy)

"RUSSIAN UNITY" WANTS COURT TO REVIEW TROOP PULLOUT DECISION.
Leaders of the opposition parliamentary faction "Russian Unity"
appealed on 27 November to the Constitutional Court of Russia
to review the Russian Defense Ministry's decisions and activities
concerning troop withdrawals from the Baltic States. They argue
that the ministry is inflicting irreparable damage to Russia's
defense capabilities since its borders in that region would be
completely vulnerable, BNS reported on 28 November. (Dzintra
Bungs)

GRACHEV DETAILS MILITARY FORCE REDUCTIONS. In speeches in the
Volga and Ural military districts, Russian Defense Minister Pavel
Grachev provided a detailed outline of current progress in, and
future plans for, Russian military reform. The speeches were
reported by Interfax on 27 November. According to Grachev, in
the past year the military has reduced its personnel by 180,000
troops, with the Ministry of Defense central staff having shrunk
by some 27%, or 5,500 persons. Furthermore, approximately 100,000
troops and some 1,500 tanks have been redeployed into Russia
from other states, a process that is to continue until 1995.
Grachev went on to note that while 400,000 servicemen are scheduled
to return to Russia in the next two to three years, the 39.9
billion rubles which has been allocated for housing construction
is insufficient. (John Lepingwell)

GRACHEV FAVORS BASING RAPID DEPLOYMENT FORCE IN NORTH CAUCASUS.
According to an Interfax report of 27 November, General Grachev
has provided more details on the future deployment and structure
of the Russian military. He has called for the creation of rapidly
deployable forces that can be used to fight brushfire wars along
Russia's borders. To that end, he stated that the primary operational
forces are to be based in the North Caucasus military district,
with the Volga and Urals military districts providing second-echelon
forces. The North Caucasus units will therefore be amongst the
first to make the transition to contract-based service. Enlisted
men on contracts will receive pay of approximately 10-12,000
rubles per month. Troops deployed in peacekeeping operations
will receive higher pay. Grachev also called for a transition
to a brigade and corps structure, a move that has been discussed
for several years. (John Lepingwell)

UKRANIAN PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM LAUNCHED. The Ukraine has announced
a privatization plan with several features differing from that
already underway in Russia, according to Reuters and Interfax
on 27 November. Each citizen is to receive a bank account with
30,000 coupons (karbovanets) in it, which can be used to buy
a share in shops or firms. Other cheques will be issued later
allowing people to buy land. According to government officials,
the funds in the bank accounts will rise in line with inflation.
Unlike in Russia, citizens will not have the right to sell these
accounts, and will not actually receive a coupon as a type of
certificate. Once the privatization program is over, any money
left in the special bank accounts will be transferred to the
local government budgets. (Sheila Marnie)

GEORGIA APPOINTS NEW DEFENSE MINISTER. The Georgian parliament
has appointed General Anatolii Kamkamidze as republican minister
of defense to replace Tengiz Kitovani, Rossiiskaya gazeta reported
on 27 November. Kamkamidze had been recalled from Ukraine earlier
this month to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Georgian armed
forces. A press spokesman for the Transcaucasus Military District
subsequently rejected allegations by Kitovani that the Military
District high command was failing to implement the Tashkent agreement
on the transfer of military equipment and supplies to the former
Soviet republics, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 November. (Liz Fuller)


TAJIKISTAN REJECTS PRESIDENTIAL RULE. On 27 November Tajikistan's
Supreme Soviet voted to abolish presidential rule and make the
country a "parliamentary republic," Khovar-TASS reported. The
same day Interfax reported that some 15,000 refugees from the
fighting in southern Tajikistan had broken through a border fence
to reach Afghanistan, but most were persuaded to return to Tajikistan
after receiving promises that pro- Communist forces of the Kulyab
National Front would not attack them. On 29 November Interfax
reported that the level of tension remains high in Tajikistan
although a ceasefire appears to be holding despite reports of
occasional shooting in Dushanbe. (Bess Brown)

MOLDOVAN-ROMANIAN INTERPARLIAMENTARY COMMISSION SET UP. The new
chairman of Romania's Chamber of Deputies, Adrian Nastase, heading
an all-party Romanian parliamentary delegation to Chisinau from
25 to 27 November, signed with the chairman of Moldova's parliament,
Alexandru Mosanu, a protocol establishing a Romanian-Moldovan
interparliamentary commission. A "technical organ," the commission
is to "accelerate legislative integration" supporting economic
and cultural cooperation among the two states, and begins with
14 deputies for each side. The Moldovan side includes two Russians,
one Ukrainian, and one Gagauz, and no members in good standing
of the pro-unification Popular Front. Moldova's Presidential
Office told an RFE/RL correspondent that it hopes through the
commission to gain the involvement of the Romanian parliament--which
generally supports the Popular Front--in constructive contacts
with official Chisinau on a "two-state" basis. (Vladimir Socor)


MOLDOVAN POPULAR FRONT RALLY DENOUNCES "TWO-STATE" POLICY. Rallying
in Chisinau on 29 November to mark the 44th anniversary of Transylvania's
accession to Romania, 5,000 supporters of the opposition Moldovan
Popular Front called for Moldovan-Romanian unification, including
historic Moldovan areas now in Ukraine, Basapress reported. The
rally shouted down the reading of a message from President Mircea
Snegur which reaffirmed Moldova's policy calling for the coexistence
and cooperation of "two Romanian states." Speakers at the rally
denounced that policy as treasonous to the Romanian nation. (Vladimir
Socor)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

YUGOSLAV AREA UPDATE. International media reported on 28 November
that a UN aid convoy arrived in the besieged eastern Bosnian
Muslim town of Srebrenica after many delays caused by Serbs blocking
the road. Fighting was reported over the weekend near Osijek
in Croatia and in many parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Western agencies
said on 28 November that 14 UN military observers arrived in
Macedonia to see whether UN troops should be sent there to prevent
the spread of conflict. This would be the first case of UN troops
being deployed as a preventive measure in the Yugoslav area.
The Financial Times reports that UN experts have begun work to
shore up a crumbling dam in Montenegro. The structure holds back
tons of toxic waste that could cause an ecological catastrophe
as far off as the Danube and the Black Sea. On 30 November, the
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung says that a British destroyer
participating in the Adriatic blockade intercepted a ship carrying
steel for Montenegro and sent it on to Italy. (Patrick Moore)


UN TO DIG UP MASS GRAVE NEAR VUKOVAR. The 29 November New York
Times said that the UN War-Crimes Commission is moving to uncover
the grave at Ovcara believed to hold the remains of 300 Croats
from the Vukovar hospital killed on 20 November 1991, the day
after Serb forces took the town. It could be the basis for the
first war-crimes trial of the conflict. The International Herald
Tribune on 28-29 November reported on the "number one war-crimes
suspect held in Sarajevo," a 21- year-old Serb. The young man
described in detail how Serbian youths are recruited and trained
by their superiors to become rapists and killers, and added that
his own admitted killing of 20 prisoners and civilians "is lower
than [the] average among [the] militiamen." On 30 November UN
human rights investigator and former Polish prime minister Tadeusz
Mazowiecki writes in the Washington Post about the "massive violation
of human rights" he observed in Bosnia-Herzegovina. "The collected
evidence leaves no doubt as to who is responsible for the horror:
the Serbian political and military leaders in Bosnia-Herzegovina,
supported by the authorities of the Serbian republic." Mazowiecki
urges the setting up of safe havens for Muslims as an unpleasant
but temporarily necessary measure. (Patrick Moore)

UN GENERAL CHARGED WITH SEXUAL ABUSE. The former UNPROFOR commander
in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Canadian Maj. Gen. Lewis MacKenzie,
is charged with having sexually abused four teenage Muslim girls
held in a Serbian prison camp. According to Zagreb's daily Vecernji
list and Radio Slovenia on 29 November, Bosnia's military public
prosecutor started proceedings against MacKenzie for alleged
war crimes committed against the civilian population during his
stay in Sarajevo. The Bosnian prosecutor is asking that the military
authorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina demand that UN Secretary-General
Boutros Boutros-Ghali withdraw MacKenzie's diplomatic immunity.
Radio Serbia suggests the charges might be unfounded, however,
because Bosnia's government had been sharply critical of MacKenzie's
alleged pro-Serb leanings. (Milan Andrejevich)

PANIC UNDER FIRE; MINISTERS RESIGN. On 26 November Serbian Foreign
Minister Vladislav Jovanovic described Milan Panic's rump federal
government's behavior as "masochistic" in its efforts to achieve
a lifting of the UN-imposed sanctions by saying "it is offering
the world things that were not even being asked of it." Meanwhile,
two ministers close to Milosevic resigned. On 28 November Minister
without Portfolio Radmila Milentijevic explained that the activities
of the Panic government "do not coincide with the interests of
the people." On 29 November Economy Minister Nikola Sainovic
resigned, saying he does not want any part of Panic's practice
of "introducing foreigners and the interests of foreign powers
in government policies." Radio Serbia carried the reports. (Milan
Andrejevich)

SERBIA'S PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES. The ruling Socialist Party
(SPS) confirmed on 27 November that Serbian President Slobodan
Milosevic will run for reelection as the party's candidate in
the 20 December elections. Milosevic was popularly elected to
the post in December 1990 in the first multiparty elections since
1938. So far, Milosevic has three challengers. National Party
leader Milan Paroski, "Captain Dragan," a paramilitary commander
and Serb folk hero, who announced his candidacy on 27 November,
and now possibly Milan Panic. On 29 November Belgrade university
students gathered over 10,000 signatures placing his name on
the ballot hours before the deadline, Radio Serbia reports. Observers
close to Panic said they do not rule out the possibility of him
running against Milosevic. Panic has been at odds with Milosevic
on numerous issues relating to Serbia's involvement in fighting
in neighboring Croatia and Bosnia. Panic has not yet publicly
declared his candidacy. The latest poll published by Vreme gave
42.6% support for Panic to 25.5% for Milosevic. (Milan Andrejevich)


PLANS FOR SLOVAK DEFENSE MINISTRY REVEALED. On 27 November Czechoslovak
Minister of Defense Imrich Andrejcak revealed some details of
the structure of the Slovak Defense Ministry currently being
created. CTK quoted him that there will be a total of 200-250
employees and departments of foreign relations, social affairs,
military counterintelligence, logistics, and construction. Col.
Emil Vestenicky, a member of a Slovak government commission dealing
with the creation of the ministry, told journalists on 27 November
that the Slovak army will have a purely defensive character.
The structure of the armed forces will remain unchanged for some
time to come, he said, and any future changes will depend on
the budgetary situation. (Jan Obrman)

SLOVAK, HUNGARIAN OFFICIALS MEET. CTK reports that representatives
of the ruling parties in Slovakia and Hungary, the Movement for
a Democratic Slovakia and the Hungarian Democratic Forum, met
in Bratislava on 28 November to discuss current tensions between
their two countries. Among the participants were Slovak Prime
Minister Vladimir Meciar and the Deputy Chairwoman of the Hungarian
Democratic Forum, Gabriela Farkas. Both sides indicated after
the meeting that it is proving easier to negotiate at the party
level than at the government level. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir
Meciar told journalists that both sides agreed to refrain from
political statements that could further stir emotions and ethnic
tensions. (Jan Obrman)

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO DISCUSS HUNGARIAN RADIO AND TV. In a
decision earlier this year the Constitutional Court ruled that
a key point of the Council of Ministers decree is unconstitutional
and asked the parliament to pass a new law by 30 November. The
disputed point gives the government the right to supervise radio
and TV without defining or limiting its sphere of influence.
Parliament could not pass the new law because the coalition and
opposition disagree on a new media law. Earlier the court allowed
the government to oversee the two institutions based on this
unconstitutional decree, because they could not be left unsupervised.
Without new legislation the court might be forced to extend the
deadline again. (Judith Pataki)

ESTONIAN COMMUNIST PARTY CHANGES NAME. On 28 November in Tallinn
the Estonian Communist Party held its 22th party congress, BNS
reports. The overwhelming majority of the 105 delegates voted
to rename the party the Estonian Democratic Labor Party (EDLP),
which will retain all the party's assets. . The meeting continued
as the first congress of the EDLP and discussed statutes and
a program. The party has 3,217 members of whom 2,236 continue
to pay party dues. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIANS PROTEST SOVIET VETERANS ORGANIZATIONS. In a note to
the Russian authorities, the Foreign Ministry termed the activities
of several Soviet military veterans and labor organizations unacceptable
and a threat to Latvia's sovereignty and internal security. These
organizations also have close contacts with representatives of
the Northwestern Group of Forces and extremist organizations
in Russia, such as the National Salvation Front, and they meet
in a building in Riga that is under NWGF jurisdiction. Members
of these organizations, including the Association of Russian
Citizens, demanded that Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs
Gorbunovs receive their delegation. If Gorbunovs refuses, they
threaten to start what they call a campaign of passive resistance
on 1 December, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIA: NO TALKS WITH RUSSIA UNLESS YELTSIN CHANGES HIS MIND.
Georgs Andrejevs, Latvia's new Minister of Foreign Affairs, told
the press on 26 November that Latvia will not resume negotiations
with Russia unless Boris Yeltsin changes his mind over the directive
of 29 October in which he ordered the suspension of troop withdrawals
from the Baltic States. Andrejevs explained that this is also
the position of Prime Minister Godmanis when he talked with representatives
of various countries at the UN in New York, BALTFAX reports.
(Dzintra Bungs)

SEJM APPROVES VAT, EXCISE DUTY. The Sejm passed a VAT and Excise
Duty Law on 28 November, PAP reported. A value-added tax of 7%
will be chargeable on goods six months after the law officially
takes effect. Excise duty will be charged on 19 items, including
gasoline, cars, alcohol, cigarettes, salt, and high-fi equipment.
The Sejm rejected proposals, supported by the government, for
22% VAT on gas and electricity. Planned revenue from VAT accounts
for almost 43% of next year's budget. The government has warned
of still higher energy price increases to offset lost revenue.
(Anna Sabbat- Swidlicka)

LANTOS NOW FAVORS MFN FOR ROMANIA. US Congressman Tom Lantos
arrived in Romania on 27 November for "a private fact-finding
mission," Radio Bucharest reports. Lantos was the subject of
media attacks in late September following Congress's decision
not to grant MFN status to Romania. On 28 November Lantos met
with high officials, and at a press conference held on 29 November,
he said that he now favors granting the MFN status to Romania,
having found "encouraging developments toward democracy," although
progress still must to be made in the areas of national minority
rights, an independent judiciary, and independent television.
(Michael Shafir).

ROMANIA, EFTA SIGN AGREEMENT. The European Free Trade Association
concluded a free-trade agreement with Romania, Reuters reported
on 27 November. The agreement covers industrial goods, processed
farm products, and fish. It will be officially signed in December
at a ministerial meeting of the Geneva-based organization. The
agreement with Romania follows similar agreements with Czechoslovakia
and Poland. (Michael Shafir)

CZECHS EXPECT 17% INFLATION. According to Czechoslovak TV, the
Czech government adopted a budget for the new Czech state on
27 November. Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik told journalists
that state revenues will increase by about 12% in 1993. He added
that the structure of government spending would change due to
a decrease of subsidies to companies and cuts in the administration
on the one hand and increases in social spending on the other.
Kocarnik said that the inflation rate for 1993 would be 15- 17%
due to the introduction of a new tax system, namely the new value-
added tax, which will result in higher prices. The government
will spend more on health care than originally anticipated but
this will change after the privatization of the health sector
is completed. (Jan Obrman)

SALARIES RAISED IN ROMANIA. On 27 November, at its weekly meeting,
the Romanian government decided to raise salaries by an average
of 17.7%, Radio Bucharest reports. The raise will be in force
for November and December and is intended to provide partial
compensation for the last hikes in prices. Beginning 1 November,
the minimum monthly salary will be 15,250 lei ($35.46). The government
also decided to abolish taxes temporarily for the period 1 December
1992-15 March 1993 for imports of basic foodstuffs in order to
stimulate imports needed for winter. (Michael Shafir).

POLISH BISHOPS ON ABORTION. At a press conference on 28 November,
Archbishop Henryk Muszynski presented a pastoral letter to believers
from the Polish bishops. The bishops set out the Roman Catholic
Church's opposition to the recent proposal that Poland's draft
abortion law, which would provide prison terms for doctors performing
illegal abortions and women aborting their own children, be subject
to a referendum. The bishops' letter reminds believers that the
commandment "Thou shalt not kill" comes from God and that nonbelievers
should respect it as "the first law of nature." Muszynski explained
that in Polish legal practice, a referendum cannot be a source
of law. (Anna Sabbat- Swidlicka)

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull




[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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