Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal. - John F. Kennedy
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 225, 23 November 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

YELTSIN WILL PROPOSE CONSTITUTIONAL AGREEMENT WITH CONGRESS.
State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis said Russian President Boris
Yeltsin will seek a "constitutional agreement" with the upcoming
Congress on the establishment of a "12-to 18-month period of
stabilization," which should be achieved by "non-traditional
forms of political and civic consensus." He stated that the power
and competence of the president, parliament and the cabinet should
be redefined for the stabilization period, ITAR-TASS reported
on 22 November. He noted that Yeltsin will propose some "normative
restrictions" on the present power of unspecified institutions
(presumably parliament) for the period of stabilization. Burbulis
did not exclude changes in the composition of the cabinet. (Alexander
Rahr)

PARLIAMENT TAKES CONCILIATORY STANCE. The Russian parliament
adopted a remarkably conciliatory statement expressing its support
at the upcoming Congress for any positive reform proposals by
the Yeltsin administration, ITAR-TASS reported on 20-November.
Parliament also rejected a proposal by the communist deputy Sergei
Baburin for a vote of no-confidence in Russian President Boris
Yeltsin. But some leading members of the Civic Union, such as
the head of the Democratic Party of Russia, Nikolai Travkin,
and co-chairman of the parliamentary faction "Smena," Igor Muravev,
continued their previous attacks on Yeltsin, demanding that the
reformist government should change course or resign. Both called
on Yeltsin to change the composition of the cabinet. (Alexander
Rahr)

MORE ON PRIVATE LAND OWNERSHIP. The Russian parliament has passed
a law giving limited property rights to owners of private garden
plots, according to Interfax, ITAR-TASS, and western press agencies
on 20 November. The law will give Russian citizens holding such
plots the right to apply for ownership at no charge. 32.6 million
families are estimated to own such plots. The law applies, however,
to standard-size plots of circa 600 square meters. Land in excess
of this can be purchased at the "market price" from local government
authorities. Plots can thus be turned into private property,
and used for garden produce or for private housing construction.
The plots within the "standard size" category can also be put
up for sale to other Russian citizens. (Sheila Marnie)

UKRAINE TO RATIFY START TREATY BY JANUARY? During a meeting with
US Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar on 22 November, Ukrainian
President Leonid Kravchuk informed them that the START treaty
had been submitted to the Ukrainian parliament and he expected
it to be ratified by January 1993. Kravchuk also noted that the
senators informed him that Ukraine would receive $150 million
from the US to help pay for the dismantling of nuclear warheads
after the treaty was ratified. On 22 November Kravchuk had reiterated
Ukraine's conditions for implementing the START treaty, specifically,
financial compensation for the value of the weapons, assistance
in dismantling them, and security guarantees from Western nuclear-armed
states. Kravchuk's comments were reported by ITAR-TASS and Western
news agencies. (John Lepingwell)

FRICTION OVER BLACK SEA FLEET CONTINUES. Russian and Ukrainian
officials have been trading charges regarding the ex-Soviet Black
Sea Fleet. In a 20 November press conference reported by Interfax,
Admiral Igor Kasatonov, the fleet's acting commander, said that
the Ukrainian defense ministry had "unlawfully" seized fleet
units. He was particularly concerned about the Ukrainian take-over
of the fleet's fuel storage facility. Kasatonov also charged
the Ukrainian Navy with the "clandestine" recruitment of fleet
officers. He regarded this a flagrant violation of the previous
agreements on the interim status of the fleet. That same day
Radio Ukraine World Service charged that Kasatonov had improperly
sanctioned the sale of a fleet command post to a private airline.
The report stated further that a Crimean arbitration court had
evaluated the contract as squandering fleet property and demanded
that the command post be returned to the fleet. (Doug Clarke)


COMMANDER ON UKRAINIAN NAVY'S FUTURE ROLE. Rear Admiral Boris
Kozhin, the commander of the Ukrainian Navy, has said that the
republic's naval doctrine will require an occasional naval presence
outside the Black Sea. In an interview published by Interfax
on 21-November Kozhin forecast a fleet of some 100 warships with
a personnel strength of not more than 40,000. The fleet would
include submarines and naval aviation as well as "special troops."
Its main base will be Sevastopol, the present headquarters of
the Black Sea Fleet. Kozhin also said that it was imperative
that a decision on the partially- completed ex-Soviet aircraft
carrier Varyag be made in the next two to three months. In his
view the options were to either complete it for the Ukrainian
Navy or the Russian Navy, or to sell it to another state. (Doug
Clarke)

RUSSIA, SOUTH KOREA SIGN DEFENSE PROTOCOL. On 20 November Russia
and South Korea signed a protocol providing for regular visits
of defense officials and naval vessels between the two countries.
Port calls will be made after consulates are opened in Vladivostok
and Pusan. The pact also provides for the exchange of military
observers. The protocol was signed by Russian Defense Minister
Pavel Grachev and South Korean Defense Minister Choi Sa-Chang,
according to Western news agencies. (John Lepingwell)

RUSSIA TO REVISE DEFENSE PACT WITH NORTH KOREA. Russian President
Boris Yeltsin on 20 November stated that Russia is reviewing
its 1961 defense treaty with North Korea. According to Yeltsin
"We either have to cancel the treaty or make very serious changes
[in it.]" Yeltsin called for the removal of the first article
of the treaty, which obligated the Soviet Union (and hence Russia)
to defend North Korea in event of an attack. He also noted that
Russia has stopped providing "offensive weapons" such as MiG-29
fighters to North Korea and supported South Korea in its efforts
to inspect Pyongyang's nuclear facilities. North Korea responded
by denouncing the new Russian-South Korean defense agreement
and accusing South Korea of becoming overly dependent on Russia.
Yeltsin's comments were reported by Reuters and other Western
news agencies. (John Lepingwell)

NO BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AT ST PETERSBURG LAB. The chairman of a
Russian presidential commission, Academician Sergei Prozorovsky,
told a 21-November press conference that his group could find
no evidence to support Western concerns that the Institute of
Pure Biological Preparations (BIOPREPARAT), in St. Petersburg,
was engaged in any work on biological weapons. American and British
experts worked on the commission. ITAR-TASS quoted the cochairman
of the American delegation as saying that the commission had
been given unimpeded access to the institute and its employees.
A Russian scientist who defected to Great Britain in 1990 had
claimed that the institute was secretly working to develop a
strain of plague microorganisms for use as a biological weapon.
Prozorovsky said that the institute had been working with plague
strains, but only to create vaccines. (Doug Clarke)

OFFICIALS CLARIFY YELTSIN'S SUBMARINE COMMENT. Valerii Makharadze,
a deputy chairman of the Russian government, told ITAR-TASS on
20-November that President Yeltsin's recent comment, made during
his visit to South Korea, that Russia might stop building nuclear
submarines in the next three years, only applied to the eastern
portion of the country. (There is a major shipyard at Komsomolsk,
on the Amur River. It was the second yard in the USSR to construct
nuclear submarines. However, the latest ballistic-missile submarines
are too big to be built at this inland port, and it has largely
switched over to diesel-powered boats.) Radio Rossii on 20-November
quoted Andrei Kokoshin, the civilian first deputy defense minister,
as saying that all future submarine construction would be concentrated
at the giant SevMash enterprise in Severodvinsk, near Archangel
in northwest Russia. All the other yards currently producing
submarines would, in the future, only fit them out. (Doug Clarke)


RUSSIAN TROOPS START CUBAN WITHDRAWAL. Reporting from Havana,
a Mexican news agency reported on 20 November that more than
500 Russian troops had been taken from their base to Havana where
they were to board a ship bound for Russia. The troops were said
to belong to the Russian independent motorized infantry "training"
brigade that has long been stationed on the island. The agency
reported that this unit was also known as "Research Center No.
12." In early September the Cubans announced that all the Russian
troops stationed in Cuba would be withdrawn by the middle of
next year. They and the Russians later confirmed that Russians
manning the former-Soviet electronic listening-post on the island
would remain. (Doug Clarke)

GENERAL CRITICIZES "IRRATIONAL" DIVISION OF ARMED FORCES. Lt.
General Leonid Ivashov, the secretary of the CIS Council of Defense
Ministers, told a Moscow meeting on 21-November that the armed
forces of the former Soviet Union had been divided among the
successor states in an "irrational" manner. As a result, he maintained,
not a single CIS state was capable of ensuring its own security
on its own. He charged that the hopes of some politicians to
integrate these national forces on the NATO model "turned out
to be bluff." At the same time, Ivashov applauded some of the
positive developments, such as the exclusively defensive nature
of the new states' military doctrines. He also thought that the
mechanisms for global, regional, and national security were being
created. (Doug Clarke)

CONTRACT MILITARY SERVICE TO START THIS YEAR. General Gennadii
Bochayev, who serves in the Russian Ministry of Defense, told
a Moscow briefing on 17 November that the Russian military would
begin accepting contract servicemen 1 December of this year.
According to Interfax, the transition to a combined conscript/contract
military would be made in three stages. In 1993, 10% of the Russian
military would be on contract. In the second stage, to be completed
by 1995, 30% would be on contract. By the year 2000, the third
stage, 50% of the military would be on contract. Bochayev said
that 100,000 people would be hired on contract in 1993, and that
six billion rubles had been set aside for this purpose. (Doug
Clarke)

RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVES GERMAN SETTLEMENT PROGRAM. The Russian
government has approved a state program for establishing settlements
for Russian Germans on the Volga river, the cabinet's press center
reported on 20-November according to Interfax. The program was
development by the local authorities of Volgograd, Samara, and
Saratov oblasts on the basis of a joint Russian-German project.
Plots are to be allotted to form farming complexes with 200 farmers
in each. Russian Germans will also be given plots for houses,
production enterprises, and other buildings. The farmers will
receive the plots as private property. The Russian Finance Ministry
will allocate 300 million rubles in financial support for the
farmers in 1992. (Ann Sheehy)

UDOVENKO APPOINTED UKRAINIAN ENVOY TO WARSAW. The new Ukrainian
ambassador to Poland will be Genadii Udovenko, a former deputy
foreign minister, who for the last 7 years represented Ukraine
at the United Nations. Udovenko held a press conference in Kiev
on 20 November, which was reported by Ukrainian TV. He said that
one of his first tasks will be to complete the preparations for
the visit of the Polish prime minister to Kiev, which is scheduled
for 9-10-December. (Bohdan Nahaylo)

PARLIAMENTARY BY-ELECTIONS IN UKRAINE. By-elections were held
throughout Ukraine on 22-November to fill 28 vacant seats in
the Ukrainian Supreme Council. Ukrainian Radio reported after
voting had closed that because of low voter turnout, not all
the elections may be valid. The results are still awaited. (Bohdan
Nahaylo)

CRIMEA AND THE DEPORTED NATIONS. In the course of a meeting organized
by the Crimean parliament with representatives of nations deported
from the peninsula in the 1940s, it was announced that 230,000
have returned from their places of exile (9% of the Crimea's
population), Ukrainian TV reported on 19 November. Parliamentary
chairman Mykola Bahrov, who addressed the meeting, singled out
the most important issues facing the returnees. The Crimean Tatar
Mejlis boycotted the session. (Roman Solchanyk)

KUCHMA ON THE UKRAINIAN MAFIA. During a recent interview, Ukrainian
Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma told the Italian newspaper La Reppublica
that the Ukrainian mafia is considerably stronger than its Sicilian
counterpart, Ukrainian TV reported on 19 November. Kuchma claimed
that organized crime in Ukraine has access to the Cabinet of
Ministers, and that it has "its people" in the offices of the
ministries. Moreover, Kuchma stated that there were two to five
billion dollars in the country illegally. (Roman Solchanyk).


NABIEV RESIGNATION ACCEPTED. On 20 November the Tajikistan parliament
meeting in Khodzhent recognized that former President Rakhmon
Nabiev's resignation in September was invalid as it had been
made under duress, Interfax reported. Nabiev then offered his
resignation, which was accepted by a majority vote. The parliamentary
session will continue on 23 November. The same day the new Acting
President Imonali Rakhmanov will meet commanders of armed groups
and also the new Prime Minister Abdumalik Abduladzhanov to discuss
cabinet appointments. AFP quotes former Acting President Akbarsho
Iskandarov as saying that peace may be difficult to achieve if
the new government is not balanced politically and regionally.
He said the team leading the effort to create a new government
is dominated by pro-Communists from the Kulyab region. (Ann Sheehy)


CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

NATO BEGINS BLOCKADE OF MONTENEGRIN COAST. Late in the afternoon
of 22-November NATO ships began a blockade in the Adriatic Sea
that includes the declared right to stop and search vessels,
and, if necessary, to use force against them. The action is seen
as largely symbolic, since most smuggling to Serbia-Montenegro
in violation of UN sanctions takes place overland or via the
Danube. Western agencies reported on 20 November that French
UN troops used heavy weapons in northwestern Bosnia for the first
time. The French fired a warning shot from a 20-millimeter cannon
after coming into crossfire between Bosnian and Serbian forces.
On 21 November agencies reported that Bernard Kouchner, France's
activist minister for humanitarian action and health, criticized
the international community for only "shouting about an end to
violence" in Bosnia- Herzegovina. He said that "one should be
more courageous and go to war." (Patrick Moore)

SERBS TO USE SCUDS IN BOSNIA? Western news agencies reported
on 22 November that Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic has asked
the UN to prevent Serb missile deployment against Gradacac and
Brcko. A Bosnian army officer said that the Serbs took as many
as twelve SCUDs from their major base at Banja Luka to Modrica
and Odzak on 18 November, but there has been no independent confirmation
of the Bosnian charges. International media did report on 22
November, however, that Sarajevo has come under heavy Serbian
attack and that a major Serbian offensive is under way against
Travnik in central Bosnia. Some 70,000 refugees from Jajce and
elsewhere are currently in Travnik. (Patrick Moore)

MILOSEVIC WILL RUN, COSIC SAYS NO. Radio Serbia reported on 20
November that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic is the presidential
candidate of the ruling Socialist Party (SPS) for the elections
on 20 December. SPS Secretary-General Milomir Minic explained
that Milosevic's candidacy for Serbia's president "reflects the
mood of the broad section of the population and expresses the
trust that he enjoys among the Serbian people and all citizens
of Serbia." Interviewed in Politika on 22 November, Dobrica Cosic,
president of the rump Yugoslavia, stated he will not run for
president of Serbia, preferring to stay on as president of Serbia-Montenegro,
but warned if the new parliament fails to show willingness to
embark immediately on radical constitutional reforms and organize
the state into a modern democracy, he will "quickly resign."
Cosic said he and Milosevic do not share the same views on the
meaning of democracy, ways of conducting foreign policy and differ
sharply over the consequences of the UN-imposed sanctions. (Milan
Andrejevich)

OPPOSITION JOURNAL CALLS FOR PUTSCH AGAINST MILOSEVIC. The latest
issue of the Serbian Renewal Movement's Srpska rec has called
on the military to take action against the Serbian president.
A commentary entitled "The Salvation of the Country and the Nation,"
admits that a putsch would be an undemocratic act but argues
that the minimal conditions for a democratic society cannot be
achieved while Milosevic holds power and "nobody can or ever
will remove him by democratic means-especially not by elections
in the shadow of his own armed force and the media." The article
concludes "Really, what are the generals waiting for? It is high
time for them to join the democratic opposition and in this way
save the country and the nation." Military leaders have recently
emphasized the armed forces will not serve as a political arbiter.
(Milan Andrejevich)

INDEPENDENT BELGRADE TV TO RECEIVE AID. According to the New
York Times of 20-November, a UN Security Council committee has
approved an exemption to the sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro
that enables delivery of $240,000 worth of equipment for Belgrade's
independent Studio B TV. The initiative was proposed by Britain
and backed by the US. The move is seen as an effort to upgrade
the station's programming, which was been an outlet for political
parties opposed to Milosevic. Studio B began broadcasting in
1990, but its signal reaches only about 30% of Serbia's TV viewers.
On 20 November the Socialist-controlled Program One of Belgrade
TV charged that US assistance to the independent media is intended
to convey the message that "Serbs must blame Serbs for everything
happening to them." (Milan Andrejevich)

DIMITROV FAILS TO FORM GOVERNMENT. In a 124 to 104 vote on 20
November, the Bulgarian Parliament rejected the government proposed
by the Union of Democratic Forces and led by Prime Minister Filip
Dimitrov, plunging the country further into political crisis.
The vote of no-confidence was led by the opposition Socialist
Party (the former communists) and joined by the increasingly
powerful Movement for Rights and Liberties, a predominantly Turkish
minority party that had deserted the UDF coalition, plus several
UDF deputies who disapprove of Dimitrov's candidacy as prime
minister. Reuters reports that Western diplomats in Sofia expect
President Zhelyu Zhelev to call on the Socialists to try form
a government, but with only 106 seats in Parliament, against
110 for the UDF and 24 for the MRL, their prospects are not good.
Most observers believe the situation can only be resolved by
early elections this winter. (Charles Trumbull)

NEW CZECH INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED. On 20 November Tomas Kopriva,
director of the Czechoslovak Press Agency (CSTK), signed a protocol
abolishing the agency and establishing the Czech Press Agency
(CTK). The assets of CSTK were transferred to CTK and its Slovak
counterpart, the Press Agency of the Slovak Republic (TA SR)
established earlier this year. Also on 20 November CTK reported
that the Czech parliament voted to set up the Czech Ministries
of Defense and Transportation as well as the office of the president
of the republic. Parliament also approved legislation to permit
a full-sized stock market. CTK reports that the law, the first
of it kind in any postcommunist country, creates conditions for
stock trading both at a regular stock exchange as well as an
alternative computerized stock exchange designed to handle the
product of the so-called voucher privatization. (Jiri Pehe)

NEW GOVERNMENT TAKES OFFICE IN ROMANIA. On 20 November President
Ion Iliescu swore in Romania's new government. Radio Bucharest
reports that Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu pledges to continue
reforms "in a coherent way." Iliescu wished the ministers success
in what he described as their "tough task" to overcome the present
difficulties. Vacaroiu's cabinet, which was confirmed by Parliament
on 19-November by a 260 to 203 vote, consists of 22 ministers,
of whom half are members of the Democratic National Salvation
Front, the strongest party in the legislature. The other half-including
the premier-say they are independent. Several ministers served
in the regime of Nicolae Ceausescu. (Dan Ionescu)

FINAL RESULTS OF SEIMAS ELECTIONS. On 22-November Vaclovas Litvinas,
the head of the Lithuanian election commission, announced the
final results of the Seimas elections over Lithuanian TV. He
noted that the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party gained 73 seats,
the Sajudis coalition-30, the Christian Democratic coalition
-18, the Social -Democratic Party-8, the Union of Poles-4, the
National Union of Lithuania-3, the Center Movement-2, the Independence
Party, Christian Democratic Union, and an independent candidate-1-each.
(Saulius Girnius)

ESTONIAN PRO PATRIA UNITES TO BECOME PARTY. Four conservative
political parties that ran under one ticket in September's parliamentary
and presidential elections have formally united to become a single
political party, BNS reports. On 21 November, the election coalition
Pro Patria (Isamaa) held its founding congress, uniting the Christian
Democratic Union, the Christian Democratic Party, the Conservative
Popular Party and the Republican Coalition Party. The Liberal
Democratic Party, which also ran under the election coalition,
did not become part of Pro Patria, and the Estonian National
Independence Party, which is part of the currently ruling government
coalition but was not in the election coalition, also declined.
Pro Patria voted Prime Minister Mart Laar, of the Christian Democratic
Union, to be chairman of the new party. The election coalition
voted last summer to formalize its status as a political party
after elections. (Riina Kionka)

HDF CRITICAL OF HUNGARIAN MEDIA. At a 21-November meeting organized
by the Hungarian Democratic Forum in Kecskemet, Sandor Lezsak,
one of the party's vice chairmen, condemned two articles published
recently in Budapest dailies. Lezsak said that an article in
Nepszabadsag alleging an upcoming government shakeup was written
by representatives of a political force interested in running
the country down in advance of the 1994 elections. The second
article, in Magyar hirlap, details a meeting of the HDF presidium
at which the leading party organ allegedly told Vice Chairman
Istvan Csurka he should stop going his own way within the party
or else resign. Csurka became the center of attention after publishing
a political tract with anti-Semitic undertones and lambasting
the lukewarm policies of the HDF for political change Lezsak
called the Magyar Hirlap article a provocation. The report was
carried by MTI on 21 November. (Judith Pataki)

WESTERN STATESMEN FOCUS ON BALTICS. In a 19 November commentary
to the New York Times entitled "Save the Peace Dividend," former
President Richard Nixon joined the ranks of Western statesmen
focusing on the Baltic States as a linchpin of future US-Russian
relations. "One of the most effective ways we can help Mr. Yeltsin,"
Nixon writes, "is to champion the rights of the 25 million Russian-speaking
people in the Baltic and other post-Soviet states-both bilaterally
and in international forums. The Russian people should be able
to feel that their human rights are a priority for American diplomacy."
Early last week, without citing evidence, former President Carter
said the US is witnessing "human rights violations" in Estonia
and Latvia, a statement Senator Richard Lugar, who visited Tallinn
this week, emphasized is not an official US government position.
On 8 November writing in the Washington Post, retired American
diplomat George Kennan called on the US to build housing for
officers currently serving in the Baltics "as a gesture of goodwill
toward the Russian and Baltic peoples and as a contribution to
the stability of the Baltic region." (Riina Kionka)

ABISALA REPROACHES RUSSIA FOR BANK DELAY. On 19 November Prime
Minister Aleksandras Abisala told a press conference that Russia
has started to meet its agreements on the mutual settlement of
accounts with Lithuania, signed on 30-September, BNS reports.
The agreement provides that accounts be opened in the central
banks of both countries. Russia just recently informed Lithuania
that an account for its use with a balance of 4.6 billion rubles
has been opened. A Russian account at the Bank of Lithuania will
be opened after the official documents are received from Russia.
(Saulius Girnius)

MORE ESTONIANS EVACUATED FROM ABKHAZIA. Estonia on 21 November
sent a plane to evacuate some 30 compatriots stranded by the
fighting in the Abkhazia area of Georgia, BNS reports. The mission,
organized by the Estonian Migration Department, is the third
evacuation flight to Tallinn since fighting broke out in Sukhumi.
The previous flight on 30-October brought some 60 Estonians and
their families back to Tallinn. (Riina Kionka)

POLISH-AMERICAN MILITARY CONTACTS. Deputy Defense Minister Przemyslaw
Grudzinski and Jerzy Milewski, head of the National Security
Bureau, reported on a recent high-level Polish military delegation
visit in the US. Both welcomed the creation of a standing joint
working group for military contacts, cochaired by Grudzinski
and Undersecretary of Defense Louis Libby. Each side is to be
represented in the working group by 10 to 12 officers. The first
meeting will be held in December, PAP reported on 18-November.
(Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

POLISH-BELARUS RELATIONS. During a one-day visit in Belarus on
18 November, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka and her Belarus
counterpart, Vyacheslav Kebich, signed several bilateral agreements
and agreed to set up a joint commercial bank to facilitate trade.
On her return, Suchocka told PAP that Poland is interested in
seeing Belarus a fully sovereign country and that its road to
Europe should lead via Poland. Part of the Polish press has expressed
concern that the 22 agreements signed between Belarus and Russia
in the summer make Belarus economically too dependent on Russia.
(Anna Sabbat- Swidlicka)

ILIESCU TO VISIT FRANCE ON 24 NOVEMBER. Radio Bucharest announced
on 21-November that Romania's reelected President Ion Iliescu
will go to Paris on 24 November to meet French President Fran¨ois
Mitterrand. No details were provided. (Dan Ionescu)

ILIESCU, VACAROIU ATTEND CEAUSESCU-STYLE FESTIVITIES. Radio Bucharest
reported on 22 November that President Iliescu, Premier Vacaroiu
and other officials attended festivities marking the 1890th anniversary
of a battle between Romans and Geto- Dacians (an ancient local
population). The event took place at Adamclisi, southern Dobruja.
In his address, Iliescu hailed the "permanence and continuity"
of the Romanian people in the region and described a Roman monument
commemorating the battle as a symbol of "our legitimacy in a
Europe divided and full of contradictions." The pageantry was
strikingly reminiscent of the peculiar 2,050th anniversary of
the "first centralized and independent Dacian state," staged
under Ceausescu in 1980. (Dan Ionescu)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull




[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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