In general, mankind, since the improvement of cookery, eats twice as much as nature requires. - Ben Franklin
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 219, 12 November 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

RUSSIAN TROOPS PULL BACK IN INGUSHETIA. On 11 November Russian
troops pulled back from areas claimed by Chechnya after leaders
of Ingushetia's provisional administration and representatives
of the Chechen republic signed a protocol in Nazran agreeing
that the pre-1934 frontiers be adhered to for the time being,
ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Russian Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar had talks in Nazran with Ingush leaders; Major-General
Musa Tsechoev, Ingushetia's military commandant, described these
discussions as productive. Gaidar promised that the Ingush refugees
would be returned to their homes in North Ossetia, and that there
would be investment in Ingushetia's backward economy. (Ann Sheehy)


POWER STRUGGLE CONTINUES BETWEEN YELTSIN & PARLIAMENT. The Russian
parliament has voted to limit further the powers of the executive
branch of government. It voted to require all ministers to make
an annual report to the parliament to ensure executive accountability
to the legislative branch. This bill was passed despite President
Yeltsin's request that parliament request only an annual report
by the prime minister, Interfax reported on 11 November. The
parliament also further restricted the government's budgetary
control. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko complained
that some deputies wanted to limit the government's functions
to those of a parliamentary committee, and stated that parliament
has become more conservative because most deputies have not yet
decided for themselves in what kind of political system they
want to live. Shumeiko said he advocates a republic with strong
executive powers since the present stage of reform requires a
strong presidential hand. (Alexander Rahr)

POLITICAL STRUGGLE ON THE EVE OF THE CONGRESS. First Vice Prime
Minister Vladimir Shumeiko said that the president will challenge
in the Constitutional Court recent legislation that he says violates
the principle of separation of powers. Interfax on 11 November
quoted him as saying that the law, as it is being discussed by
the parliament, deprives the government of its ability to carry
out its work. The leader of the parliamentary faction "Civic
Society," Mikhail Chelnokov, and two other deputies have warned
of a possible introduction of presidential rule in the country
and "a return to totalitarianism." He suggested that the parliament
should regain greater control of parliament and some of the ministries,
especially those involving security, defense, interior affairs,
and TV. (Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN: RUSSIA WILL NOT RETREAT FROM REFORM. Speaking before
the Hungarian parliament on 11 November, President Yeltsin sought
to assure Hungary that political and economic reform in Russia
will continue. Referring to political forces in Russia that want
to return to communism, Yeltsin said, "we are strong enough to
stop those who are trying to turn back history . . . We are finished
with the communist past forever, not only in Russia, but also
in Hungary and all of Europe." Russia's reform program will not,
however, involve "blind copying" of other countries' systems,
but will be instead "an organic combination of world experience
and our own traditions," ITAR-TASS reported. (Suzanne Crow)

YELTSIN ON NUCLEAR ARSENAL; DEFENSE PRODUCTION. In his 10 November
speech and press conference in London, President Yeltsin said
that Moscow was ready to sign an agreement with Washington for
further reductions in strategic nuclear weapons. Apparently downplaying
the role of CIS Joint Forces Commander Evgenii Shaposhnikov,
Yeltsin also emphasized that all strategic forces (presumably
in the CIS) belong to Russia and are subordinated to the Russian
President and Defense Minister. He said that Russia had begun
the dismantling of nuclear warheads at Sverdlovsk44, Arzamas-16,
and Chelyabinsk-65. Turning to the difficulties of converting
Russia's vast military industrial complex, Yeltsin said that
progress had been made, but that it was unjustified both to throw
millions of military industrial workers out of work and to destroy
modern productive facilities that might be converted to civilian
production. His remarks were reported by ITAR-TASS and Russian
TV. (Stephen Foye)

PRAVDA SAYS YELTSIN SEEKS EMERGENCY POWERS. The conservative
newspaper Pravda has stated in a lead article on 12 November
that President Yeltsin's speech to the British parliament included
a clear message to the Russian people that he wishes to introduce
presidential rule in Russia. The paper criticized Yeltsin for
his critical remarks about the Soviet Union and said that he
had denounced his own country. Pravda maintained that even Tsar
Peter I, in his speech at Westminster 300 years ago, did not
attack the regime of Ivan the Terrible the way Yeltsin attacked
the Soviet past. Pravda also accused Yeltsin of hypocrisy since
he, as former Party leader, had worked on the side of Communism
for years. (Alexander Rahr)

CIVIC UNION'S ULTIMATUM TO YELTSIN. Vasilii Lipitsky, co-leader
of the People's Party of Free Russia and the Civic Union, told
a press conference on 11 November, attended by a Radio Liberty
correspondent, that last week's meeting between President Yeltsin
and leaders of the Civic Union widened the gap between the President
and the centrist opposition. Lipitsky urged Yeltsin to announce
within a week whether he wants to cooperate with the Civic Union.
He stated that the Civic Union will defend Yeltsin at the Congress
and fight for the retention of Prime Minister Egor Gaidar only
if Yeltsin agrees to some compromises on the composition of the
government and reform policy. Lipitsky excluded the possibility
of an alliance between the Civic Union and right-wing forces.
(Alexander Rahr)

SOBCHAK CALLS FOR EXPANDED ARMS SALES. St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii
Sobchak told Interfax on 11 November that reduced Russian arms
exports had run counter to Russian national interests and had
"played into the hands" of Russia's competitors in the US and
Germany. Sobchak reportedly questioned Moscow's policy of "begging"
for financial aid from the US when Moscow could, he estimated,
be earning some $20 billion a year in arms sales. He also described
as "barbarous" Russia's current conversion program. The St. Petersburg
economy is heavily dependent on defense production. (Stephen
Foye)

MORE ON REPLACEMENT OF MOSCOW POLICE CHIEF. The newly appointed
chief of the Moscow police force, Vladimir Pankratov, served
previously as the chief of the Moscow Motorways Inspection Agency
(GAI), reputed to be one of the most corrupt elements of the
MVD. In 1989 Pankratov, together with former Moscow police chief
and KGB general, Petr Bogdanov, set up a Soviet-Kuwaiti joint
venture called "Soviet Engineering" (despite the apparent conflict
of interest involved), according to Moskovskii komsomolets on
11 November. In his comments on the removal of Arkadii Murashov
from the position of the Moscow chief of police, which was widely
seen as a move against liberal forces, the Russian Minister of
Interior, Viktor Erin told Rossiiskie vesti on 6 November that
because of his inexperience, Murashov made serious miscalculations
while directing the police. (Victor Yasmann)

KUCHMA ADDRESSES NATION. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma
held a live televised press conference on 11 November during
which he told viewers that the standard of living in Ukraine
today is worse than during the Great Depression, Reuters reported
on 12 November. Although criticizing the system of collective
farming, the government leader warned that destroying the collective
farms would lead to famine. He also said that the government
would sell arms abroad in order to raise revenue, but excluded
Iraq from Ukraine's list of prospective customers. Kuchma said
that parliament would be asked to give the government emergency
powers to carry out economic reform. (Roman Solchanyk)

GAIDAR ON PROSECUTION OF THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR CONFLICT. Russian
Prime Minister Egor Gaidar said in Vladikavkaz on 11 November
that the political leaders responsible for the Ossetian-Ingush
armed conflict would not escape prosecution, Interfax reported.
A group of investigators would be sent from Moscow to Vladikavkaz
and Nazran. There would also be an investigation of the sources
of arms supplies. (Ann Sheehy)

CONFEDERATION OF PEOPLES ANNOUNCES PARTIAL MOBILIZATION. Yusup
Soslambekov, chairman of the parliament of the Confederation
of the Peoples of the Caucasus, issued an order on 11 November
calling for a partial mobilization in all the territories of
the confederation, Interfax reported. The statement said each
nation could mobilize as many as five to ten thousand peoples,
and the commanders were ordered to go immediately to the Chechen
capital, Groznyi. The statement also said that a regular session
of the Confederation's parliament would take place on 14 November.
(Ann Sheehy)

NEW COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF GEORGIAN ARMED FORCES APPOINTED. Georgian
interim Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua told the newly-convened Georgian
parliament on 10 November that the Georgian Defense Council had
decided to reman the Defense Ministry's General Headquarters
with skilled military personnel, Interfax reported. General Nodar
Gudzhabidze was nominated commander of the General Headquarters
and Lieutenant-Colonel Kamkamidze was recalled from Ukraine to
serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Georgian Armed Forces. These
appointments are probably intended to counter the tactical excesses
of Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani. (Liz Fuller)

NAVAL BLOCKADE RENEWED IN POTI. ITAR-TASS and Western agencies
reported on 11 November that Georgian tugs and fishing vessels
have again blockaded the port of Poti, on the Black Sea. A Russian
commander was quoted as saying that Russia would use force if
necessary to open the port. Last month Georgian vessels also
blockaded the port. Russian ships have been conducting evacuation
operations there. (Stephen Foye)

FLIGHTS TO BEGIN BETWEEN AZERBAIJAN AND KISH ISLAND. Iran will
begin flights later this month between Azerbaijan and the island
of Kish in the Persian Gulf, which is a free-trade zone, as part
of an agreement signed earlier this year on setting up joint
Azerbaijani-Iranian companies, Teheran Radio reported on 11 November.
(Liz Fuller)

CEASEFIRE FAILS IN TAJIKISTAN. A ceasefire scheduled to go into
force on 11 November was ignored by supporters and opponents
of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, Interfax reported. Fighters
from both sides battled over the town of Nurek. The pro-Nabiev
Popular Movement of Kulyab is trying to gain control over the
whole of Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, the center of anti-Nabiev forces
in southern Tajikistan. Deputy Chairman of Tajikistan's Supreme
Soviet Akhmadzhon Saidov told Interfax that the Tajik government,
which formally resigned on 10 November, is trying to ensure that
a quorum of deputies will appear at the Supreme Soviet session
on 16 November. Earlier attempts to hold a session of the parliament
to discuss Nabiev's gunpoint resignation have failed because
a quorum of deputies did not show up. (Bess Brown)

CALLS TO TRANSFER POWER TO RUSSIAN ARMY IN TAJIKISTAN. ITAR-TASS
and Western agencies reported on 11 November that some opposition
groups in Tajikistan have urged that executive power in the country
be temporarily given to the locally-based Russian 201st Motor
Rifle Division. They apparently hope that such an action would
stop hostilities in the country. A Russian commander with the
201st division said, however, that Russian troops had no intention
of taking political power, and that they would focus their efforts
on maintaining security and helping distribute humanitarian aid.
(Stephen Foye)

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT IN CHINA. On a tour of China and several CIS
states of Central Asia, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur completed
on 10 November a five day visit to China during which he conferred
with President Yang Shangkun, Prime Minister Li Peng, and other
Beijing officials, and visited free enterprise zones in Shanghai
and elsewhere. Agreements were signed on economic cooperation,
primarily involving agriculture, and on the opening of a Chisinau-Beijing
air route, Moldovapres reported. Snegur told Moldovapres that
China supported Moldova's demand for the withdrawal of Russia's
army from Moldova. Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu, who accompanied
Snegur, told Moldovapres that the visit reflected the fact that
China had been the first major Asian state to have recognized
and established diplomatic relations with Moldova, and that Moldova
would next approach Japan and South Korea. (Vladimir Socor)

MOLDOVA WANTS NATO INVOLVEMENT IN DNIESTER SETTLEMENT. Mircea
Snegur's military counsellor, Colonel Nicolae Chirtoaca, told
the Moldovan media on November 9 that he had briefed a meeting
of NATO's Political and Military Committees, just held in Brussels,
on the current situation in the Dniester conflict. He welcomed
what he described as the Committees' intention to send observers
to the scene and to offer proposals toward a political settlement
in accordance with international law and the CSCE principles.
If the conflict is to be settled, Chirtoaca said, it is essential
to enlarge the existing negotiating framework, i.e. the bilateral
Moldovan-Russian framework which Moldova accepted in July under
Russian military and economic pressure. Moldova has since made
repeated efforts to involve CSCE and UN mechanisms in the peacekeeping
operation and in negotiations toward a political settlement.
(Vladimir Socor)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE COMES INTO EFFECT. International media report
early on 12 November that the latest truce seems to be being
observed for the most part. There was heavy fighting around Sarajevo
and Mostar, as well as in northern Bosnia, on 11 November. Western
agencies quoted UN commander Gen. Philippe Morillon as saying
that he believes this cease-fire might be more successful than
previous ones, since this marks the first time that the various
military commanders have taken responsibility for the agreement.
(Patrick Moore)

NATO CONFIRMS AWACS PATROLS OVER HUNGARY. Hungarian Radio reported
on 11 November, quoting a NATO spokesman in Brussels, that NATO
planes are conducting surveillance flights over Hungary in connection
with the UN embargo and no-flight zone operations against Serbia.
Rumors to this effect had surfaced last week in Budapest. These
flights represent the first NATO operation outside its territory
in Europe. (Karoly Okolicsanyi)

KOSOVO UPDATE. Serbian military and Albanian political leaders
have offered conflicting explanations over the cause of the shooting
on 11 November in front of the federal military command headquarters
in Pristina when an ethnic Albanian was killed and two army sentries
wounded. Serbia contends the guards were attacked by ethnic Albanian
"terrorists." The military command's statement said one youth
stabbed a sentry in the back, seized his machine gun, and proceeded
to fire upon the other sentries. According to a statement released
by Kosovo's main Albanian party, the Democratic League, the guards
provoked the Albanians and one of the youths seized a gun from
a sentry and opened fire. Other soldiers then returned fire on
the youth. A party spokesman told reporters that the incident
"came as no surprise," alleging that Serbian authorities want
to "unleash war in Kosovo as the only way of retaining power."
Meanwhile, Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel warned Serbian
President Slobodan Milosevic against provoking "carnage" in Kosovo
and in the predominantly Muslim-populated Sandzak. Radios Serbia
and Croatia carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich)

WAS SERBIA BEHIND ALBANIAN RIOTS IN MACEDONIA? The 11 November
London Independent quoted Macedonian interior ministry and news
agency officials as saying that they believe that Serbia was
behind the clash between Macedonian police and ethnic Albanians
on 6 November that left one dead and four wounded. The Macedonian
authorities said that many of the rioters were from Kosovo, and
that five of those arrested confessed to working for KOS, or
Serbian counterintelligence linked to the former Yugoslav military.
The head of Macedonia's new news agency said that the Serbs were
trying to provoke trouble as an excuse for taking over Macedonia,
and a nationalist opposition leader said he fears that such incidents
will lead to Serbian intervention as similar clashes did in Slovenia,
Croatia, and Bosnia. Other theories have suggested that Albanian
extremists or even underworld elements were behind the trouble.
Meanwhile, the London Times said that Macedonians expect that
their neighbors will try to start a war over their republic,
and that they suspect Greece of encouraging Serbia to that end.
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports on increasingly bellicose
voices in the Greek press over Macedonia. (Patrick Moore)

COSIC MIGHT RUN IN SERBIAN ELECTIONS. Radio Serbia quotes highly
placed sources in Belgrade that Serbia's Democratic Coalition
will place Federal President Dobrica Cosic on their list as candidate
for president of Serbia if Milosevic runs for that office in
the December elections. Cosic has stated on several occasions
that he will not run for any political office, while Milosevic
has clearly said he will run. If Cosic does decide to run as
the coalition's candidate, it would signal a major shift in Serbian
politics. The opposition would stand a reasonable chance of success
in the elections by finally closing ranks against Milosevic and
his ruling Socialists. (Milan Andrejevich)

CZECH MINERS DEMONSTRATE IN PRAGUE. Thousands of workers in coal,
iron, and uranium mines of the Czech Republic, afraid of losing
their jobs, demonstrated in Prague on 11 November against the
Czech government's plans to privatize the mining industry. A
spokesman for the Federal Union of Mineworkers told Reuters that
the miners do not oppose privatization as such but are "against
the way the restructuring is being carried out." He said that
the union estimates that 15-20% of the 80,000 coal miners in
northern Moravia and northern Bohemia alone would lose their
jobs under the government's reorganization schemes. Czech Industry
Minister Vladimir Dlouhy told the demonstrating miners that the
government will not be pressured by demonstrations. Speaking
at a press conference in Prague, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav
Klaus said the miners' leaders proposed an agreement with the
government that would modify the government's privatization scheme.
Klaus rejected the idea, saying that his government has not concluded
and will never conclude an agreement with a specific social group.
(Jiri Pehe)

STOLOJAN PRESENTS HIS RECORD TO THE SENATE. Outgoing Prime Minister
Theodor Stolojan presented to the Senate on 11 November the record
of the cabinet he headed between October 1991 and October 1992.
In a speech broadcast live on Radio Bucharest, Stolojan said
his government focused on economic stability and the continuation
of market reforms. He pointed out that industrial production
recorded growth in October for the third consecutive month after
more than two years of stagnation and decline. He also said exports
are increasing (though, he added, it is not certain whether this
growth reflects increase in productivity or merely allocation
of more resources,) and energy supplies are higher than at this
time last year. (Michael Shafir)

BACKING FOR LAW BANNING ANTI-SEMITISM GAINS SUPPORT IN ROMANIA.
Rabbi Moses Rosen, leader of Romania's Jewish community, said
on 11 November that Adrian Nastase, vice president of the Democratic
National Salvation Front, has agreed to support a proposed law
that would make anti-Semitism a crime, Reuters reports from Bucharest.
Nastase holds the position of Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies.
(Michael Shafir)

YELTSIN IN HUNGARY. MTI reports that Russian President Boris
Yeltsin, in the first high-ranking Russian visit in the post-Soviet
period, met with Hungarian President Arpad Goncz on 11 November.
Goncz emphasized that Russia is a major factor in the region's
stability and an important economic partner for his country.
He said Yeltsin's visit puts relations between the two nations
on a new footing. Yeltsin also met with Prime Minister Jozsef
Antall and agreed that mutual financial claims regarding military
installations and environmental damage by Soviet troops cancel
each other out, although Hungary will supply the Russian army
with $10 million worth of medicine and help with apartment-building
projects for returned soldiers. A complete solution for the $1.6-billion
Hungarian trade surplus was postponed, but Yeltsin agreed to
supply Russian military spare parts for half of that amount.
A basic bilateral treaty is sought by the end of the year. Yeltsin
also laid wreaths at the monument for Soviet war dead in central
Budapest and visited the grave of Imre Nagy, who lead the 1956
Hungarian revolution and who was hanged by the Soviet-backed
Hungarian communists. (Karoly Okolicsanyi)

BULGARIAN TURKS SUGGEST COALITION CABINET. On 11 November the
parliamentary group of the mainly Turkish Movement for Rights
and Freedoms (MRF) party suggested the formation of a coalition
government with the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF). An MRF
declaration argued that a coalition could guarantee the realization
of the aims of both parties and represent a further step toward
European-style democracy. BTA quoted MRF chairman Ahmed Dogan
as saying that MRF leaders would themselves not necessarily join
the cabinet but might propose candidates from extraparliamentary
parties. After a meeting with Dogan, UDF chairman Filip Dimitrov
said the MRF initiative is valuable and that an appropriate formula
can probably be found. The MRF earlier rejected the idea of participating
in the government. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

SIXTH ROUND OF BULGARIAN-EC ASSOCIATION TALKS. The latest round
of negotiations, this time focusing on trade matters, ended on
11 November. Deputy Trade Minister Stanislav Daskalov told BTA
that both sides demonstrated a certain degree of flexibility,
especially on issues concerning agricultural produce, wine, and
textiles. At the same time the Bulgarian negotiators found it
difficult to convince EC officials of the importance of having
a special clause protecting the Bulgarian metal industry. The
next round of talks is scheduled for 3-4 December. (Kjell Engelbrekt)


ESTONIAN PRIME MINISTER IN NARVA. Mart Laar met with residents
of Narva on 11 November during a two-day tour of northeastern
Estonia, BNS reports. The residents of Narva, the city expected
to be hardest hit by imminent factory closings, appealed to Laar
in some agitation to provide "jobs and freedom." Laar, who also
visited Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi, told reporters he is well aware
of the problems in that area of the country but said enterprises
cannot expect credits from the government, whose coffers are
empty. Laar called on local authorities and residents to cooperate
with Tallinn. (Riina Kionka)

MAZEIKIAI OIL REFINERY SHUT DOWN AGAIN. On 10 November the oil
refinery in Mazeikiai, Lithuania, shut down because oil supplies
from Russia were stopped on 6 November, BNS reports. The refinery
had been closed from 5 August to 13 October, causing losses of
a billion rubles. The refinery had signed an agreement with Balteneftgaz
two weeks ago to supply 700,000 tons of oil that would have kept
the refinery operating until mid-December, but the supplies are
not arriving for reasons that are not clear. On 6 November Lithuanian
and Russian government officials signed an agreement by which
about 600,000 tons of oil would be supplied until the end of
the year if Lithuania paid the 1.6-billion-ruble debt for oil
previously delivered. In order to pay its debt, the refinery
would need a loan, which the government is not able to make.
(Saulius Girnius)

ABISALA IN WASHINGTON. On 11 November at a press conference in
Washington, Lithuanian Prime Minister Aleksandras Abisala said
that he fears the West would not do anything to stop Russia if
it moved militarily against the Baltic States, Western agencies
report. Although noting that the number of Russian troops in
Lithuania has decreased to about 20,000, there are still about
300,000 troops in Kaliningrad. He will meet on 12 November with
Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger and hopes to talk
by telephone with president-elect Bill Clinton or vice-president-elect
Al Gore on 13 November. He will ask them to show support for
the Baltic States by firmly tying a portion of US aid to Russia
to troop withdrawal and by having the US help pay for the withdrawal
and resettlement of the troops. (Saulius Girnius) As of 1200
CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull












[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole