Как ни редко встречается настоящая любовь, настоящая дружба встречается еще реже. - Ф. Ларошфуко
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 218, 11 November 1992


RUSSIAN FORCES ENTER INGUSHETIA. Russian troops entered Ingushetia
on 10 November to enforce the state of emergency, ITAR-TASS and
other agencies reported. They took up positions on the Ingush-Chechen
frontier without incident, but Major Tangiev, commander of a
Russian self-defense unit in Nazran, warned on Russian TV of
the possibility of partisan attacks by the Ingush against the
Russian army. He said that Ingushetia could mobilize up to 20,000
fighters. On the same day, Acting Russian Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar arrived in Vladikavkaz to get first-hand information on
the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict, and the presidium of the
Russian parliament met in closed session and adopted a resolution
setting out additional measures to resolve the conflict. Sergei
Shakhrai, Russia's deputy prime minister in charge of nationalities
policy, plans to arrive in Vladikavkaz on 12 November. (Ann Sheehy,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

President Dzhokhar Dudaev threatened retaliation against Russian
troops if they did not withdraw from land claimed by Chechnya,
ITAR-TASS reported. Dudaev had earlier imposed a state of emergency
and ordered the mobilization of Chechen defense forces. ITAR-TASS
quoted Dudaev as giving Russian forces until the morning of 11
November to withdraw; otherwise, "the Chechen people will rise
up in war." Russian troops have taken up positions on the frontiers
of three raions inhabited primarily by Ingush, but part of which
belonged to Chechnya before Chechnya and Ingushetia were merged
in 1934. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.)

YELTSIN ON DANGER OF PUTSCH, CAUCASUS. In an address on 10 November
before the British Parliament, Russian President Boris Yeltsin
warned that radical left- and right-wing political forces in
Russia favored a coup, but that the Russian government would
not permit "reaction" to succeed, Western agencies and ITAR-TASS
reported. Yeltsin said that the challenge stemmed from unreformed
former Communists and from militant nationalists. The Russian
president stressed that his government was in control of the
situation, and that it would prevent a radical victory. Concerning
his market-oriented modernization program, Yeltsin said that
"Despite the hysterics of the opponents of reform, Russia will
not stop and will not turn back." He condemned policies that
discriminated against Russian minorities in former Soviet republics,
and he defended the recent deployments of Russian troops in the
North Caucasus, arguing that "timidity and delay" would make
the situation there worse. (Hal Kosiba, RFE/RL, Inc.)

OPPOSITION FAVORS CHANGES. St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak
told Interfax on 10 November that changes in the composition
of the government at the forthcoming Congress are necessary.
Sobchak, siding with the Civic Union, said he favors the preservation
of state control over the economy as well as a more gradual transition
period leading to a market economy. He praised Grigorii Yavlinsky
as the country's leading economist. The leader of the faction
"Smena," Andrei Golovin, did not rule out the possibility that
the secretary of the security council, Yurii Skokov, might replace
Egor Gaidar as prime minister at the Congress. Meanwhile, parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov called for parliamentary support for
President Yeltsin and the latter's reforms, and he suggested
a meeting between Yeltsin and the parliamentary presidium prior
to the Congress. The leader of the Russian National Assembly,
Aleksandr Sterligov, rejected a possible alliance between his
right-wing opposition movement and the Civic Union on the grounds
that the latter was too close to Yeltsin. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL,

KRAVCHUK PESSIMISTIC. During his first press conference since
the recent cabinet change, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk
told journalists that he was not fully satisfied with the current
situation in Ukraine, DR-Press reported on 11 November. The "only
plus," he said, is that there is no confrontation and no bloodshed.
On the economy, the Ukrainian leader said that the situation
is such that a change for the better is dependent on conditions
not exclusively under Kiev's control. The negotiations on the
Black Sea Fleet, in spite of the agreements in Dagomys and Yalta,
"remain difficult." Kravchuk informed journalists that he may
talk with President-elect Bill Clinton on 11 November. (Roman
Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.)

KRAVCHUK ON STRATEGIC MISSILES. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk
predicted on 10 November that Ukraine would ratify the Strategic
Arms Reduction Treaty (START), but only after receiving additional
security guarantees and financial assistance. Reuters quoted
him as saying that Ukraine "must have some material benefit and
fixed guarantees for its security." He said that his country
could not afford to transfer to Russia the strategic missiles
on its territory "without recompense" as it had earlier done
with the former Soviet tactical nuclear weapons. In London, President
Yeltsin acknowledged that Russia was having a difficult time
reaching an agreement with Ukraine concerning these missiles.
He urged Great Britain and "other countries" to "use their powerful
influence" to help the process. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

experts instructed by President Yeltsin to investigate the mood
of parliamentary deputies has concluded that only about 20% still
support Yeltsin and his government, Interfax reported on 10 November.
The group recommended that Yeltsin resist being pushed into debates
on government personnel changes and that he instead put the issue
of private land ownership on top of the Congress agenda, since
with respect to this issue, he will enjoy broad support. It also
recommended against any rotation in the make-up of parliament,
since, under present circumstances, the democratic faction would
be further weakened as a result. Finally, the group criticized
Yeltsin and his ministers for neglecting its supporters in parliament
by not meeting with them regularly. The lack of communication
between the government and democrat parties on the parliamentary
level has led many democrats to join the opposition, the group
concluded. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MURASHOV REPLACED. Arkadii Murashov, a co-leader of the Democratic
Russia Movement who had been put in charge of the Moscow police
after the failed August 1991 putsch, has now been replaced by
Vladimir Pankratov, a professional police officer, Russian news
agencies reported on 10 November. The replacement was announced,
unexpectedly for Murashov, at a session of the Moscow city government.
Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov offered Murashov a position as head
of the Moscow media and information department, but he refused.
Murashov is the second democratic figure, after Galina Starovoitova,
to be suddenly relieved of duty in the past few days. Pankratov
formerly headed the Moscow Street Transport Inspection Administration
(GAI) and was one of Murashov's deputies. Murashov's replacement
had been a principal demand of hardliners. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL,

STANKEVICH MEETS CARTER. Presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich
said during a Kremlin meeting with former US President Jimmy
Carter that no changes in the reform strategy should be expected
at the forthcoming Congress. Interfax on 10 November quoted Stankevich
as saying that a "balance of interests" must, however, be found
at the Congress, and that certain "corrections" in the economic
reform program would have to be considered. He did not rule out
personnel changes in the government. He also complained to Carter
about "discrimination" against the Russian-speaking minority's
civil rights in Latvia and Estonia. Carter also met with State
Secretary Gennadii Burbulis and with leaders of the Civic Union.
(Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN LIVESTOCK DOWN BY 30%. According to a representative
of the U.S. Feed Grains Council, Alexander Kholopov, livestock
herds in Russia are 30% lower than last year's level, the Journal
of Commerce reported on 10 November. Kholopov says the marked
increase in the relative price of grain had cut the profitability
of maintaining herds. "When you free up grain prices and maintain
low animal prices, you end up destroying the [livestock] industry,"
he said. The impact of a reduction in herds on the food market
is not altogether certain as demand for livestock products has
also dropped considerably as a result of the decline in real
incomes. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.)

PRIVATIZATION OF HOUSING. The Moscow city government has published
figures which show that over 340,000 apartments have been privatized
in Moscow, and approximately 1,300,000 in the Russian Federation,
Interfax reported on 10 November. If one considers that about
25 million families in Russia live in separate flats, the numbers
privatized are still low, but they represent an increase of the
November 1991 figure of 8,900, and show that the process of setting
up a housing market in Russia is at least underway. (Sheila Marnie,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

have been signed that permit the carrying and use of certain
weapons and self-defense devices, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported
on 10 November. One of the measures allows farmers to use sporting
weapons for the purpose of defending life, health, and property.
The other permits citizens to acquire and to use gas sprays and
similar devices. Licenses for the more powerful gas pistols must
be obtained from local internal affairs agencies. The measures
will remain in effect until the passage of the Russian Federation
law on weapons. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUBLE FALLS FURTHER. On the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange
on 10 November, the ruble fell to a new low. It traded at 403
to the US dollar, down from 399 on 5 November. Volume was $28
million. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Vorobyev, deputy commander of Russian ground forces, indicated
on 10 November that the 201st Motorized Rifle Division, serving
in Tajikistan, would be the first unit to be manned by contract
soldiers rather than conscripts. According to Interfax, Vorobyev
said that the process could commence within a month. He said
the servicemen would sign contracts to serve for at least two
years. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

European Space Agency (ESA) on 10 November agreed to conduct
a three year study of the possibility of building a space shuttle
together with Russia. Thirteen countries belong to the ESA, and
France, one of the largest contributors, has continued to press
for a shuttle program despite the misgivings of other member
nations. The agency faces budgetary difficulties and Russian
participation might help to lower shuttle development costs.
The new shuttle is unlikely to be based on the Soviet Buran shuttle,
however, as the Buran was based on 1980s technology and its development
has been halted. The agreement is also unlikely to produce an
immediate boost to the Russian space industry, since no major
funding will be provided until the study is completed. The ESA
decision was reported by Reuters. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.)

before a Russian parliamentary committee, the general director
of the Russian Space Agency, Yurii Koptev, warned that the space
program is "on the brink of crisis." Koptev noted that highly
skilled personnel were leaving the field and that research and
development funding had declined. Out of a planned 25 civilian
and 70 military launches this year only 14 and 27, respectively,
had been carried out. According to Koptev, 123 Soviet or Russian
satellites are now in operation, of which some 35% are for civilian
applications. Koptev called for the Supreme Soviet to pass the
legislation "On Russian Space Activities," which would provide
a legal basis for developing the Russian space program. His remarks
were reported by ITAR-TASS on 10 November. (John Lepingwell,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

Arman Kirakosyan has been appointed Armenian Foreign Minister
to succeed Raffi Hovanisian, who resigned last month at the request
of Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, ITAR-TASS reported.
Kirakosyan was appointed first deputy foreign minister in December,
1991, and was subsequently designated Ambassador Plenipotentiary,
in which capacity he had participated in Armenia's official negotiations
with the Russian Federation. His father, Dzhon, had held the
post of Armenian Foreign Minister for ten years until his death
in 1986. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.)

TAJIK GOVERNMENT RESIGNS. Tajikistan's Cabinet of Ministers and
Supreme Soviet Presidium resigned on 10 November, Interfax reported,
so that the Supreme Soviet session scheduled for 16 November
can choose a new presidium and government. All sides in the ongoing
conflict in Tajikistan have promised to abide by the decisions
of the Supreme Soviet. The resignation of the Cabinet marks the
demise of the coalition government formed in May, in which members
of the opposition were appointed to a third of the posts. The
Tajik legislature will also discuss the legality of President
Rakhmon Nabiev's forced resignation in September. (Bess Brown,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

ATTEMPT TO ORGANIZE TALKS FAILS. Interfax reported on 10 November
that supporters of the anti-government Kulyab Popular Movement
refused to meet with Tajikistan's Acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov
and Acting Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhanov. The meeting
had been arranged by Major-General Mukhriddin Ashurov, commander
of the Russian division stationed in Tajikistan. The Kulyab group,
which has occupied the Hissar Valley near Dushanbe since being
driven out of the capital on 26 October, issued an appeal for
new parliamentary elections and the banning of all political
parties, especially those--the Islamic Renaissance Party, Democratic
Party and Rastokhez Movement--that made up the coalition opposed
to Nabiev. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.)


that three unknown assailants attacked the federal army command
headquarters for Kosovo in Pristina. A military spokesman told
reporters that one attacker was killed and two soldiers were
wounded. A police official stated the situation remains quiet
but tense after the attack. He expressed hope that the attack
was not the start of a campaign against the army and police and
warned that the security forces know how to deal with any violence.
There has been no independent confirmation of the story, but
the German media have picked it up. Ethnic Albanians make up
more than 90% of Kosovo's population and in 1991 their leaders
declared independence from Serbia after the province's autonomy
was abolished in 1990. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.)

BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media on 10 November said that
Bosnian government, Serb, and Croat leaders had agreed on an
unconditional ceasefire to take effect at midnight local time.
Most previous such agreements have either been still-born or
have broken down quickly, either due to bad faith or to the inability
of nominal superiors to control forces on the ground. Meanwhile,
the first group of about 1,500 Croat and Muslim refugees from
Sarajevo reached Split in a convoy, although there were problems
in finding busses and drivers to transport Serb refugees to Belgrade.
The special evacuation of mainly sick, wounded, children, and
elderly is continuing. Finally, the UN Security Council voted
to send observers to airports across the former Yugoslavia to
help monitor the no-fly zone over Bosnia. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

Allgemeine Zeitung reported that Croatian authorities had registered
25 cases of typhus among newly arrived Bosnian refugees from
Jajce, who had drunk water from the Pliva River. Croatia cares
for up to 800,000 refugees from its own republic, Bosnia, and
elsewhere; relief costs constitute the second largest item in
the state budget after defense. The paper added that international
relief agencies again pleaded for countries to open their borders
to Bosnians released from Serbian camps. About 10,000 people
are waiting to leave the camps, but only about a quarter of them
have assured refuge abroad. International officials said that
there had been an outcry in the West over the camps during the
summer, but that offers to give refuge to the victims are grossly
insufficient. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.)

11 November New York Times reported that US officials are trying
to secure support for measures to tighten existing sanctions
against Serbia-Montenegro and ban transit shipments of commodities.
Intelligence reports have long suggested that goods allegedly
in transit to Bosnia or elsewhere "disappear" while in Serbia.
The 6 November Christian Science Monitor reported that smugglers
and other shadowy elements are doing a booming business in gasoline
and other goods imported in violation of the sanctions. Bosnian
booty is laundered in private banks giving generous interest
rates, and the streets of Belgrade have been likened to those
of Chicago in the 1930s thanks to gang warfare. (Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

continue to trade charges and countercharges over the cause of
the rioting on 6 November in Skopje, in which four people were
killed. What actually triggered the riot remains unclear. Police
say a routine arrest of cigarette smugglers set off the violence
after rumors spread that police had badly beaten an ethnic Albanian
boy. On 9 November, Interior Minister Ljubomir Frckovski told
journalists that Albanians from Kosovo and Albania took part
in the rioting, and claimed as proof the fact that 16 Albanians
from Kosovo and 11 from Albania had been arrested, although many
Albanians from Kosovo and Albania live in Macedonia. Macedonia's
Albanian leaders have appealed for calm, but have also criticized
the police for using "extreme and unwarranted actions." On 10
November, ATA quoted an Albanian foreign ministry statement saying
that the violence demonstrated the "anti-Albanian" sentiments
felt by Macedonian police and said they acted in an "anti-democratic"
manner. Both Macedonian and Albanian leaders continue to fear
an outbreak of violence. Macedonia's coalition government includes
Albanians, who make up between 20 and 40% of the republic's population,
depending on whose figures are used. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL,

10 November formed a new commission to deal with troop withdrawals
from the Baltic states. According to BNS, citing Interfax, the
commission will be led by Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko.
The other members of the commission are Deputy Minister of Defense
Boris Gromov, Deputy Minister of Finance Astakhov, Deputy Minister
of Economic Affairs Materov and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs
Vitali Churkin. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Lithuania's charge d'affaires in Moscow, noted that the Russian
army has stopped sending applications for the further withdrawal
of troops scheduled to depart Lithuania, indirectly indicating
that the army is complying with the suspension of the withdrawal
ordered by Russian President Boris Yeltsin, BNS reported on 10
November. The Lithuanian National Defense Ministry, however,
reported that the army had been continuing to withdraw. In September-October
the 384th heavy artillery brigade in Plunge, the 5191st ammunition
base in Pabrade, the 170th medical unit in Kaunas, and the 63rd
aviation equipment commandant headquarters in Raseiniai departed,
as had the 96th specialized mechanic repairs battalion on 1 to
6 November. Eleven other units were also departing Lithuania
on schedule. There were, however, five naval and aviation units
that had not started withdrawing although they are supposed to
do so by the end of the year. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

on 10 November confirmed Georgs Andrejevs as the country's new
Foreign Minister, BNS reports. Andrejevs, an ethnic Russian,
told the legislature that Latvia's foreign policy would not change
substantially but would continue to focus on strengthening statehood,
ensuring the observance of human rights of ethnic minorities
and foreign nationals living in Latvia and protecting the interests
of the titular population. Andrejevs replaces Janis Jurkans,
who resigned last month over a dispute with Prime Minister Ivars
Godmanis. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

FINLAND BULLISH ON THE BALTICS. In terms of humanitarian aid
and financial assistance sent since 1990, Finland alone has aided
the Baltic states nearly as much as have all EC member states
combined. According to BNS of 10 November, citing the Finnish
Embassy in Riga, EC member states have donated 110 million ECU,
whereas Finland has provided 107 million ECU in aid. Of that
107 million, about 56 million has gone to Estonia, 33 million
to Latvia and the remaining 18-odd million to Lithuania. Among
the other Nordic countries, Sweden weighs in as the second largest
donor (36 million ECU), with Denmark (some 17 million ECU) following.
(Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ESTONIAN ECONOMIC INDICATORS. Experts expect the Estonian economy
to bottom out by the end of 1993 or early 1994. According to
a study by the Estonian Academy of Sciences Economics Institute,
inflation will continue rising through next March, with a threefold
increase from pre-currency reform prices expected. Production
will also continue to fall in 1993 to a third of the 1991 level.
On 10 November BNS reported the results of the study. (Riina
Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

with agreements reached in September by their governments, starting
on 9 November Lithuanian and Polish customs officials at Lazdijai
have begun to work jointly, BNS reported on 10 November. Joint
Lithuanian-Polish teams will process everyone leaving Lithuania
at the Lithuanian customs post and those leaving Poland at the
Polish customs post. The changes should speed up customs procedure
especially since the number of lines working on both sides has
been doubled to ten. The second customs post at Kalvarija that
had opened on 29 October was closed on 9 November until 1 July
1993 to allow Poland to build a new road and necessary buildings
on its side of the border. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

the United States, Janusz Onyszkiewicz met yesterday with Secretary
of Defense Richard Cheney and the National Security Advisor Brent
Scowcroft. According to an RFE/RL Washington correspondent, Onyszkiewicz
and Cheney signed a mapping and charting agreement, calling for
an exchange of information between the two countries, and discussed
Poland's participation in the US International Military Education
and Training program. In 1992 Poland received $400,000 in US
training program funding and that amount will increase to $600,000
in 1993. During the next six days, Onyszkiewicz is scheduled
to visit military installations in Colorado and Wyoming as well
as the aircraft carrier USS Eisenhower in its Norfolk, Virginia
home port. (Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.)

on 10 November that parliament approved, with a two-thirds majority,
the increase of the 1992 government budget deficit from 78 billion
to 200 billion forint. The government was authorized to issue
130 billion forint (about $1.6 billion) worth of treasury bonds.
Expense reductions or direct revenue increases were not included
in the budget correction. The 1993 budget discussions promised
to be heated as even some government coalition members expressed
reservations about the record high planned budget deficit. (Karoly
Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.)

BUNDESTAG PRESIDENT IN BUDAPEST. Rita Sussmuth payed a one-day
official visit to Budapest, MTI said on 10 November. She was
received by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, President Arpad Goncz
and Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky. She also visited a refugee
camp, where some of the 80,000 refugees in Hungary are housed.
She said that the German parliament will approve Hungary's association
treaty with the EC after the Christmas holidays. (Karoly Okolicsanyi,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

SHIPPING RESUMES ON THE DANUBE. CSTK reports that traffic on
the Danube -- halted three weeks ago by Slovakia to divert water
to the Gabcikovo dam -- resumed on 10 November on an artificial
canal built to take ships around the dam. Four Slovak ships tested
the canal on 9 November. A Slovak official told reporters that
it would take another 10 days before 147 ships backed up since
20 October could all pass through the new artificial channel.
(Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Minister and UDF chairman Filip Dimitrov presented a general
plan for a new government to the UDF parliamentary group, BTA
reported. UDF leaders said Dimitrov had also been in contact
with the coalition's separate member organizations but that names
of ministers would not be discussed until the next meeting of
the caucus, slated for 15 November. The leader of the mainly
Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedom, Ahmed Dogan, told journalists
that the UDF's decision to back another Dimitrov candidacy was
"risky." Dogan said his party had not finally decided on whether
to support Dimitrov, but he stressed that any cabinet had to
produce a detailed action program with a strong commitment to
deal with the country's social problems. Today Dimitrov is expected
to get a formal request from President Zhelyu Zhelev and would
then have one week to form his cabinet. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL,

prime minister, Theodor Stolojan, said his appointed successor,
Nicolae Vacaroiu, is the best man to advance reform in the country.
In an interview on Radio Bucharest on 10 November, Stolojan came
to the defense of Vacaroiu, after doubts had been raised concerning
his suitability. He said those underestimating Vacaroiu were
"very wrong" and added that his successor had made an important
contribution to the country's economic reform. If Vacaroiu was
incompatible with anything, Stolojan said, this was only "incompatibility
with corruption." Stolojan added that although the new government
will be headed by a non-partisan specialist and might include
some other experts, it will clearly be a government of the Democratic
National Salvation Front. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Drivers' Union staged a warning strike in Bucharest on 10 November,
Radio Bucharest and Rompres reported. Some 130,000 drivers gathered
in one of the capital's main squares, blocking traffic. They
were protesting against the rise in fuel prices implemented since
22 October. The union's vice president said that negotiations
with the government will continue on 11 November and added that
if fuel prices are not brought back to the previous levels the
union will stage a general strike on 16 November. Protest meetings
were also held on 10 November in several other cities. (Michael
Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Patrick Moore

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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