Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. - Margaret Mead
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 214, 05 November 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

SHAPOSHNIKOV ON BALTIC PULLOUT, WESTERN INVOLVEMENT. CIS Commander-in-Chief
Evgenii Shaposhnikov told reporters on 4 November that the military
withdrawal from the Baltic States should not be pushed because
it could have explosive consequences for both Russia and the
Baltic States. Shaposhnikov also criticized appeals by the Baltic
governments to NATO and the CSCE on the issue, as well as the
holding of referenda on it. He claimed that the "Bacilli of nationalism"
had not yet infected the army. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN COMMENTATOR HITS WEST ON BALTIC WITHDRAWAL. Aleksandr
Golts, a long-time political commentator for the Russian Defense
Ministry newspaper Krasnaya zvezda, criticized Western governments
on 4 November for reacting negatively to President Yeltsin's
recent suspension of the troop withdrawal from the Baltic States.
Golts wrote that a rapid movement to Russia of "a flood of Russians
who have failed to obtain political, economic, and social rights
in the Baltic area" would strengthen Yeltsin's extreme right-wing
opposition. He also charged that Western pressure had served
to raise tensions in the Baltic region and thus precluded reasoned
discussion of the withdrawal, and that the withdrawal itself
was wreaking havoc on Russian defense reforms. Golts also linked
the withdrawal to the issue of safeguarding the rights of the
Russian minority in the Baltic. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)


YELTSIN CONGRATULATES CLINTON. On 4 November, President Yeltsin
cabled his congratulations to President-elect Bill Clinton for
winning the US presidential election, Reuters and Radio Rossii
reported. According to presidential press secretary Vyacheslav
Kostikov, Yeltsin expressed the hope that the partnership established
between Russia and the United States under the Bush administration
will continue. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.)

POPOV FAVORS EMERGENCY RULE. At a press conference on 4 November
the leader of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reform, Gavriil
Popov, called for the introduction of "temporary" presidential
rule in the country from December 1992 until summer 1995. In
a published statement, obtained by an RFE/RL correspondent, Popov
proposed that the president obtain supreme power, the parliament
become a consultative body, and that a government of "constructive
forces" be set up. He recommended the formation of several other
consultative bodies, consisting of representatives of all the
major political forces. He suggested that an election be held
to select representatives for a constitutional assembly, which
would work out a new constitution that could be adopted in 1995.
He noted that if parliament rejects such a way out of the crisis,
the president should nevertheless implement this plan with the
support of a referendum. Asked about possible reactions from
the West, Popov said that the West has no morale right to interfere
because it has done little to assist Russia. (Alexander Rahr,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

KHASBULATOV WARNS OF TALK ABOUT PRESIDENTIAL RULE. Parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said in parliament on 4 November that
calls by certain senior ministers for the introduction of emergency
rule in the country are "unconstitutional" and should be investigated
by the Procurator General, participants of the session told an
RFE/RL correspondent. Khasbulatov stated that if calls for presidential
rule are halted, the Congress would be conducted without any
"excesses." In other statements, the speaker denied that he had
full knowledge of the activities of the now dissolved presidential
guard, adding that it was not he but President Yeltsin, who in
the capacity of chairman of the Supreme Soviet, had set it up
two years ago. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

POLITICAL LIFE EXPECTANCY OF GAIDAR AND HIS ADMINISTRATION. Adding
to growing speculation that Russian acting Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar may be asked to retire, presidential Adviser Galina Starovoitova
said that the president is looking around for a suitable candidate
for the post, Reuters reported on 4 November. She said that the
Civic Union had proposed the appointment of Vice President Aleksandr
Rutskoi as prime minister, with Gaidar accepting a lesser cabinet
position. Meanwhile, an opinion poll conducted by the Russian
Center for Public Opinion and Market Research found that 38%
of those asked in October thought that the Gaidar government
should resign, up from 28% in August, Interfax reported on 3
November. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.)

CEASE FIRE AGREED IN NORTH OSSETIA BUT SHOOTING CONTINUES. At
talks on November 4 in North Ossetia between Russian deputy premier
Georgii Khizha, head of the temporary administration in North
Ossetia and Ingushetia, and Isa Kastoev, President Yeltsin's
representative in the Ingush republic, it was agreed that a cease-fire
should go into effect from 2000 hours on 4 November, ITAR-TASS
reported on 5 November. Under its terms Russian MVD troops were
instructed to occupy a whole series of settlements in North Ossetia,
illegal military formations were to be disarmed, there was to
be free passage for refugees, and all prisoners and hostages
were to be exchanged. ITAR-TASS reported, however, that shooting
continued all night. Interfax reported on 4 November that dozens
of people had been killed on the Ossetian side. No figure was
given for Ingush losses. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.)

NORTH OSSETIAN AND INGUSH STATEMENTS. Speaking after a meeting
in Moscow with President Yeltsin, North Ossetian Supreme Soviet
chairman Akhsarbek Galazov said that Ingush militants must be
cleared out of North Ossetia, and there could be no question
of acceding to Ingush demands for the return of Prigorodnyi raion
to the Ingush. An Ingush spokesman, Ibrahim Kostoev, maintained
that the actions of the Ingush were an attempt to force Russia
to recognize the rights of the Ingush people, Interfax reported
on 4 November. Yeltsin's spokeswoman on ethnic affairs, Galina
Starovoitova, speaking to Interfax on 4-November, blamed the
crisis on the failure to demarcate borders and designate a capital
for the Ingush republic whose creation was decreed in June. She
also called on the Russian authorities and media to take a less
pro-Ossetian stance. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.)

GERASHCHENKO CONFIRMED AS CENTRAL BANK HEAD. The Russian parliament
formally approved Viktor Gerashchenko's appointment to the chairmanship
of the Russian Central Bank on 4 November, ITAR-TASS and Interfax
reported. Gerashchenko used the occasion to criticize what he
sees as the contradiction in government policy of insisting on
a strict monetary policy while doing nothing to reduce the state
budget deficit. He added that the government was pinning too
much hope on the Russian economy being able to get through the
current crisis on its own. He suggested that the Central Bank
should take on a more active role in economic development by
offering various incentives to commercial banks and enterprises
to invest. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.)

PROGRESS OF RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION. Russian Deputy Prime Minister
Anatolii Chubais told a news conference on 4 November that the
privatization program was on schedule, Reuters and Interfax reported.
Only 12-13% of the privatization vouchers had so far been distributed,
but the process was expected to speed up later this month when
large-scale auctions of privatized enterprises will be held.
Among the enterprises to be auctioned are the Vladimir tractor
factory and some of the larger hotels and hard-currency stores.
(Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.)

REGIONAL LEGISLATORS CRITICIZE CENTER. A major conference of
leaders of local legislators from the Volga region took place
in Samara on 27-28 October, Rossiiskaya gazeta reported on 3
November. The conference participants appealed to President Yeltsin
and to the parliament to ensure that the central government authorities
stop violating the Federative Treaty and halt their continuing
direct interference in local economic affairs. They also criticized
the fact that up to 70% of the tax revenues collected in the
regions are being taken away by the center. They urged Yeltsin
to create by December appropriate mechanisms for cooperation
between the center and the regions, thus fulfilling the requirement
of the Federative Treaty, and they also requested that fewer
local tax revenues be transferred to the center. (Alexander Rahr,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' STRIKE. The Russian Federation
of Air Traffic Controllers has confirmed its intention of striking
effective midnight 29 November, Interfax reported on 3 November.
The strike will cover the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
Exceptions will be made only for emergency, rescue, and ambulance
flights. Prospective travelers are asked to refrain from booking
flights as of 30 November. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN AIRPORTS TO BE PRIVATIZED. The Russian Ministry of Transport
has announced that seventy of the 120 airports owned by Aeroflot
on the territory of the former Soviet Union are to be privatized
by the end of the year, according to a Reuters report on 2-November.
An Aeroflot representative described a proposal whereby the airports
would be 30% owned by state authorities, 30% by local authorities,
and 40% by employees and other investors. Two foreign consortia
have submitted proposals for the development of four of Moscow's
airports, including Sheremetevo. (Sheila Marnie, RFE/RL, Inc.)


DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT SUPPORTS STUDENT PROTESTS. The Political
Council of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms published
a statement on 2 November expressing full solidarity with the
National Union of Youth Organizations' protest against President
Yeltsin's planned decree on drafting students for military service.
In recent years, during periods of liberalization in the USSR
and Russia, full time students were allowed to postpone military
service until they finished their studies. In an effort to please
his generals, Yeltsin now plans to abolish such student privileges.
The Movement argued that such a step would not lower military
costs. It also said that if the decree comes into force, the
Movement will join student protest actions in Moscow. The chairman
of the Movement, Gavriil Popov, has called a press conference
for 4 November. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT RATIFIES START TREATY. The Russian Supreme
Soviet voted overwhelmingly on 4 November to ratify the Strategic
Arms Reduction Talks treaty (START) with the US, but only after
heated debate. Hard-line deputies called for a delay in ratification,
some arguing variously that technical problems in the treaty
remained unresolved, that the treaty favored the US, and that
Russia should not rush to present ratification as a gift to the
American president-elect. According to Radio Rossii, a Russian
Foreign Ministry representative cautioned that the treaty was
likely to run into problems in Ukraine where, he claimed, there
was sentiment to retain nuclear weapons. Ukraine, Belarus, and
Kazakhstan have yet to ratify the START treaty. (Stephen Foye
& Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

NO AGREEMENT ON CIS STRATEGIC FORCES. CIS military officials
preparing for the 5-November sitting of the Council of Defense
Ministers failed to agree on a document establishing the composition
of the CIS strategic forces. CIS commander-in-chief Marshal Yevgenii
Shaposhnikov repeated to journalists his view that the strategic
forces should be Russian. According to Interfax on 4 November,
he said that the positions of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan
on these forces were close, but that the Ukrainian position had
"several peculiarities." Lt. General Valerii Manilov, Shaposhnikov's
press secretary, reported that the signing of the strategic forces
agreement had been postponed until the next Council meeting.
He said that the draft text narrowed the definition of strategic
forces to "strategic nuclear forces and military formations providing
their functioning." Manilov claimed that this formula satisfied
all the participants, including Ukraine. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL,
Inc.)

RUSSIA TO KEEP LISTENING POST IN CUBA. Russia and Cuba signed
an agreement in Moscow on 3 November allowing Russia to continue
operating an ex-Soviet electronic intelligence-collecting facility
in Cuba. The joint communique, quoted by Reuters, said that the
two sides "confirmed their reciprocal interest in the existence
of the Russian radio-electronic center on Cuban territory." It
referred to the listening post at Lourdes, near Havana, that
was the largest such facility outside the USSR. Over 2,000 intelligence
specialists are believed to man the site, designed to monitor
US communications. Interfax reported that Russian Deputy Prime
Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, who headed the Russian delegation,
revealed that Russia would not supply Cuba with any new arms
in return, but would supply spare parts and components for arms
already purchased by Cuba. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ABKHAZ CASUALTIES HIGH AS GEORGIANS HOLD SUKHUMI. ITAR-TASS reported
on 4-November that Georgian forces were still in control of Sukhumi
and the surrounding area, after Abkhaz and North Caucasian units
suffered heavy casualties and serious material losses during
an attack on Georgian positions. There was no confirmation of
this by the Abkhaz side. Meanwhile, Colonel Bakhtang Kobalia,
a member of the Georgian military forces loyal to ousted former
President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, denounced as "disinformation" statements
by Georgian officials in Tbilisi that there would be cooperation
between his military units and those of the Georgian government
in Abkhazia, ITAR-TASS reported on the same day. (Hal Kosiba,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

ALMA-ATA MEETING ON TAJIKISTAN. The leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Uzbekistan and Tajikistan met in Alma-Ata on 4 November to discuss
how to end the fighting in Tajikistan. Western and domestic news
agencies reported that the participants issued a five-point statement,
calling for the Russian motorized division stationed in Tajikistan
to continue its peacekeeping role until a CIS peacekeeping force
can be formed and for the creation of a governing council in
Tajikistan that would include representatives of all factions
and parties. A delegation of deputy foreign ministers is to control
distribution of humanitarian aid in Tajikistan. Russian Foreign
Minister Andrei Kozyrev attended the meeting as an observer.
(Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN REACTIONS TO CLINTON ELECTION. Reuters reported
on 5-November that all the major parties to the Bosnian conflict
welcomed the victory of President-elect Bill Clinton. Bosnian
President Alija Izetbegovic said on 4 November: "Let me remind
you that President Clinton was somehow determined when it came
to military intervention," and his vice-president added: "I hope
Mr. Clinton will stop this aggression and ethnic cleansing."
Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic congratulated Clinton, and
added that he hoped the new president would support "a solution
that takes account of the interest of all those who live here."
The Croatian media reacted favorably to the Democratic victory,
stressing that Clinton was the candidate of youth and change.
President George Bush and his closest foreign policy advisors
James Baker and Lawrence Eagleburger have long been regarded
in Croatia as being pro-Belgrade and Croatia now clearly hopes
for a more sympathetic hearing in Washington. (Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

SERBIAN REACTION TO CLINTON VICTORY. Milan Panic, Prime Minister
of the rump Yugoslavia (Serbia-Montenegro) stated on 4 November
that the election of Bill Clinton as U.S. President would have
a positive impact on attempts to speed the resolution of the
crisis in former Yugoslavia. Panic, a naturalized US citizen
and, like Clinton, a Democratic Party member, added he was confident
Clinton would assist in bringing "real democratic reform" to
Serbia-Montenegro and restoring peace in the region as soon as
possible so that international sanctions might be lifted. Foreign
Minister Ilija Dukic remarked that Clinton's victory would not
alter US policy on Serbia-Montenegro. Mihailo Markovic, Vice
President of Serbia's ruling Socialist Party stated that he expected
Clinton's administration to adopt a fresh approach and stop blaming
Serbia for the crisis in the region, Radio Serbia reported. (Milan
Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.)

POLISH REACTIONS TO CLINTON VICTORY. Poland's political leaders
have welcomed Bill Clinton's election with hopes for continuing
U. S. interest in East European and Polish affairs. President
Lech Walesa said in his congratulatory message to Clinton that
American involvement in the economic development of East Europe
was essential to the success of those changes, while Prime Minister
Hanna Suchocka said she expected that Polish-US relations would
further "expand" during Clinton's presidency and that the two
countries would "strengthen their cooperation in [developing]
European security." Other leading politicians were cited in a
PAP report of 4 November as saying that any "lessening of American
interest would be bad for Poland" and expressed hope that Clinton's
victory would not affect Polish-US relations, which "have recently
been very good." Commenting on Clinton's election and the forthcoming
change in U. S. policies, Sejm Speaker Wieslaw Chrzanowski emphasized
that to ensure Clinton's continuing attention to Eastern Europe
and Poland "would require a great effort on our part." (Jan de
Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.)

OTHER EAST EUROPEAN REACTIONS. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus
sent a telegram expressing his conviction that the traditionally
close ties between the US and the Czech Republic would continue
under the new administration, adding that they constituted the
cornerstone of Czech foreign policy. Slovak Premier Vladimir
Meciar called Clinton's victory a logical reaction to world developments
and said that the change of administration would have little
impact on the region. Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall
said that outgoing President George Bush had played an important
role for the countries of Eastern Europe, enabling the development
of close ties between Hungary and the US. Congratulating Clinton,
Antall assured him that Hungary would remain a partner for the
US in settling conflicts and in creating democracy. Bulgarian
President Zhelyu Zhelev told Trud daily he welcomed Clinton's
election as a sign that "a new generation would enter American
politics." At the same time, Zhelev said he had always been sympathetic
to George Bush, who had developed a fine relationship with Bulgaria.
Romanian President Ion Iliescu expressed the hope that Romania
and the US would cooperate closely during the forthcoming "period
of change." (RFE/RL ARD Staff.)

BALTIC LEADERS CONGRATULATE CLINTON ON ELECTION. On 3 November
Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis sent
a telegram to Bill Clinton congratulating him on his victory
in the US presidential elections, Radio Lithuania reported. Landsbergis
wrote: "I believe that the constant US help for Lithuanian independence
will remain firm and gain new dynamics during your administration."
Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar called on president-elect Bill
Clinton to use his authority to achieve an early and complete
withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltics. In a congratulatory
telegram sent on 4 November, Laar said he hoped Clinton would
support democratic forces in Russia, including Russian President
Yeltsin and invited Clinton to visit Tallinn, BNS reported. Latvian
Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs congratulated Clinton
and expressed the hope that Latvian-US relations "will continue
to develop into a still deeper friendship and partnership between
our countries and peoples based on our joint commitment to democracy
and individual liberty." (Saulius Girnius and Riina Kionka, RFE/RL,
Inc.)

SERBS REPORTED INCREASING PRESSURE ON BOSNIAN TOWNS. International
media, primarily quoting Bosnian and Croatian radios, said on
4 November that Serbian forces had shelled and otherwise tightened
their grip on several Muslim- and Croat-held towns across Bosnia,
including Gradacac, Maglaj, Brcko, Bihac, Tuzla, Olovo, and Gorazde.
Bosnian radio also reportedly said that the Serbs were using
helicopters in violation of the UN flight ban in some areas,
but there has been no independent confirmation of the story.
On 5 November, the Los Angeles Times reported that local Serbian
officials in Banja Luka were insisting that Canadian UN peace-keepers
pay a $250,000 "security deposit" before being allowed to pass
through the area. The paper said that UN officials considered
this a demand for a bribe, which they refused to pay. (Patrick
Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MONTENEGRO WARNS OF CONFLICT IN THE SANDZAK. On 4 November the
pro-Montenegrin government daily Pobjeda reiterated a warning
by Montenegrin officials of a possible extension of fighting
from Bosnia-Herzegovina into the predominantly Muslim region
of the Sandzak which lies in both Serbia and Montenegro. The
daily also reiterated Serb-Montenegrin claims that about 3,000
Sandzak Muslims were fighting in Bosnia. Reports in the Serbian
and Croatian media have said that both Sandzak Serbs and Muslims
were well-armed. In August Sandzak Muslim leader Sulejman Ugljanin
called for the deployment of UN peace-keeping forces. During
the course of the year Belgrade has deployed many police and
army troops to the region, numbering more than 30,000 men, according
to Muslim accounts. Ugljanin said that 70,000 Sandzak Muslims
had left their homes under pressure from Serbian paramilitary
groups which had also threatened local Serbs and Montenegrins
sympathetic to their Muslim neighbors. Radio Serbia reported
on 4 November that several Sandzak Serb organizations had accused
Ugljanin of "openly declaring war" on Serbia and demanded his
arrest. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.)

NEW ROMANIAN PRIME MINISTER APPOINTED. On 4 November Romania's
President Ion Iliescu named Nicolae Vacaroiu, a 49-year-old economic
expert, as prime minister. Vacaroiu's designation came as a surprise,
since he was not among the personalities earlier tipped for this
position. In announcing the appointment, Iliescu praised Vacaroiu
as a man of "high professional integrity, honesty and correctness,"
favoring dialogue and reform. Radio Bucharest quoted Vacaroiu
as saying that he had been among those involved in working out
the blueprint for the transition to a market economy. He also
pledged to continue reforms and the democratic process in Romania.
During Nicolae Ceausescu's era, Vacaroiu was a director in the
State Planning Committee which oversaw the communist command
economy. He currently heads a tax department in the Economy Ministry.
(Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MIXED REACTION TO PRIME MINISTER DESIGNATE. Rompres carried on
4 November comments from party leaders on Vacaroiu's appointment
as prime minister. One of the leading figures of the opposition,
Corneliu Coposu, President of the National Peasant Party--Christian
Democratic, said that he had never seen Vacaroiu and expressed
dismay over Iliescu's decision to appoint a non-political figure
to head the next cabinet. Similar views were expressed by the
leaders of the Liberal Party-Young Wing and the Party of Romanian
National Unity. On the other hand, Petre Roman, former prime
minister and leader of the National Salvation Front, said he
was pleased with Vacaroiu's statement on reform "in principle."
(Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

NEW MECIAR STATEMENTS ON HUNGARY, PRESS. At a meeting with Bratislava
residents on 4 November, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar
declared that Slovakia's recently won sovereignty would "not
be abandoned to Hungary" and his government would prevent "Hungarians
from harming Slovaks," CSTK reported. Meciar also said that he
would not allow "journalistic scribblers to besmirch" him. The
Prime Minister indicated that the freedom of the press had its
limits and that the Slovak state would occasionally have to intervene
in the media's work. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.)

FORMER BULGARIAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICIAL SAYS DOGAN EX-AGENT. In
the 4-November issue of Otechestven vestnik a former Bulgarian
intelligence official claimed that Ahmed Dogan, chairman of the
mainly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms party, was a
secret service agent for more than fifteen years. According to
the allegations, which were raised by former Deputy Director
of the National Intelligence Service Radoslav Raykov, Dogan was
first recruited by State Security officials in 1974 and has since
then remained under their influence. In an interview with RFE/RL,
Dogan denied the accusations, saying his three-and-a-half-year
prison term in the late 1980s should be enough evidence of his
innocence. He also declared he would file a lawsuit against Raykov.
(Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.)

GABCIKOVO DISCUSSED AT U.N. Hungarian and Czechoslovakian ambassadors
to the United Nations traded charges and accusations on the controversial
Gabcikovo dam project on 4 November, according to news reports.
At a General Assembly debate on environmental issues, Hungarian
representative Andre Erdos said the unilateral diversion of the
Danube to Slovakia contradicted the spirit of the CSCE process
and the U.N. Charter; that the action threatened drinking water
reserves; and infringed upon Hungarian sovereignty. Czechoslovak
Ambassador Eduard Kukan replied that the diversion was "provisional
and reversible." He denied that the navigational channel at Gabcikovo
had resulted in any border change. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.)


CZECHOSLOVAK WEAPONS TO SUDAN? The Czechoslovak army is apparently
trying to sell some of its surplus hardware to Sudan. CSTK reported
on 4 November that a Czechoslovak air force transporter delivered
an armored personnel carrier to Sudan. According to the agreement
on conventional disarmament in Europe, Czechoslovakia may sell
some surplus equipment, including 500 main battle tanks; 710
personnel carriers; 778-pieces of heavy artillery; and 88 military
aircraft. It is still unclear who gave the order to begin negotiations
with the Sudanese military on a possible arms deal, but the federal
interior ministry declared that it gave no permission to do so.
But the federal Minister of Defense, Imrich Andrejcak claimed
that such a permit had been issued. Sudan is considered a "risk
area" by the Czechoslovak government and all arms deliveries
to the country require a special permit. Observers believe that
the Czechoslovak arms deliveries to Sudan might be financed by
Iran. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ERBD LOAN TO LITHUANIA TO RECONSTRUCT ENERGZ. On 3 and 4 November
European Reconstruction and Development Bank representatives
Mark Tomlinson and Ellen Dyvik held talks in Vilnius with the
Ministry of International Economic Relations about an ERDB loan
for immediate investment in Lithuania's energy industry, BNS
reported. The 7 year loan not exceeding $30 million must be spent
in about 17 months to purchase equipment to refit and reconstruct
energy enterprises. The agreement on the loan should be signed
in London on 12-13 November. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)


ASSURANCES ON RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM BALTIC STATES. On
4-November US State Department spokesman Richard Boucher told
reporters that Acting US Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger
had received assurances from the Russian ambassador to Washington
Vladimir Lukin that Russian troops would be withdrawn from Lithuania
according to the agreed timetable, an RFE/RL correspondent in
Washington reported. Boucher reiterated that the Russian troops
should be withdrawn from Estonia and Latvia as soon as possible
without any linkage with resettlement problems or the treatment
of minorities. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIA RULES ON BORDERS. The Russian Supreme Soviet overrode
government objections on 4 November and unilaterally declared
the current administrative borders with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
as the official state border. Interfax said deputies rejected
the suggestion that the border should be the subject of a negotiated
interstate treaty, a position the Baltic states hold as well.
(Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Anna Swidlicka














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