|Science and art belong to the whole world, and before them vanish the barriers of nationality. - Goethe|
No. 211, 02 November 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN COMMENTS ON DIRECT PRESIDENTIAL RULE. Answering reporters' questions in the Volga city of Astrakhan on 30 October, President Boris Yeltsin said that introducing presidential rule would violate the Russian Constitution. At the same time, the president said his obligation to the Russian people would take priority over his oath to uphold the constitution. Western and Russian media quoted Yeltsin as saying: "I have sworn an oath first of all to the people, and only after them, to other things." Presidential rule would allow Yeltsin to govern without obtaining parliamentary approval for laws and decrees and give him the right to dissolve parliament. Yeltsin's statements on presidential rule came after several of Yeltsin's advisers urged him to introduce such a measure to avoid a confrontation with hard-liners at the upcoming Russian Congress of People's Deputies. (Vera Tolz) OFFICERS UNION ATTACKS YELTSIN, GRACHEV. The Chairman of the Russian Officers' Union, Stanislav Terekhov, told Der Spiegel on 31-October that union members "refuse to honor [their] oath to Yeltsin because we are not obligated to an individual but to the people and the state." He also suggested that Yeltsin would be forcibly ousted before the convening of the Congress of People's Deputies in December, and suggested that a Pinochet-style regime would be installed. His remarks, reported by ADN, were described as a call for the overthrow of the government. Meanwhile, Pravda reported on 31 October that a union spokesmen had issued an appeal during a National Salvation Front press conference that called upon all officers to take a stand on the current political situation. They again criticized recent statements by Defense Minister Grachev that the army would remain loyal to the president It is unclear how much support the union enjoys within the Russian officer corps. (Stephen Foye) GROMOV ON BALTIC WITHDRAWAL. Colonel General Boris Gromov, the Russian Deputy Defense Minister with oversight responsibilities for the withdrawal of Russian forces serving abroad, told Interfax on 30 October that the pull-out from the Baltic States would depend upon compliance with the conditions presented by President Yeltsin on 29 October. Gromov was reportedly particularly concerned over problems allegedly surrounding treatment of the Russian minority in the Baltic, including 40,000 military pensioners. He also said that it was "unlikely" that all Russian troops could be withdrawn by 1994, as the Baltic governments have insisted, and suggested instead that the end of 1994, or even the end of 1995, might be the most realistic target dates. (Stephen Foye) KOZYREV OPTIMISTIC ON BALTIC WITHDRAWAL. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev stated in an interview with Russian media on 30-October that Russian military forces should withdraw from the Baltic States as soon as possible, but in an orderly manner, Western news agencies reported on 31 October. Kozyrev claimed that President Yeltsin's suspension of the withdrawal was actually meant to streamline the pull-out. Meanwhile, AFP quoted Estonian Radio as stating that Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin will visit Tallinn on 2 November for talks. Churkin was reported by Western agencies quoting ITAR-TASS as stating that Russia merely wanted to discuss discrimination against ethnic Russians, and that there was no reason for anyone to get "overly excited." (Hal Kosiba) ORIGINAL "SECRET PROTOCOLS" FOUND. The original "secret protocols" attached to the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop pact have been discovered in the CPSU Central Committee archives, "Novosti" reported on 29 October. The first protocol delineated the division of Poland between Hitler and Stalin, and most important, it set the stage for World War II by assuring Hitler that Stalin would not oppose a Nazi invasion of Poland. It also relegated Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and part of Lithuania to the Soviet sphere of influence. Until now, only a copy of the German document was available to historians. The release of this information came on the same day that President Yeltsin announced a suspension of the withdrawal of Russian military units from Estonia and Latvia. (Julia Wishnevsky & Hal Kosiba) GENERAL ON WEAPONS TESTING, REDUCTIONS. CIS armed forces commander Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov has been quoted in an Arab defense journal as saying that the CIS is ready to halt nuclear tests permanently if other nuclear powers do the same, AFP reported on 1 November. Shaposhnikov said that the current CIS testing moratorium was still in effect. He also called for a continuing drawdown of nuclear arsenals and for closer supervision over potential nuclear proliferation. According to the same report, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that Russia was ready to cut its nuclear warheads to between 3,000 and 3,500, but suggested that such reductions should be part of a broader agreement that included not only the US, but Britain, France, and China as well. (Stephen Foye) UKRAINE BALKS AT SOME START PROVISIONS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma reportedly told US Ambassador Roman Popadyuk that, while Ukraine intended to adhere to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), it would not agree to the provision requiring the destruction of missile silos. According to Interfax on 31 October, he indicated that this clause "required further discussion." Kuchma also said that Ukraine was against turning the strategic nuclear warheads over to Russia as had been done with the ex-Soviet tactical nuclear weapons on Ukrainian territory. He suggested that the nuclear material from the warheads could be used to fuel nuclear power plants. Kuchma also pointed out that taking the strategic missiles out of service would be very expensive and the Ukraine would need US help in this matter. (Doug Clarke) TOKYO CONFERENCE ON AID TO THE FORMER USSR. The third international conference on aid to the former Soviet Union ended in Tokyo on 30-October, Western agencies reported. Some seventy countries and nineteen international organizations were represented. New aid of more than $500 million, together with technical and humanitarian assistance, was promised. Participants stressed the necessity of self-help for the former Soviet republics. An IMF spokesman said that Russia will require at least $22 billion in aid in 1993 to meet its balance of payments requirements. The World Bank is to coordinate much of future aid to the former USSR. (Keith Bush) MORE DETAILS ON 1993 RUSSIAN BUDGET. Components of the initial draft consolidated Russian Federation budget for 1993 produced by the Ministry of Finance were reported by Interfax on 1 November. Revenues are to total 9.4 trillion rubles, with value-add taxes making up 26% of all revenue, profit taxes 25%, and excise duties and export taxes 13%. Expenditures are projected at 12.3 trillion rubles and break down as 35% for social programs, 26% for investment spending and subsidies, 15% for defence and 12% for servicing debt. The Ministry of Finance has said that the budget deficit for 1993 will be 6% of GNP. However, the price index and 1993 GNP projections assumed for its calculations are still unclear. (Erik Whitlock) RUSSIAN OIL OUTPUT DOWN 15% IN 1992. Production of oil, Russia's top hard-currency earner, will reach only 380 million metric tons in 1992, Western news sources reported on 30 October. The total is down seventy million tons or 15% from the 1991 total. The government has become convinced that only large-scale foreign investment in the industry will reverse the output decline and is currently preparing a special decree on privatization in the sector. However, such efforts are not expected to show significant short-term results. Oil output at year-end 1993, according to various observers, should only amount to some 310-314 metric tons. (Erik Whitlock) VIOLENT CRIME UP IN RUSSIA. The Russian State Statistical Committee (Goskomstat) has published data showing that the number of crimes involving violence and firearms in Russia was almost twice as high during the first nine months of 1992 as during the same period of 1991, ITAR-TASS reported on 30 October. Reported crimes had risen by 28% and the number of arrests by 20%. There has been an increase of 4,000 in the number of murders committed. (Keith Bush) RUSSIA'S BIRTH RATE DOWN. During the first 9 months of 1992, the birth rate in Russia fell to 11 per 1,000 population, compared with 13 during the first 9 months of 1991, ITAR-TASS as cited by Reuters reported on 29 October. Deaths outnumbered births in 41 of Russia's 77 regions, and the federation's population fell by 72,000. (Keith Bush) YELTSIN, GROMOV ON CASPIAN SEA FLOTILLA. On 31 October, during the second day of his visit to Astrakhan, President Yeltsin told a gathering of sailors serving in the Caspian Sea Flotilla that Russia's borders along the Caspian Sea should remain "semitransparent." In related comments, also reported by Interfax, Russian naval commander-in-chief Admiral Feliks Gromov said that the redeployment of the flotilla would cost Russia approximately a half billion rubles. Gromov characterized Iranian naval power in the Caspian Sea as impressive. The same report said that a quarter of the fleet-some fourteen to fifteen ships-have been turned over to Azerbaijan. The flotilla was divided earlier this year among the four republics bordering the Caspian Sea. In August, Moscow announced that the flotilla headquarters would be moved from Baku to Astrakhan. (Stephen Foye) PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES DOUBTFUL ON COLLECTIVE SECURITY. The Russian parliamentary committees on International Affairs, Foreign Economic Relations, and Defense and Security advised on 30 October that the Supreme Soviet should move carefully in ratifying the 15 May CIS Collective Security agreement. According to Interfax, parliamentarian Aleksei Surkov said that the committees were concerned over "legal and political ambiguities in the treaty's text," and over the fact that it bore "certain similarities" to the Warsaw Pact Treaty. (Stephen Foye) KRAVCHUK DENIES AIRCRAFT CARRIER SALE TO CHINA. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, on 31 October in Beijing, denied that Ukraine intended to sell the 67,500-ton aircraft carrier Varyag to China. The Japanese Kyodo news agency quoted him assaying that such a sale "is not valid now and it will not be valid in the future." ITAR-TASS on 29 October reported that Nikolai Khomenko, Kravchuk's chief of staff, had said that arms sales to China would not be discussed during Kravchuk's visit. There have been persistent rumors that China was interested in obtaining the carrier, the sister-ship of the Russian Navy's Admiral Kuznetsov. The Varyag was launched in December 1988, but was never completed following the breakup of the Soviet Union. (Doug Clarke) KASATONOV: BLACK SEA FLEET TO STAY IN SEVASTOPOL. Admiral Igor Kasatonov, the Russian commander of the disputed Black Sea Fleet was quoted by Interfax on 29 October as saying that "Sevastopol has been, is, and must remain the main base of the fleet." The admiral was refuting rumors that the fleet would move to the Russian port of Novorossiisk. He added that it was "inexpedient to redeploy the fleet from the military point of view, besides it is economically hard and ecologically dangerous." Kasatonov has remained in command of the fleet despite his 1 October appointment as the first deputy commander of the Russian navy. In mid-September a Russian parliamentarian revealed that the Russian government had allocated money for officers' housing in Novorossiisk. At that time Kasatonov also denied that any move was planned. (Doug Clarke) RUSSIA, KAZAKHSTAN ENDORSE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BAN. On 28 October Russia and Kazakhstan became co-sponsors of the United Nations resolution endorsing the Chemical Weapons Convention. USIA quoted Ambassador Ronald Lehman, the director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, as saying this step was "an important breakthrough" in controlling chemical weapons proliferation. Lehman predicted that the convention, which would prohibit the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons, would be signed next January. So far, 138 nations have co-sponsored the resolution endorsing the draft treaty. (Doug Clarke) TAJIK GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL KIDNAPPED BY UZBEK FIGHTERS. The commander of Russian border troops in Tajikistan, General Vitalii Gritsan, told correspondents on 1 November that a group of Uzbeks from southern Tajikistan has kidnapped Kadriddin Aslonov, the recently-appointed chairman of the Kurgan-Tyube Oblast Soviet Executive Committee, Western correspondents reported from Dushanbe. Gritsan said he was involved in negotiations to obtain the release of Aslonov at the request of the Tajik government. The Uzbek group presumably supports deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev. On 31 October the deputy chairman of Tajikistan's parliament condemned rumors that Uzbeks had supported the attack by anti-government fighters on Dushanbe on 24-25 October, ITAR-TASS reported. (Bess Brown) PEACE TALKS POSTPONED. Peace talks scheduled for 1 November between Tajik government officials and members of the anti-government Kulyab Popular Movement were postponed to the next day when the latter did not show up in the town of Gissar as promised, Interfax reported. On 31 October, Tajik TV reported that 18,500 people have been killed in the fighting in southern Tajikistan since May; a Western correspondent in Dushanbe reported on 1 November that the commander of a pro-government fighting force had told him that both sides in the Tajik conflict are arming themselves with weapons smuggled from Afghanistan. Other arms are bought or stolen from Russian troops. (Bess Brown) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS FIRE ON BOSNIAN REFUGEES. International media reported on 31 October and 1 November that Serbian sharpshooters and gunners had been firing on a mileslong column of up to 40,000 refugees fleeing from Jajce to Travnik. The 1 November Washington Post likened the trek to "an epic scene reminiscent of World War II." Jajce had fallen to the Serbs on 29 October, and Reuters on 1 November said that Croat and Muslim defenders alike suspected that the Croatian leadership had allowed the town to fall as part of a larger deal between Zagreb and Belgrade. Travnik remains one of the few Muslimheld towns; two others, Gradacac and Maglaj, were heavily shelled over the weekend. Western agencies reported on 1 November that Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and his Bosnian counterpart Alija Izetbegovic had met in Zagreb to shore up the alliance between their republics and demand a stop to the fighting between their forces in central Bosnia. (Patrick Moore) OTHER BOSNIAN DEVELOPMENTS. The BBC said on 31 October that the selfstyled parliaments of the Serbian enclaves in Bosnia and Croatia had met in Bosnia and agreed to establish a common currency and armed forces. A referendum on unification would be held at some future time in what the BBC said was a further step toward setting up a greater Serbia. Meanwhile, heavy fighting continued in and around Sarajevo on October 30 and 31. International media added that the UNICEFsponsored "week of tranquility" had begun there on 1 November with the arrival of aid shipments for children, which were supposed to continue all week. Problems have arisen in the past with overland convoys because of Serbian irregulars looting the trucks and Muslim skepticism toward relief work in general. The Muslims argue that it would be easier and cheaper for the international community to help break the Serb siege once and for all. Croat roadblocks have also held up convoys. (Patrick Moore) OFFICIAL RESULTS OF LITHUANIAN ELECTIONS. On 1 November Vytautas Duoba, the deputy chairman of the Lithuanian election committee, announced the official results of the 25 October vote. In the vote on the referendum on the Lithuanian Constitution 75.25% of the 2,549,952 eligible voters participated with 75.42% voting "yes", 21.06% "no" and 3.08% of the ballots spoiled. The referendum was approved since it won the support of 57.76% of all eligible voters. In the parliamentary elections only five of the 17 lists of parties and movements won mandates to the Lithuanian Seimas for the 70 of the 141 seats apportioned proportionally. The Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party (LDLP), the former independent Lithuanian Communist Party, won 36 seats, the Sajudis coalition-17 seats; the coalition of the Christian Democratic Party (LCDP), the Democratic Party (LDP), and the Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees (UPPD)-10 seats, the SocialDemocratic Party (LSDP)-5 seats, and the Union of Poles (UP)-2 seats. Only 10 of the 71 seats in single mandate districts were decided. The remaining contests will be decided in a second round of elections on 15 November. (Saulius Girnius) ILIESCU TAKES OATH OF OFFICE. Taking the oath of office before a joint session of Romania's bicameral parliament on 30 November, president Ion Iliescu said that neither "exacerbated etatism" nor "noninterventionism" in the economic realm suited the needs of the present stage of transition. In a speech broadcast live on Radio Bucharest Iliescu denounced "the politics of laissez faire" liberalism while advocating state intervention cum decentralization. In an allusion to the recent demands of autonomy raised by the Hungarian minority, he said that against the background of a constitution guaranteeing full rights, the "artificial constructions" requested could have "destabilizing effects" and pledged to make "no concessions" in this direction. He said he would "continue to oppose" ethnic intolerance, xenophobia and antiSemitism which "can harm national interests" but also expressed concern at the "worrying" recrudescence of "aggressive nationalism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia" in Romania's immediate "vicinity." (Michael Shafir). A PRINCELY PREMIER FOR ROMANIA? Prince Dimitrie Sturdza, an exiled businessman living in Switzerland and a former professional tennis player is the latest subject of speculation on the identity of Romania's future prime minister. The prince, who is the scion of a family that gave Moldova several rulers in the nineteenth century, was interviewed on Romanian television on 31 October. He said that he was honored that his name had been mentioned in this connection and conditioned acceptance on being supported by the four largest political parties and four largest trade unions. Sturdza's candidacy for the post was officially proposed by the Party of Romanian National Unity on 29 October. (Michael Shafir) JAIL SENTENCES FOR FORMER INTERIOR MINISTER. Former Czechoslovak Interior Minister Frantisek Kincl and two other highranking security officals were given jail terms of between 3 and 4 years for abuse of power while in the communist government, CSTK reported on 30 October. Kincl, along with former Deputy Interior Minister and General of the Corps of National Security (SNB) Alojz Lorenc, and the former chief of counterintelligence, Colonel Karel Vykypel, were charged with ordering mass detentions of dissidents prior to planned demonstrations in the last two years of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia. Lorenc was also accused of having ordered the destruction of secret police files after the "velvet revolution." (Jan Obrman) BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT CRISIS THREATENS FINANCIAL NEGOTIATIONS. On 30 October Bulgarian Finance Minister Ivan Kostov warned that negotiations on financial cooperation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank would slow down because of the cabinet's resignation on the previous day. Kostov told Reuters that the current political crisis might also delay talks on solving the country's nearly $10 billion commercial debt. On 31 October head of the IMF mission to Bulgaria Anoop Singh arrived for talks with top Bulgarian officials, saying he would stay only five days instead of the originally planned two weeks. According to the IMF's permanent representative in Sofia, Emanuel Zervudakis, it was still too early to say whether the crisis would affect ongoing negotiations on an extended agreement between Bulgaria and the IMF. (Kjell Engelbrekt) POLISH ECONOMIC NEWS. Polish National Bank President Hanna GronkiewiczWaltz announced on 28 October that inflation was still running too high to enact a currency reform. (Inflation for 1992 is expected to be 47%; for 1993, 38%.) The bank had planned to introduce new zloty notes with three fewer zeros at the beginning of 1993. PAP reported on 28-October that one of every four state firms in Poland (or a total of 2014) has undergone privatization in some form. Speaking to business representatives in Poznan on 28 October, Industry Minister Waclaw Niewiarowski called works councils an anachronism. "The time of the dictatorship of the proletariat has ended," he said. A labor ministry official announced on 29 October that one million unemployed would lose their benefits on 1 December. Finally, Poland's customs office chief told PAP on 29-October that 85,000 more autos had left Poland traveling eastward than had entered traveling westward. (Louisa Vinton) SKODA PLZEN PRIVATIZED. CSTK reported on 30-October that the giant engineering and manufacturing Skoda Plzen company has announced its privatization plans. A company called Nero will hold 20% of the shares and a consortium of the Czech Commercial Bank and the Investment Bank will buy an additional 18% of the company which is believed on the verge of economic collapse. The deal was approved by the Czech government on 29 October. Skoda produces a wide range of goods, including locomotives, heavy equipment and components for nuclear plants. The German Siemens company declared an interest in the acquisition of several divisions of Skoda some time ago. (Jan Obrman) LATVIA REACTS TO YELTSIN'S DIRECTIVE. In an address to Latvian diplomats on 30 October, Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs noted that Yeltsin's directive on halting troop withdrawal indicated that Russia intended to defend its nationals in Latvia with the help of the army, rather than diplomacy; he urged that the issue be raised at the UN Security Council. The Foreign Ministry stated that the directive ran counter to Latvian and Russian efforts to negotiate solutions to existing problems. Acting Foreign Minister Martins Virsis demanded a detailed explanation of Russia's action from the Russian ambassador in Riga Aleksandr Rannikh. Latvian authorities provisionally ordered that no military equipment of the Russian armed forces be allowed to enter Latvia, Diena reported on 30 October. Earlier, Latvia had allowed Russian military equipment onto its territory if special permission had been obtained. (Dzintra Bungs) RUSSIAN OFFICERS IN LATVIA "GRATIFIED" OVER DIRECTIVE. Colonel Vladimir Kandalovsky, Chairman of the Coordinating Council of Officers' Assemblies of the Baltic area, said that he was gratified that president Yeltsin had shown his awareness of their problems and had made the decision his organization had requested on 9 October, Diena reported on 30 October. Vladimir Myagkov, press officer of the Northwestern Group of Forces, said that Yeltsin's directive was an official document and more specific orders to the military would follow. Kandalovsky said that Russian Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov had stressed during his threeday visit in Latvia that Russia had very limited possibilities to provide housing and other "social guarantees" for the returning officers. Kandalovsky told Diena of 29 October that it was clear to everyone that the troop withdrawal plans must be postponed. Diena also noted that the Latvian authorities had not been informed of Gromov's visit-a breach of earlier LatvianRussian agreements and international protocol. (Dzintra Bungs) LANDSBERGIS STATEMENT TO RUSSIA. Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis sent a statement to the Russian president's chancellery and the Russian Foreign Ministry on Yeltsin's directive, Radio Lithuania reported on 2-November. Landsbergis said that the directive's three day deadline for signing agreements with the Baltic states could read as a pretext for halting the implementation of economic agreements and suspending the already signed agreement between Lithuania and Russia on troop withdrawals. Landsbergis expressed the hope that a better way to solve these problems would be found. (Saulius Girnius) SKOKOV, MAYOROV TO DEAL WITH BALTIC TROOP WITHDRAWAL. Baltfax and BNS reported on 30 October that on 29 October Yeltsin had named Colonel General Leonid Mayorov, commander of the Northwestern Group of Forces, to the newly created position of Russian Federation Commissioner for Questions of Temporary Housing and Withdrawal of Forces and Fleets from the Baltic States. It was not reported what specific duties the new position entailed. Secretary of the Russian Security Council, Yurii Skokov, has been designated to coordinate negotiations with the Baltic States. (Dzintra Bungs) ESTONIAN POLITICAL LINK TO MOSCOW? City officials from Narva and Sillamae traveled to St.-Petersburg on 1 November to meet with Russian Supreme Council Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, BNS reported. The agenda of the meeting has not been publicized, but most likely dealt with EstonianRussian relations in the context of the internal political debate in Moscow. Before reaching Petersburg, Khasbulatov spent a day behind closed doors with border officials at Ivangorod, across the river from the Estonian border city of Narva. (Riina Kionka) POLAND PROBES KEY HISTORICAL QUESTIONS. President Lech Walesa dispatched a special envoy to Russia with a request to President Boris Yeltsin for access to archives that could explain unresolved questions in PolishSoviet relations. National archive director Marian Wojciechowski traveled to Moscow on 2 November with a list of priority issues: collaboration between the Gestapo and the NKVD in persecuting Polish prisoners; the death of Poland's wartime commander General Wladyslaw Sikorski in a 1943 plane crash; the Red Army's withholding of aid during the Warsaw Uprising; the role of Soviet Marshal Konstanty Rokossowski, who served as Poland's defense minister from 1949-1956; and preparations for Soviet military intervention during the Solidarity period of 1980-1981. Poland received copies of the six secret protocols to the MolotovRibbentrop Pact from a Yeltsin adviser on 30 October. (Louisa Vinton) MECIAR URGES AUSTRIA TO SUPPORT GABCIKOVO. According to Austrian media reports, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar offered to close down Slovakia's controversial nuclear power plant in Bohunice (located near the Austrian border) by the end of 1995 in return for Austria's support for the equally controversial hydroelectric plant in Gabcikovo. The nuclear power plant in Bohunice has been a major point of contention between Czechoslovakia and Austria in the past years. Meciar made the offer during an official visit to Vienna on 30 October. There have not been any official reactions to the proposal yet, but Austrian media dismissed it as "blackmail." (Jan Obrman) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Anna Swidlicka The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.