I'm going to turn on the light, and we'll be two people in a room looking at each other and wondering why on earth we were afraid of the dark. - Gale Wilhelm
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 206, 26 October 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES REACH DUSHANBE. In the morning of 24 October,
forces from Kulyab Oblast who support deposed Tajik President
Rakhmon Nabiev entered Dushanbe and seized the presidential palace,
the Supreme Soviet building and the radio and TV centers, Interfax
and other news agencies reported. The former speaker of the Tajik
parliament, Safarali Kenzhaev, broadcast a statement accusing
the anti-Communist coalition of democratic, nationalist and Islamic
groups of seeking to force Muslim fundamentalism on Tajikistan
and of having started the civil war that has raged in the country
since June. Kenzhaev, who was forced out of office in May in
a compromise between Nabiev and the opposition coalition, announced
that the Kulyab "National Front" intended to restore the government
that had been in office before opposition figures were added
in May. (Bess Brown)

FIGHTING IN DUSHANBE. Fighting continued in Dushanbe on 24 and
25 October, according to Interfax and other agencies in the Tajik
capital. Hundreds of people were reported to have been killed.
According to some reports, government supporters, hastily reinforced
by pro-government fighters from outside Dushanbe, succeeded in
recapturing some of the buildings occupied by the forces from
Kulyab. On 25-October a ceasefire was agreed to. Russian forces
stationed in Tajikistan were ordered to remain neutral; their
commander persuaded Kenzhaev and acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov
to meet. The two agreed on convening an emergency session of
the Tajik legislature to discuss the forced resignation of Nabiev
and to try to end the civil war. (Bess Brown)

RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY ON TAJIKISTAN. On 24 October, the Russian
Foreign Ministry issued an official statement on developments
in Tajikistan. "A real threat of a further escalation of the
conflict and of expansion of the civil war persists. This is
fraught with disastrous consequences for the territorial integrity
of Tajikistan and the security of the entire Central Asian region.
The destiny of Russian citizens and the Russian-speaking population
in that country is a matter of particular concern for the leadership
of the Russian Federation." The statement also explained that
Russian troops, while neutral, had been instructed to guarantee
the security of certain installations, ITAR-TASS reported on
25 October. (Suzanne-Crow)

KOZYREV THREATENS "IRRESPONSIBLE ELEMENTS." Russian Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev said in an interview with ITAR-TASS published
on 25-October that the Russian Federation's Security Council
and the Russian parliament should hold special sessions to discuss
the security of Russians and Russian-speakers in Tajikistan.
The point of such meetings would be a "coordinated strategy of
legislative and executive power which would leave irresponsible
elements, wherever they may be, in no doubt that the entire might
of the Russian state is poised to defend human rights, including
the rights of Russians and of the Russian-speaking population."
(Suzanne Crow)

REPORTS OF CHANGES IN RUSSIAN CABINET. Amid a flurry of reports
that cabinet changes were imminent, a cabinet meeting, and a
one-on-one meeting between Yeltsin and Gaidar took place on 24-October,
according to Russian and Western agencies. No official announcement
of changes has been reported. During a visit to Tolyatti on 25
October, Gaidar denied that a government shakeup was imminent.
He did not completely exclude changes, but said that radical
changes would not be made before the session of the Congress
of People's Deputies, scheduled for 1 December. (Keith Bush)


ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS. Weekend anti-government demonstrations
took place in various Russian cities on 24 and 25 October, Western
news agencies reported on 26 October. Approximately 10,000 demonstrators
gathered in the center of Moscow to demand the resignation of
President Yeltsin. Similar demonstrations were reported in St.-Petersburg,
the Far East, and Siberia. In Moscow, leading hardliners, such
as General Albert Makashov, Colonel Viktor Alksnis, the Communist
deputy leader Sergei Baburin, and the writer Aleksandr Prokhanov,
founded a "National Salvation Front," which declared as its goal
the removal of the president and his cabinet by "constitutional
means." The front advocated new elections for all constitutional
bodies in early 1993. (Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN'S AIDES SAID TO ADVOCATE DISSOLUTION OF PARLIAMENT. On
23 and 24 October, "Vesti" cited unidentified "circles close
to Russian President [Yeltsin]" as advocating the introduction
of what was termed "direct presidential rule" in Russia. One
result of this move would be the "dissolution of parliament,"
according to "Vesti." On 24 October, Russian TV broadcast a special
meeting of the leaders of the Russian Democratic Reform Movement,
whose chairman, the former mayor of Moscow, Gavrill Popov, asserted
that the introduction of direct presidential rule would be only
"a temporary retreat from democracy." The idea to disband parliament
arose in response to the refusal of Russian legislators to postpone
the next Congress of People's Deputies, whose membership includes
many ex-communists who are critical of Yeltsin's reform program.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

KHASBULATOV'S HEALTH SUFFERS; HIS GUARD AT ODDS WITH POLICE.
Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has been hospitalized
suffering after suffering a sudden increase in blood pressure
at a parliamentary session on 22 October, Rossiiskaya gazeta
reported on 23 October. Before the session, Khasbulatov had told
journalists that he did not expect to die a natural death, and
complained that the former KGB was keeping him under constant
surveillance. Some officials have accused Khasbulatov of planning
a coup. More information is coming to light about the speaker's
5,000-strong parliamentary guard, three members of which exchanged
shots last week with Moscow police, who were intervening in defense
of a taxi driver who was being threatened by a relative of Khasbulatov.
(Alexander Rahr)

GRACHEV: MILITARY SUPPORTS PRESIDENT. Russian Defense Minister
Pavel Grachev released a statement on 23 October in which he
reaffirmed that the military supported the lawfully elected Russian
President, according to ITAR-TASS. Grachev rather ambiguously
warned politicians who criticized the government and President
that they were not aware of the consequences, both political
and potentially violent, of their actions. The statement came
after a 22 October Defense Ministry Collegium meeting, in which
the members unanimously disagreed with the sentiments of the
open letter published in Pravda on 21 October by conservative
deputies. According to an Izvestiya account of 24-October, the
officers were upset over the increasingly confrontational approach
taken by the Russian Supreme Soviet and conservative groups.
(John Lepingwell)

ADVISERS TO RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGN. Three advisers to
the Russian Defense Minister have resigned, according to an Interfax
report of 24 October. The advisers, A. Yevstigneev, G. Melkov,
and V.Sadovnik, reportedly were protesting Grachev's statement
of support for Yeltsin. According to the "Shield" union, the
advisers felt it inappropriate to support the person of the President,
rather than the Constitution, and were concerned that Grachev
was interfering in a political matter. They called for the armed
forces to remain neutral. The Russian Defense Ministry claimed,
however, that the advisers had been dismissed on 21 October for
failing to fulfill their duties. (John Lepingwell)

NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT ORGANIZER CLAIMS OFFICERS' BACKING.
The Chairman of the Russian Officers' Union, Stanislav Terekhov,
claimed that 99% of Russian officers support the goals of the
new National Salvation Front, and dismissed Grachev's declaration
of support for Yeltsin. While admitting that the officers may
support Yeltsin more than the Gaidar government, he brushed off
Grachev's comments as coming from a "well-fed corrupted military"
in contrast to the hardships faced by regular officers. Terekhov's
union claims only 10,000 members, and no evidence was provided
to support his statements. (John Lepingwell)

RYZHOV TO SECURITY COUNCIL? On 24 October, Interfax reported
that Yuri Ryzhov, the Russian Ambassador to France, had been
summoned to Moscow to attend a conference on 27 October. According
to Interfax, reform-oriented groups are urging that Ryzhov be
placed on the Russian Security Council in order to counterbalance
the conservative Council Secretary, Yurii Skokov. Before becoming
Ambassador, Ryzhov was director of the Moscow Aviation Institute.
He was also a member of the Soviet Congress of People's Deputies
where he advocated radical military reform. (John Lepingwell)


RUSSIA CAN REPORTEDLY KEEP MISSILE RADAR IN LATVIA. Sergei Zotov,
the leader of the Russian delegation to the talks with Latvia
on the withdrawal of Russian military forces, said that Latvia
has agreed to allow Russia to continue using the missile-warning
radars at Skrunda (120-kilometers west of Riga) after the departure
of Russian troops from Latvia. Zotov's remarks were reported
by the Baltic News Service. The Skrunda complex formed a vital
link in the Soviet Union's anti-ballistic missile defenses. A
"Hen House" radar used for missile warning and space tracking
is located there, and a new, large phased-array radar similar
to the one built near Krasnoyarsk has been under construction
there for years. (Doug Clarke)

BULK OF RUSSIAN BALTIC FLEET TO KALININGRAD. Admiral Feliks Gromov,
the commander in chief of the Russian Navy, was quoted by Mayak
Radio on 23 October as saying that the bulk of the former Soviet
Baltic Fleet would be transferred from the Baltic states to the
naval base at Baltiisk, in Kaliningrad Oblast-the 15,000 square
kilometer Russian enclave cut off from the rest of Russia by
Lithuania and Belarus. A small part of the forces would be transferred
to locations in northwestern Russia and to the Kronstadt naval
base near St.-Petersburg. Baltiisk has long been the headquarters
for the Baltic Fleet and the homeport for some of the largest
ships of the fleet. However, most of the warships have been based
in Estonia and Latvia, particularly at Liepaja. (Doug Clarke)


UKRAINIAN OPPOSITION FORCES TO UNITE? Representatives of several
opposition groups held a news conference on 23 October in Kiev
at which they announced their intention to form a united bloc,
DR-Press reported. The press conference was attended by representatives
from New Ukraine, the Congress of National Democratic Forces,
the Union of Ukrainian Students, and the All-Ukrainian Association
of Solidarity with Toilers. "Rukh" was reportedly not represented
because of Vyacheslav Chornovil's participation at a local conference
in Lviv. The participants called attention to the danger of a
"red putsch" in Ukraine. (Roman Solchanyk)

INTRODUCTION OF NEW UKRAINIAN CURRENCY. On 25 October, Andrei
Nechayev, citing Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma, said
that Ukraine will delay the introduction of the accounting unit,
the karbovanets, until next year, while the introduction of the
Ukrainian national currency, the grivna, will be delayed "indefinitely,"
Interfax reported. The deputy head of the Ukrainian National
Bank told Reuters on 25 October that Ukraine will introduce the
karbovanets by the end of 1992. He confirmed that Ukraine must
delay the introduction of a convertible national currency until
it has built up foreign currency reserves, and suggested that
"it would be good if our Western partners could support us with
a stabilization fund worth $1-1.5 billion." (Keith Bush)

UKRAINE PROTESTS BLACK SEA FLEET APPOINTMENT. Ukrainian Defense
Minister Constantin Morozov on 24 October described the recent
appointment of Vice Admiral Petr Svyatashov to be chief of staff
of the Black Sea Fleet as a "one-sided action" breaching the
Yalta agreements on the future of the fleet. According to Interfax,
Ukraine has barred the admiral from assuming his new duties.
Svyatashov was appointed by Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev.
In August, Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk agreed
to place the disputed Black Sea Fleet under joint control for
a three-year interim period. The leaders of Russia and Ukraine
were to share authority over the fleet and jointly appoint its
commanders. (Doug Clarke)

NAKHICHEVAN "COUP ATTEMPT" FAILS. A group of some 200 armed supporters
of the ruling Azerbaijan Popular Front (AzPF) occupied the Interior
Ministry and TV center in Nakhichevan for five hours on 24 October
before being dislodged by police, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported.
Some 35,000 people assembled in front of the occupied buildings
to protest what Nakhichevan Parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev,
in an interview given to Radio Liberty, termed a coup attempt
by the Baku government. An Azerbaijan Popular Front spokesman
in Baku denied Aliev's claims. Relations between Aliev and the
AzPF deteriorated when the Nakhichevan parliament rejected Baku's
proposed candidate for the post of Nakhichevan Interior Minister.
(Liz Fuller)

MOLDOVA APPEALS TO U.N. The office of the U.N. Secretary General
Boutros Ghali on 25 October distributed as a U.N. document a
message addressed to Ghali by Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae
Tiu, protesting Russia's "interference in the internal affairs"
of Moldova and other independent states "on the pretext of defending
the rights of ethnic Russians." Russia's policy, Tiu wrote, poses
"the threat of destabilization" to Moldova and other states.
The message renewed Moldova's appeal to the U.N. to send military
observers to monitor the implementation of the Moldovan-Russian
convention on settling the conflict in eastern Moldova and also
to attend as observers the Moldovan-Russian negotiations on the
withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army from Moldova, the Moldovan media
reported. (Vladimir Socor)



CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

POSTCOMMUNIST PARTY TOPS VOTE IN LITHUANIAN ELECTIONS. In the
elections to the Lithuanian Seimas held on 25 October, the successor
to the Lithuanian Communist Party appears to have captured the
largest share of the vote, Radio Lithuania reports. According
to initial reports by the German-French polling firm INFAS, the
postcommunist Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party (LDLP) captured
about 40% of the vote and is likely win 35 of the 70 seats awarded
in the proportional system. The Sajudis coalition is set to win
18 seats, the Christian-Democratic Party (in coalition with the
Democratic Party and Union of Political Prisoners) - 10 seats,
the Social-Democratic Party - 5, and the Union of Poles - 2 seats.
The numbers may change as the "Young Lithuania" coalition, now
with 3.9% of the vote, may pass the 4% barrier when all the votes
are counted. At a press conference on 26 October, election commission
chairman Vaclovas Litvinas said that preliminary results from
the 71 single-mandate districts so far show 14 winners, 10 of
whom are members of the LDLP. (Saulius Girnius).

CONSTITUTION APPROVED IN LITHUANIAN REFERENDUM. Election commission
chairman Litvinas added that preliminary results indicated that
the referendum on the new Lithuanian Constitution had been approved
by about 53% of eligible voters and had thus passed. Radio Lithuania
reports that about 85% of those taking part in the elections
supported the referendum. Voter turnout was over 70%. (Saulius
Girnius)

CZECHOSLOVAKIA BEGINS DAMMING THE DANUBE. On 24 October Czechoslovak
authorities started damming the Danube riverbed at Cunovo with
the aim of diverting some of the river's water to the canal leading
to the hydroelectric power plant at Gabcikovo, CSTK reported.
The work started despite protests by the Hungarian government
that the diversion of the Danube unilaterally changes the Slovak-Hungarian
border and will cause widespread ecological damage. On 23 October
Hungary officially invoked the CSCE emergency procedure designed
to resolve international conflicts. Hungary also turned to the
International Court of Justice in the Hague. The European Community's
executive arm reported on 23 October that it had failed to resolve
the conflict in talks with Hungarian and Czechoslovak officials.
Also on 23 October, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar accused
Hungary of using the issue for political purposes. Michal Kovac,
chairman of the Federal Assembly, said that Hungary is using
the issue "to stop the march of Slovakia toward sovereignty."
On 24 October, Hungary asked United Nations Secretary-General
Boutrous Boutrous-Ghali to "help find means for a peaceful settlement
of the debate," MTI reported. The Slovak Ministry of Foreign
Affairs issued a statement on 24 October in which it said that
the dam dispute is "being needlessly dramatized." (Jiri Pehe)


HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT JEERED AT 1956 COMMEMORATION. A hostile crowd
consisting mostly of skinheads prevented President Arpad Goncz
from delivering an address commemorating the 36th anniversary
of the 1956 revolution, MTI reported on October 23. Before Goncz
could start speaking, the crowd began to boo and shouted "Down
with Goncz," and "Resign." The crowd also called out its support
for the government and for Istvan Csurka, the controversial Hungarian
Democratic Forum deputy chairman, Western news agencies report.
The Prime Minister's Office and the Ministry of the Interior
expressed regret over the incident and denied opposition charges
that the government and the coalition parties bore responsibility
for it. The Ministry of the Interior categorically rejected charges
that it had supported or organized the incident. Budapest deputy
police chief Janos Lazar argued that the police could not have
intervened because under Hungarian law it is not a crime to shout
Nazi slogans or wear Nazi symbols. (Edith Oltay)

END-GAME APPROACHING FOR BOSNIAN MUSLIMS? International media
on 24-25 October reported that Serbian forces in northern Bosnia
were moving in on Gradacac, a largely Muslim town defended by
Croats and Muslims. Meanwhile in central Bosnia, fighting between
Croats and Muslims spread from the Travnik-Vitez area northwest
of Sarajevo to Prozor, which is almost due west of the capital.
The 25 October Washington Post quoted a local Croatian commander
as saying that "this was a war, not a misunderstanding," and
the Post charged that Croatian troops "were hunting Muslims"
as the anti-Serb marriage of convenience between the two nationalities
increasingly seemed to have broken down. Reuters on 25 October
reported a rise on Croat-Muslim tensions in Mostar. Muslims fear
that the Croats and Serbs have already agreed on a plan to partition
Bosnia-Herzegovina between them, leaving the Muslims with a tiny,
landlocked state at best. According to this theory, the current
Croat attacks on Muslims are an effort to consolidate their positions.
(Patrick Moore)

MILOSEVIC AGAIN ELECTED AS SOCIALIST PARTY PRESIDENT. Radio Serbia
reported on 24 October that Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic
was elected as president of the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia
(SPS, formerly the communist party) during the party's two-day
congress. Of the 934 delegates, 915 voted for Milosevic, who
was the only candidate. Milosevic was SPS president when the
party was founded over two years ago, but resigned soon after
being elected president of the republic in December 1990. Serbia's
constitution does not permit the President of the republic to
hold the chairmanship of any political party. Before the party
congress, Milosevic said that if re-elected he would not resign
as Serbia's president, but would turn his party duties over to
general secretary Milomir Minic. He told the congress that the
crisis in the country was not the result of developments in Serbia
alone, but was largely due to international factors. (Milan Andrejevich)


PANIC'S 100 DAYS. On 25 October, Prime Minister of the federal
rump Yugoslav government Milan Panic said Milosevic's re-election
reminded him of "the best communist traditions." Panic added
that if the people still vote for Milosevic and the SPS in December
"they deserve what they get." On 24 October Panic held a news
conference to distribute a list of 46 achievements from his first
100 days in office. These included his own election, his meetings
in Kosovo with ethnic Albanian leaders, and the arrest of paramilitary
leaders accused of atrocities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. His
major aims-peace in Bosnia and the lifting of UN sanctions-remain
unfulfilled. He announced that elections to the federal Chamber
of Citizens will be held on 20 December, with elections to the
Chamber of Republics to follow within 30 days. Both houses will
then elect a President and Prime Minister. Panic is not a candidate
for either house, but expressed confidence that the federal assembly
would reelect him as prime minister, Radio Serbia reported. (Milan
Andrejevich)

SUCHOCKA RETURNS FROM ROME. Speaking to journalists in Warsaw
after returning from a two-day private visit to Rome, Polish
Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka said that Pope John Paul II had
expressed confidence that Poland will be a stabilizing factor
in Eastern Europe. Suchocka had a 40-minute private audience
with the Pope on 23 October. She also met with Italian prime
minister Giuliano Amato. Suchocka told reporters that her talks
with Amato had helped to ease Italy's qualms about allowing Poland
to use the $10 billion stabilization fund provided by Western
countries for banking reform. (Louisa Vinton)

POLISH ECONOMY SHOWS IMPROVEMENT. At a joint press conference
in Warsaw on 23 October, Poland's Main Statistical Office and
Central Planning Board presented a cautiously optimistic economic
prognosis. Industrial production has risen steadily since April.
Production for the first three quarters of 1992 was 1.2% higher
than at the same point in 1991; by the end of 1992, it could
exceed the 1991 tallies by 2%. This growth was attributed to
the creeping devaluation of the zloty, which promotes exports;
increased demand for better quality domestic products; and a
10.5% leap in labor productivity. Exports are so far 11.8% higher
than in the comparable period of 1991, and Poland posted a third-quarter
trade surplus of over $1 billion. Despite these positive trends,
national income is still expected to be 2% below 1991 figures,
and investment, 3%. The budget deficit is expected to amount
to 8.1% of GDP by year's end; unemployment is to rise to 14.7%;
and real wages are to drop by 5%. Yearly inflation is forecast
at 47% for 1992. (Louisa Vinton)

POLISH DEFENSE REFORM MOVES FORWARD. Defense Minister Janusz
Onyszkiewicz signed an order on 22 October that restricts the
ministry to the civilian role of political oversight over the
armed forces and puts the general staff in charge of strictly
military matters. This measure, eliminating the dual function
performed by the ministry under communism, is designed to make
the armed forces immune to political interference. The defense
ministry now has three departments: training; strategy; and military
infrastructure. Military intelligence and military courts answer
directly to the defense minister. President Lech Walesa and Prime
Minister Hanna Suchocka addressed a meeting of the officer corps
on 22-October. Walesa restated his opposition to legislated lustration
of the army and criticized draft evasion. While pledging to increase
defense spending as soon as possible, Suchocka expressed doubt
that new funds would be available in 1993. (Louisa Vinton)

ILIESCU AIDE SUGGESTS OPPOSITION MAY BE INVITED TO FORM CABINET.
Romania's Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase, a top aide to President
Ion Iliescu, suggested on 24 October that the opposition Democratic
Convention might be asked to form the next government if the
Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF) declined to do it.
Nastase told Rompres that the DNSF, the party that backed Iliescu's
re-election, did not want to rule "at any price" without support
from reformist parties. The DNSF emerged from the 27 September
elections as the strongest party but failed to win a majority.
(Dan Ionescu)

ROMANIAN OPPOSITION PLEDGES TO SUPPORT DNSF MINORITY GOVERNMENT.
On 25 October four groups belonging to the centrist Democratic
Convention (DC) issued jointly with the National Salvation Front
(NSF) a statement pledging support for a minority government
led by their rival, the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF),
on the condition that that party continues political and economic
reforms. The four DC members are the National Peasant Party-Christian
Democratic, the Liberal Alliance, the Party of Civic Alliance,
and the Romanian Social-Democratic Party. The statement says
that the move is designed to obviate the need for the DNSF to
court extremist political groups, which could "push the country
to the brink of disaster." (Dan Ionescu)

LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS INCONCLUSIVE. A two-day round of Latvian-Russian
talks on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia ended inconclusively
on 24 October. Russian delegation leader Sergei Zotov told Interfax
on 24 October that a wide range of problems had been resolved,
suggesting that the Latvian side had acquiesced to most of the
Russian demands, including Russian oversight of the Skrunda radar
station even after the troops depart. Although a report by the
Latvian side is not yet available, the protocol signed by both
sides indicates that no breakthrough was achieved on any of the
major issues; for example, no accord was reached on the Skrunda
radar. Moreover, the Latvian side wants the troops out by 1993,
while the Russian side "does not rule out the possibility of
pulling out its troops in 1994" if other conditions are met.
(Dzintra Bungs)

PEOPLE'S FRONT OF LATVIA HOLDS FIFTH CONGRESS. At its fifth congress
on 24-25 October in Riga, the People's Front of Latvia adopted
new statutes that define the front as a political organization
that will field candidates for national and local offices. The
People's Front faction in the Supreme Council was criticized
for not upholding the PFL program; delegates demanded that the
faction no longer use the PFL name. Uldis Augskalns was elected
as the new PFL chairman on the second ballot; he defeated Andrejs
Rucs. Previous chairman Romualdas Razukas did not run, Radio
Riga reported on 25 October. (Dzintra Bungs)

BULGARIAN AGRARIAN PARTIES FINALLY TO UNITE? At a meeting of
the ruling bodies of BANU-United and BANU-Nikola Petkov on 25
October, both parties approved a protocol confirming that they
are to merge, BTA reports. Formal unification will take place
at a joint congress, scheduled for 7-and 8 November, which is
also to adopt a new party platform and statutes. At the meeting
agrarian leaders claimed 95% of the local chapters are already
in the process of merging and that this time there is "no going
back." During the past three years there have been repeated efforts
to reconcile the vehemently anticommunist BANU-Nikola Petkov
with its sister party BANU-United, the successor of a communist
satellite organization. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Louisa Vinton






[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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