The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts. - Charles Darwin
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 194, 08 October 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

GEORGIA ACCUSES RUSSIA OF SUPPLYING ABKHAZ FORCES. Georgian reinforcements
were sent to Sukhumi on 7 October in anticipation of an attack
by Abkhaz forces. Georgian security officials charged that Russia
had begun airlifting military equipment out of Georgia from a
military airfield near Kutaisi, and was sending ultra-modern
T-72 and T-80 tanks to the Abkhaz, Western agencies reported.
Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told Interfax that the
tanks originated from "another state located to the north of
Abkhazia"; a Ukrainian spokesman denied involvement. President
Yeltsin telephoned Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze
on 7 October; their conversation was described by ITAR-TASS as
"extremely sharp and frank." Georgian First Deputy Foreign Minister
Tedo Dzhaparidze submitted a formal request to the UN Security
Council to address the Abkhaz crisis. (Liz Fuller)

RUSSIAN CABINET DELAYS ADOPTION OF ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING PLAN.
At a cabinet meeting on 7 October, Russian President Boris Yeltsin
reiterated some of the main points of his speech to the parliament
on 6 October. According to Interfax, he emphasized priority for
a better social safety net and the preservation of Russia's "unique
industrial and scientific potential" (read "defense-industrial
complex"). After listening to Yeltsin's statement, the cabinet
decided to delay consideration of the economic restructuring
plan for 1993 that had been drawn up by Economics Minister Andrei
Nechaev. Nechaev was one of four cabinet ministers who were sharply
criticized in Yeltsin's speech to the parliament. (Keith Bush)


YELTSIN WARNS ESTONIA, LATVIA ON TROOP WITHDRAWALS. President
Boris Yeltsin stated on October 7 that no troop withdrawal agreements
will be signed with Estonia and Latvia until they provide greater
"minority rights" for Russians. Yeltsin accused the two states
of gross violations of the rights of their Russian minorities,
and stated that negotiations with Estonian and Latvian representatives
had been fruitless, according to an Interfax report. He urged
Estonia and Latvia to adopt legislation similar to that of Lithuania,
with which Russia recently concluded a troop withdrawal agreement.
(John Lepingwell)

GENERAL SAYS RUSSIAN MILITARY MUST PROTECT RUSSIANS IN FORMER
USSR. Col. General Vladimir Toporov, a Russian deputy defense
minister, told ITAR-TASS on 7 October that "the Russian military
must guarantee the safety of Russian citizens and take them under
its protection." He was justifying the presence of Russian troops
in Tajikistan. He said that "Russian-speaking people" were hostage
to all the inter-ethnic conflicts on the territory of the former
Soviet Union, and the military could not be indifferent to their
fate. (Doug Clarke)

SHAPOSHNIKOV ON DEFENSE MINISTERS' MEETING AT BISHKEK. According
to an Interfax report of 7 October, CIS Commander in Chief Shaposhnikov
is pleased with the results of the meeting of the CIS defense
ministers held in Bishkek. Shaposhnikov reported that two draft
agreements had been prepared, one creating a "doctrine for the
collective security of the CIS states" and the other reorganizing
the CIS command structure. No agreement has yet been reached
on the control of nuclear weapons, however, and the issue will
be referred to the heads of state for discussion. According to
an article in Nezavisimaya Gazeta on October 8, Shaposhnikov
says he is prepared to immediately transfer all nuclear launch
codes to the Russian Defense Ministry if the other CIS nuclear
states agree. (John Lepingwell)

UKRAINE BALKS ON CIS NUCLEAR ARMS ACCORD. Ukrainian negotiators
at the preparatory meeting for the 9 October CIS summit in Bishkek,
Kirgyzstan have balked at the proposals for creating a framework
of common agencies to be in control of the CIS strategic nuclear
forces. Interfax reported on 7 October that this means the proposal
for pooling the nuclear arsenal of the former USSR will have
to be taken up by the CIS presidents. Last month Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk rejected a call for increased Russian control
over nuclear weapons. (Doug Clarke)

YELTSIN ON KURIL ISLANDS. Interfax reported on 7 October a statement
by President Yeltsin that a significant change in the hitherto
intransigent Japanese position on the Kuril islands may be possible.
Specifically, Yeltsin said that there were some in Japan who
were now proposing a formula whereby a peace treaty would be
signed and, subsequent to that, the 1956 Soviet-Japanese agreement
would become the basis for a resolution of the dispute over the
islands. The 1956 agreement made Russian recognition of Japanese
sovereignty over two of the four islands (Shikotan and Habomai)
a precondition for the signing of a peace treaty. If true, such
a proposal would mark a major reversal in Tokyo's position. Yeltsin
said he would visit Japan under such conditions. (Stephen Foye)


EXPORT DUTIES TO REPLACE EXPORT QUOTAS IN RUSSIA. Russian Minister
of Foreign Economic Relations Petr Aven told the cabinet meeting
on 7-October that export quotas will be abolished for most goods
beginning in 1993, ITAR-TASS reported. Export quotas will be
maintained only for oil and petroleum products, gas, some non-ferrous
metals, and chemical products. The main method of controlling
exports will be through export duties. Aven said that duties
will be gradually decreased and will be abolished when Russian
industry adapts to world prices for raw materials and energy
resources. (Keith Bush)

RUSSIAN OIL EXPORTS TO CIS DEFAULTERS TO BE CUT? At a Moscow
meeting of Russian oil producers on 7 October, Deputy Prime Minister
Viktor Chernomyrdin warned former Soviet republics who were in
arrears with payments for oil deliveries that they could face
a cut-off of oil shipments if they did not pay their bills by
12 October, Interfax reported. In the future, pre-payments will
be required for Russian oil shipments. Chernomyrdin said that
the Russian fuel and energy complex was owed 640 billion rubles
at the beginning of October and that CIS members were responsible
for "a substantial part" of this debt. Economics Minister Andrei
Nechaev had earlier predicted that Russian oil exports to the
former Soviet republics would be halved next year. (Keith Bush)


REPATRIATION OF HARD CURRENCY TO RUSSIA. Acting Russian Central
Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko was quoted by Interfax on 7
October as approving a government plan to repatriate hard currency
stashed away by Russian enterprises in foreign bank accounts.
The plan is to take effect on 1 January 1993, but its details
have not been disclosed. Economic Adviser Aleksei Ulyukaev told
the latest edition of Literaturnaya gazeta that while export
revenues amount to some $3 billion a month, only $300 million
is sold each month on Russian currency exchanges. (Keith Bush)


PARLIAMENT FAILS TO APPROVE BILL ON FORMING GOVERNMENT. The Russian
parliament did not approve after an initial reading a draft law
on "the Council of Ministers-Government of the Russian Federation,"
ITAR-TASS reported on 7 October. The agency said deputies decided
to set up a working group to revise the draft. President Yeltsin
wants to limit the parliament's ability to overrule presidential
appointments to ministerial posts. The parliament wants greater
authority in the selection and approval of ministers. ITAR-TASS
quoted a statement by the chairman of the parliament's legislative
committee, Mikhail Mityukov, that the draft left a leading role
to the president in forming the government, but did not allow
him to take over the post of prime minister. Current regulations
provide for such a possibility. Mityukov said the draft called
for the prime minister to be appointed or removed only with parliamentary
approval. (Vera Tolz)

YELTSIN TRANSFERS CONTROL OF GORBACHEV FOUNDATION PREMISES. On
7 October, President Yeltsin signed a decree handing over a five-building
complex previously used by the Gorbachev Foundation to the newly
established Russian Federation Financial Academy, according to
"Novosti." Interfax reported that the foundation will be allowed
to rent part of the space in question. On 6 October, Yeltsin
had criticized "some of the newly founded foundations" for "occupying
premises that are too spacious for them." After Gorbachev resigned
his post as USSR president, Yeltsin confiscated Gorbachev's apartment
and country house; later, he replaced Gorbachev's limousine with
a smaller car. Both the Gorbachev Foundation and the limousine
were part of Gorbachev's retirement settlement. On 30 September,
while announcing that he might make a political comeback, Gorbachev
had called Yeltsin "a loss" and the latter's privatization plan
"a deception." (Julia Wishnevsky)

KINKEL AND ETHNIC GERMANS. On the second and last day of his
visit to Moscow German foreign minister Klaus Kinkel discussed
the problem of the Russian Germans with President Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS
and Western agencies reported on 7 October. Yeltsin assured Kinkel
that he was personally devoting great attention to the problem
and that the political will was there to reestablish German autonomy
on the Volga, but there were economic difficulties and opposition
from non-Germans living in the area. At a meeting with the leaders
of three Russian-German associations, Kinkel said that the state
of relations between Germany and Russia would depend to a large
extent on the resolution of the problems of the Germans in Russia.
(Ann Sheehy)

CIS DELEGATION LEAVES TAJIKISTAN. A delegation of representatives
of the presidents of Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Uzbekistan
headed by Kyrgyzstan Vice President Feliks Kulov left Tajikistan
on 8 October, Khovar-TASS reported. The delegation had two days
of intensive talks with the republic's leadership, political
parties, army commanders, the Muslim kadi, and then visited Kurgan-Tyube
and Kulyab. Kulov said that all sides had agreed to the introduction
of peace-keeping forces, and the results of the visit would be
presented to the CIS summit in Bishkek. (Ann Sheehy)

ASSIGNMENTS FOR SECURITY OFFICIALS IN STATE APPARATUS. President
Yeltsin has established an administrative framework through which
high-ranking KGB, MVD, and military officers may be assigned
as consultants and advisors to other government and state institutions
without leaving active service, according to a presidential edict
published in Rossiiskaya gazeta, on 29 September. In explaining
the measure, the edict cites personnel cuts among senior officer
corps in the Russian Ministries of Security, Interior Affairs,
and Defense. Although the officers will obtain positions as consultants
and advisers, they will be not demobilized and will retain dual
subordination to the civil government and their appropriate ministries.
(Victor Yasmann)

TENSION IN THE CRIMEA. Ukraine has deployed National Guard units
in the Crimea in response to the rising tension there between
the Crimean Tatars and local authorities, Ukrinform-TASS reported
on 7 October. Crimean Tatar demonstrators attempted to storm
the parliamentary building in Simferopol. According to the report,
those taking part in the attack were armed. In the meantime,
the Crimean Tatar Mejlis has called for a "mobilization of all
forces" and ordered all Crimean Tatars serving outside the republic
to return to the Crimea and join self-defense units. The conflict,
which stems from the destruction of Crimean Tatar homes on the
territory of a local state farm, is scheduled to be discussed
by the Crimean parliament on 8-October. (Roman Solchanyk)

STUDENT ACTION IN KIEV. The Union of Ukrainian Students (SUS)
on 6 October marked the second anniversary of the 1990 student
hunger strike by putting up a tent city in the Ukrainian capital's
central square, Ukrainian television reported. The students are
demanding new parliamentary elections in the spring of 1993 and
Ukraine's withdrawal from the CIS. Interfax quotes a student
leader as saying that the students are also supporting President
Leonid Kravchuk's stand against closer integration of the CIS
member states. (Roman Solchanyk)

AZERBAIJAN NATIONAL COUNCIL VOTES AGAINST CIS MEMBERSHIP. Azerbaijan's
National Council, which is functioning as the country's supreme
legislative body pending new parliamentary elections, voted on
7 October by 43 votes to one against membership of the CIS, the
Turan news agency reported. Former President Ayaz Mutalibov had
signed the Alma-Ata agreement in December, 1991, but it was never
ratified by the Azerbaijani parliament. Azerbaijan will nonetheless
send an observer to the Bishkek summit. (Liz Fuller)

LEFT-BANK MOLDOVANS DEMAND REINSTATEMENT OF LATIN ALPHABET. In
most of Moldova's area on the left bank of the Dniester, controlled
by insurgents of the Russian minority, Moldovans continue to
protest against the reimposition of the Russian alphabet in place
of the Latin used in "Moldovan" (i.e. Romanian) language schools.
School teachers and pupils are in the third week of a protest
strike in schools in Grigoriopol and Slobozia raions. Parents
from those as well as Dubasari and Rabnita raions have addressed
appeals with thousands of signatures to the United Nations and
to the US and Russian embassies in Chisinau urging the reinstatement
of the Latin alphabet and of Moldovan school textbooks and the
dispatch of human rights investigators to insurgent-controlled
areas. (Vladimir Socor)

CORRECTION: Yesterday's Daily Report incorrectly identified Mr.
Boris Tarasyuk as the Ukrainian foreign minister. He is the deputy
foreign minister.

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIA UPDATE. International media and Radio Serbia report on
8 October that the US has agreed to a British-French proposal
calling for a UN resolution to ban all Serbian military flights
over Bosnia-Herzegovina. The draft stops short of calling for
the shooting down of violators but rather creates a two-stage
process for enforcement. If the Serbs continue to fly combat
planes, the Security Council will "urgently" consider further
measures, presumably authorizing use of Allied warplanes to enforce
the ban. The draft also provides for extensive monitoring. The
Security Council is expected to take a vote on the new draft
resolution on 9 October. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic
told UN-EC negotiators in Geneva that the Serb air force has
suspended sorties on the condition that the Bosnian Muslims halt
their military offensives; he described the draft resolution
as "pointless." Meanwhile, talks between the three warring parties
about the demilitarization of Sarajevo opened in the besieged
city, but no details have been made available. On 7 October,
Teheran radio quoted Iran's spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
as saying that the West should allow Iran to send fighters to
help Bosnian Muslims. (Milan Andrejevich)

SANCTION TEAM ARRIVES IN ROMANIA. A communique released by the
Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 7 October quoted by Radio
Bucharest says the first team of international observers of sanctions
against the former Yugoslavia has arrived in Romania and begun
its work. The team comprises two US experts. It will be followed
by another American team as well as a Turkish and an Austrian
team. (Michael Shafir).

ESTONIAN PRESIDENT'S MAIDEN SPEECH. In his first speech to the
new Estonian State Assembly (Riigikogu) on 6 October, widely
reported in the local press, President Lennart Meri called for
a "rapid, orderly and complete" withdrawal of foreign military
forces from Estonian territory. Meri highlighted the need to
speed market reforms, saying economic hardship will end when
the Estonian people "begin to believe in [their] own strength
and begin to stand on [their] own two feet." Meri, who was elected
president on 6 October in a 59-31 vote in parliament, also stressed
that Estonia is a Rechtsstaat, saying that the state "guarantees
citizens' rights to all its citizens, and human rights to all
peoples." (Riina Kionka)

ESTONIAN PARLIAMENT ENDS TRANSITION PERIOD. The State Assembly
on 7 October declared the end of the transition period to full
independence declared on 30 March 1990, BNS reports. In a resolution
restoring constitutional state powers, the parliament announced
legal continuity between the interwar republic and the current
state, and accepted the resignation of Prime Minister-in-Exile
Heinrich Mark. Next week, President Lennart Meri is expected
to announce his choice of prime minister, who will, in turn,
form the new government. (Riina Kionka)

SUCHOCKA AT NATO. After meeting with NATO Secretary General Manfred
Woerner in Brussels on 7-October, Polish Prime Minister Hanna
Suchocka predicted that Poland will be able to join NATO before
it manages to gain full membership in the EC. In a speech to
NATO ambassadors, Suchocka said that the Visegrad triangle countries
appreciate the contacts they have had with NATO since the fall
of communism, but that Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia expected
in time to be given "increasingly substantial commitments leading
to integration with the Atlantic security system." Full membership
is the eventual goal. Suchocka also met with King Baudouin of
Belgium. She is to meet with EC leaders on 8-October. (Louisa
Vinton)

NATO DOES NOT FEAR CZECHOSLOVAK DISINTEGRATION. Gen. Dieter Clauss,
deputy commander in chief of NATO forces in Europe, told reporters
in Prague on 7 October that Czechs and Slovaks have to decide
themselves if they want to live in one or two states. He said
that the division of the Czechoslovak armed forces is being carried
out in a "civilized and democratic manner." Clauss made it clear
that NATO is preparing to establish "intensive cooperation" with
both new armies. CSTK quoted him as saying that if the relationship
between the future Czech and Slovak armies will be good, than
there was ample room for cooperation with NATO. Gen. Clauss is
on a three-day official visit to Czechoslovakia. (Jan Obrman)


US OFFICIAL ASSURES SLOVAKIA OF CONTINUED AID. Robert Hutchings,
a special State Department adviser on assistance to Eastern Europe,
told Slovak cabinet members on 7 October that he expects aid
to Slovakia to continue at current levels after Czechoslovakia's
dissolution, Reuters reports. Hutchings, who is leading a nine-member
US delegation to Slovakia, discussed various projects with Slovak
government members, including the creation of jobs in small and
medium-sized businesses and the conversion of arms production
sites. (Jan Obrman)

MECIAR ON MINORITIES IN SLOVAKIA. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir
Meciar said in an interview with the Hungarian section of Slovak
Radio on 6-October that ethnic minorities are an integral part
of Slovak society. He said that minorities enjoy the same rights
and have the same obligations as the rest of the population and
added that they should in fact have "even wider rights in order
to preserve their identity." The prime minister said he believes
that such extended rights for minorities are embedded in the
new Slovak constitution, which went into effect on 1-October.
Meciar also said that the Hungarian minority has the right to
receive education in its native language but that the introduction
of Hungarian-language universities is impossible for economic
reasons. Representatives of the 600,000 ethnic Hungarians living
in Slovakia have criticized the new Slovak leadership for not
taking into account their interests. (Jan Obrman)

ANTALL CONFERS WITH AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR. Hungarian Prime Minister
Jozsef Antall met his Austrian counterpart Franz Vranitzky in
Eisenstadt, Austria, to discuss the details of a Hungarian-Austrian
economic agreement, Radio Budapest reports. Hungary seeks to
expand exports of farm products to Austria by 10% and to increase
the quota of Hungarian workers allowed to work in Austria. The
leaders told a press conference that the economic agreement will
be worked out by the end of the year. The agreement is especially
important for Hungary since Austria is its largest Western trading
partner. (Edith Oltay)

ILIESCU'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN. Answering questions from the
public on 6 October, incumbent Romanian president Ion Iliescu
said in a live broadcast on Romanian TV that the next phase of
price rises scheduled for 1 January should be postponed until
the spring. Iliescu denied that Romania's foreign relations have
been adversely prejudiced by a "communist" image cast by himself
and the country's policies. At a rally in Cluj on 7 October,
Iliescu was evidently courting the nationalist vote backing mayor
Gheorghe Funar, who was eliminated from the presidential contest
after the first round of voting. (Michael Shafir).

ROMANIA'S PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES DEBATE ON TV. A debate on television
on 7 October between Iliescu and challenger Emil Constantinescu
turned into an acrimonious attempt to discredit each other's
records. Iliescu reiterated his accusation that Constantinescu
had been a member of the nomenklatura, accused him of having
changed his mind on the monarchy and of now posing as a republican,
and claimed that Constantinescu refused to endorse Romania's
definition as a "national" state. Constantinescu, in turn, said
Iliescu was posing as a past "dissident" and was "mystifying"
his record under Ceausescu and covering up the events that followed
Ceausescu's overthrow, which resulted in many unclarified deaths.
(Michael Shafir)

MORE BULGARIAN EX-COMMUNIST LEADERS ON TRIAL. On 7-October a
trial opened against former Prime Minister Georgi Atanasov and
former Minister of Economy and Planning Stoyan Ovcharov, both
charged with embezzlement, Western agencies report. Atanasov
and Ovcharov are accused of having granted 210,000 leva (roughly
$70,000 at the time) to 42-orphans whose parents fought as communist
partisans in World War-II. When the orphans received the money,
in 1989, the youngest of them was 45 years old. Atanasov, who
is also being investigated for using public funds to support
Third World communist regimes, told reporters the trial is politically
motivated. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

LATVIAN GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTS TO THE LEGISLATURE. This week the
Latvian Supreme Council is evaluating the performance of the
government, the first time that the entire government has to
account for itself to the legislators. The review was called
in response to widespread dissatisfaction with the overall situation
in Latvia and calls for the dismissal of some ministers, most
notably Janis Jurkans-Foreign Affairs, Ziedonis Cevers-Internal
Affairs, and Viktors Skudra-Justice. On 6 October the performances
of the agriculture, forestry, and finance ministries were found
to be to be satisfactory, though not without fault, Diena reports.
(Dzintra Bungs)

LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT SESSIONS. On 6 and 7-October the Lithuanian
parliament was to meet in its last sessions before the elections
to the Seimas on 25 October, but decided instead to meet on 12-October
to discuss the projects for the new constitution, Radio Lithuania
reports. Parliament approved a law on regulating average wages
in Lithuania, but will have to vote on it again when there is
a quorum. It is unclear if this will happen during the current
parliament session. The government was obligated to issue a decree
on the mechanics of regulating the wages until 15 October. Parliament
also passed a decision amending its 9-April decision on state
assistance to individuals for housing in cities. Individuals
seeking such aid are required to file by 15 November. (Saulius
Girnius)

LANDSBERGIS STATEMENT ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. On 8 October Radio
Lithuania presented a statement by Lithuanian parliament chairman
Vytautas Landsbergis on the withdrawal of Russian troops from
Lithuania. He noted that in the past month the withdrawal of
the army has proceeded in an orderly manner, placing importance
on the removal of the 107th Division from Vilnius-considered
to signal the beginning of the formal withdrawal process. He
said, however, that some Russian military leaders spoke of instructions
from Moscow to postpone the handing over of installations. He
did not know who had issued these instructions, but hoped that
the Russian Defense Ministry would abide by the agreements on
the withdrawal that it signed on 8-September and not yield to
delay tactics advocated by some conservatives in the Russian
parliament. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY ON SOVIET VETERANS ORGANIZATION. On
6 October the ministry issued a statement criticizing the activities
of the Association for the Defense of Veterans Rights, led by
retired Col. Albert Lebedev, former deputy chairman of Interfront,
which actively opposed Latvia's independence. This organization,
which joined the Russian Officers' Society earlier this month,
reportedly works under the auspices of the Northwestern Group
of Forces and cooperates with groups that want to topple the
Yeltsin government in Russia and destabilize Latvia. It has also
disseminated unfounded claims of human rights violations in Latvia,
Diena reports on 6 October. The Latvian Ministry of Defense concluded
that the organization's activities "cannot be assessed as anything
other than interference by the Russian Army in Latvia's internal
affairs." (Dzintra Bungs)

PRIVATIZATION OF ARABLE LAND IN HUNGARY. Minister of Agriculture
Elemer Gergatz predicted that some 80% of the total arable land
will be privately owned by the end of the year or at the latest
by next March, MTI reports. Speaking at a conference on agriculture
in Debrecen, Gergatz stressed that the government attaches special
significance to returning land to its rightful owners when compensating
victims of communism. He forecast that of the 6.5 million hectares
of arable land in Hungary less than 1 million will remain under
state ownership and that there will be a million new landowners
when the compensation process is completed. Finance Minister
Mihaly Kupa told the conference that the debts of agricultural
cooperatives should be cancelled so that the new owners are not
burdened by the debts accumulated during the communist era. (Edith
Oltay)

POLISH COURT SIDESTEPS ABORTION RULING. The Constitutional Tribunal
opted not to rule on the constitutionality of abortion restrictions
contained in the Polish medical association's new "code of medical
ethics." The civil rights spokesman had asked for a ruling on
the grounds that the code, which forbids doctors to perform abortions
except when a woman's life is in danger or the pregnancy results
from a crime, conflicts with Polish law, which permits abortions
in other circumstances. After the new ethical code took effect,
many hospitals ceased performing abortions because the medical
association can revoke the licenses of doctors who violate the
code. The tribunal concluded on 7 October that legal rather than
ethical norms were its proper jurisdiction. It nonetheless alerted
the Sejm to contradictions between the law granting doctors the
right to self-regulation and laws defining permissible medical
practices. (Louisa Vinton)

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull








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