Be willing to have it so; acceptance of what has happened is the first step to overcoming the consequences of any misfortune. - William James
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 192, 06 October 1992


Georgian State Council deputy chairman Dzhaba Ioseliani, the
commander of the Mkhedrioni militia, issued an ultimatum to Russian
troops and volunteers from the North Caucasus fighting in Abkhazia
to leave by 15 October or be driven out by force, Western agencies
reported. Meanwhile a Georgian counter-offensive aimed at retaking
Gagra was repulsed by the Abkhaz. A Georgian military helicopter
was shot down near Gagra. The Georgian State Council press office
claimed that it was shot down by two Russian jets, while the
Russian Defense Ministry denied any involvement and suggested
that it was brought down by a ground-to-air missile launched
by Abkhaz separatists. Following a meeting with the leadership
of the Transcaucasus Military District, Georgian State Council
chairman Eduard Shevardnadze claimed in a radio address that
Russian troops in Abkhazia have formed a military government
there and are no longer obeying commands. Shevardnadze further
charged that "reactionary forces" in Russia are supporting Abkhaz
separatism, but warned that Georgia should not break off relations
with Moscow given the presence of "healthy democratic forces"
there. (Liz Fuller)

a news conference in Moscow on 5 October, Georgian Foreign Minister
Aleksandre Chikvaidze said that his top policy priority was saving
Georgian-Russian relations, which date back centuries and must
not be allowed suddenly to collapse, ITAR-TASS reported. Chikvaidze
also stated that nothing can prevent the holding of the parliamentary
elections scheduled for 11 October, "even if they take place
against a background of artillery fire." (Liz Fuller)

SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. More than 1,000 refugees from southern
Tajikistan gathered in front of the parliament building in Dushanbe
to demand the removal of Russian troops from the region, Interfax
reported on 5 October. Acting president Akbarsho Iskandarov told
the refugees that the status of the troops will be determined
when agreements are signed with the Russian Federation; the same
day he told Interfax that the Tajik government is not strong
enough to disarm the armed bands that have been fighting each
other in the southern part of the country, and Deputy Chairman
of Tajikistan's National Security Committee Jurabek Aminov commented
that the government is getting weaker while the armed groups
are getting stronger. (Bess Brown)

in Tajikistan were confined to their bases as of 5 October, Svyatoslav
Nabzdorov, Chief of Staff of the Russian troops in Tajikistan,
told Interfax the same day. Nabzdorov said that an agreement
to this effect had been reached with the various Tajik factions
the previous day. The only exception is the Russian troops guarding
the Nurek dam and hydroelectric station. National Security Deputy
Chairman Aminov told a Reuter correspondent on 5 October that
Leninabad Oblast in the north, which has stayed out of the fighting
so far, has created its own defense force, as has the self-proclaimed
Autonomous Republic of Gorno-Badakhshan in the Pamirs. (Bess

MOLDOVA. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 1 October, Moldovan
Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu urged the dispatch of UN ceasefire
monitors and human rights rapporteurs to the Dniester, where,
he claimed, "pro-communist imperial forces, the military-industrial
complex, and the upper ranks of the ex-Soviet army have launched
a veritable war...seeking to tear off Moldova's eastern area."
Characterizing Russia's 14th Army in eastern Moldova as "an army
of occupation . . . and a permanent source of tension and conflict,"
Tiu noted that Russia is obstructing the negotiations on its
withdrawal. Endorsing a proposed resolution on the withdrawal
of Russian troops from the Baltic States, Tiu urged the General
Assembly to add the issue of Russian troops in Moldova to that
debate. (Vladimir Socor)

President" Igor Smirnov has appointed Colonel Stanislav Khazheev
as "minister of defense" of the would-be republic, DRPress reported
from Tiraspol on 2 October. On the same date, the age limit for
officers serving with the "Dniester" forces was raised from 50
to 60 years of age to enable more Russian veterans to join the
insurgent forces with full salaries and benefits. Interviewed
by Western correspondents on 29 September, as cited by Moldovapres,
Smirnov disclosed that the "Dniester" forces currently comprise
35,000 men and that arms procurement would continue despite the
ceasefire agreement. Komsomolskaya Pravda had reported from Tiraspol
on 24 September that Russian Cossacks are being enrolled in the
"Dniester republic"'s newly formed "army" and "border guards."
(Vladimir Socor)

President Mircea Snegur and a Gagauz delegation headed by "Gagauz
republic Supreme Soviet Chairman" Mikhail Kendigelyan conferred
in Chisinau on 1 October, Moldovapres reported. It was Snegur's
second meeting with Gagauz leaders in the space of less than
two weeks to discuss a draft law on Gagauz territorial autonomy,
prepared by a joint commission of the Moldovan parliament and
government. In an apparent attempt to facilitate a deal, the
Gagauz leaders on 28 September dismissed their most intransigent
colleague, Ivan Burgudji, from his posts of "director of internal
affairs" and commander of the "Gagauz defense forces." The dismissal
followed a riot in Comrat against Burgudji and his guards who
have long made themselves unpopular among ordinary Gagauz. (Vladimir

Constitutional Court hearings on the CPSU on 5 October, former
CPSU CC Politburo member Egor Ligachev, condemned Yeltsin's ban
on the Party as unconstitutional. ITAR-TASS reported that the
main part of Ligachev's speech was devoted to criticism of the
current situation in Russia. The country's current problems were
the result of the disbandment of the CPSU, Ligachev maintained.
The former Communist Party leading hard-liner accused Mikhail
Gorbachev of destroying the Party and said the policies of the
former Soviet president opened doors to "anti-communism and national
separatism." ITAR-TASS reported the same day that the Constitutional
Court again summoned Gorbachev to attend the hearings and fined
him for 100 rubles for ignoring earlier summons. (Vera Tolz)

issued a statement on 3 October criticizing the order barring
Mikhail Gorbachev from leaving Russian territory, The order was
issued by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs in response
to Gorbachev's refusal to attend the Constitutional Court Hearings,Russian
television and Western news agencies reported. "Novosti," said
the foundation found the involvement of the Minstry of Security
in the affair particularly worrisome. Its statement noted that
such a ban "contradicts the Russian Constitution and international
law," and suggested that the incident might mark the rebirth
of the old Soviet technique of denying civil rights to political
dissenters. According to The Los Angeles Times of 4 October,
Gorbachev had asked in vain to be kept informed of all "concrete
measures" taken against him, and for information about the laws
permitting such measures. (Julia Wishnevsky)

ministers of CIS states in Moscow on 5 October agreed on a provisional
agenda of 20 items for the CIS heads of state and of 24 items
for the CIS heads of government for their joint summit meeting
in Bishkek on 9 October, Interfax reported. The first item will
be the draft CIS charter. The draft agenda also includes a number
of economic and defense issues as well as regional conflicts.
Among these are harmonizing economic legislation, progress in
forming an economic arbitration council, and creating a consultative
and coordinatory economic council. Most of the items have been
on the agenda of earlier summits, and only limited progress can
be expected this time as well. Russia's acting premier Egor Gaidar,
for instance, said that Russia will not be rushed into creating
the economic council, advocated by Kazakhstan president Nursultan
Nazarbaev, for fear of accusations of imperial ambitions. (Ann

YELTSIN SIGNS LAW ON DEFENSE. Russian President Boris Yeltsin
signed the Law on Defense on 5-October, the Interfax news agency
reported. The law sets out the basic structure and principles
of organization of the Russian Armed Forces. Yeltsin and the
Supreme Soviet had clashed over the right of the President to
appoint senior military commanders without consulting the Supreme
Soviet (see the Daily Report 25 September 1992), but a compromise
was reached allowing the President the exclusive right of appointment
after a new Russian constitution is ratified. (John Lepingwell)

Nursultan Nazarbaev took his proposal for an Asian counterpart
to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe to the
United Nations General Assembly on 5-October, an RFE/RL correspondent
reported. Nazarbaev has been raising the idea of an Asian security
organization since 1991; on 2 October his press secretary announced
that the presidents of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran will meet in Alma-Ata at
the end of October or beginning of November to begin the process
of creating an Asian security system patterned on the CSCE. Nazarbaev
said that talks with China and Russia about membership are already
underway. (Bess Brown)

Commander of the Russian Ground Forces for Armaments, General
Colonel Sergei Maev, reported that the Russian army faces serious
equipment and repair problems. In an interview in Krasnaya zvezda
on 3 October, Maev complained of a 30% personnel shortfall and
stated that 70-75% of Russian equipment was outdated. He attributed
this to Russia's inheritance of the second-echelon military districts,
which held older equipment than the districts in Ukraine and
Belarus. Additional difficulties are caused by the fact that
40%, in the case of armor 80%, of repair facilities are located
outside Russia. Maev warned that it would require a "serious
state program" to correct these deficiencies. (John Lepingwell)

RUSSIAN SHIPS JOIN GULF PATROL. On 5 October two Russian naval
vessels arrived in the Persian Gulf to join the international
peace-keeping forces in that region. ITAR-TASS identified the
ships as the "Admiral Vinogradov"-a "Udaloy"-class anti-submarine
guided-missile destroyer-and the tanker "Boris Butoma." The report
said that the commander of the Russian force would meet with
a US naval officer on 6 October to be briefed on naval operations
in the Gulf, but stressed that the Russian ships would be responsible
only to Admiral Felix Gromov, the Russian Navy's commander-in-chief.
The news account also emphasized that the Russian ships had no
nuclear weapons onboard. (Doug Clarke)

Deputy of Defense Andrei Kokoshin led a delegation of military
officers, academicians, and defense industrialists to South Korea
on 4 October in what ITAR-TASS described as the first such visit
in history. Kokoshin was quoted as telling the agency that the
visit testified to "Russian's serious intentions to activate
its policy in the Asia-Pacific region." During their five-day
visit the Russians planned to meet with officials of the South
Korean defense department and leading businessmen. Kokoshin noted
that "favorable opportunities exist for the development of industrial
cooperation between Moscow and Seoul, including the fulfillment
of the Russian defense industry's conversion program." (Doug

fly in the American space shuttle and an American astronaut will
be lifted to the Russian Mir space station by a Soyuz rocket
according to plans announced on 4 October by the directors of
the US and Russian space agencies. According to UPI, the agreements
for these joint efforts were signed that day in Moscow. Two Russian
cosmonauts will travel to Houston latter this month to start
training for a November 1993 space shuttle mission. Two American
astronauts will train in Russia for a 1995 flight to the Mir
space station. In each case, only one person will eventually
make the space trip. (Doug-Clarke)

passed the $417 million aid package for the republics of the
former Soviet Union and sent it to President Bush for his signature
despite concerns over the recent Russian sale of diesel submarines
to Iran. Western agencies on 2 October reported that the US State
Department announced that day that it had been officially informed
that Russia intended to go ahead with the sale. The House approved
the aid bill 232 to 164. Opposition to the measure was based
chiefly on the submarine sale and even several of the bill's
supporters admitted that they were troubled by the deal. (Doug

WHAT IS A KARBOVANETS? The karbovanets, as described by Interfax,
would be similar to the existing Ukrainian coupons that have
circulated since the beginning of this year. The difference between
the coupons and the karbovanets appears be twofold: 1)-the former
is used only for cash settlements while the latter may be also
as a unit of account in non-cash settlements; and 2) the karbovanets,
as they are exchanged for rubles, are intended gradually to "cycle"
the ruble out of circulation. (Erik Whitlock)

a representative of the Russian State Committee on Cooperation
with CIS Nations, Sergei Dubinin, Ukraine will introduce a new
currency this month, Interfax reported on 5-October. The "karbovanets"
will temporarily circulate together with the ruble at a fixed
1:1 exchange rate. The measure represents an attempt to avoid
the economic shock associated with a sudden shift to a new exclusive
currency that would likely flood Russia with Ukrainian rubles.
The introduction of the "hrivnya," which will presumably replace
the ruble, karbovanets and Ukraine's other quasi-money, coupons,
as Ukraine's exclusive currency, is scheduled for the end of
this year. (Erik Whitlock)

NALCHIK RALLY ENDS. The protest meeting that had been going on
for more than a week in the center of Nalchik, the capital of
Kabardino-Balkaria ended late on 4 October after the government
agreed to meet some of the protesters' demands, Interfax and
ITAR-TASS reported on 5 October. Interfax quoted Zantemira Gubochikova,
deputy chairwoman of the opposition Congress of the Kabardinian
People as saying that the government had agreed to most of her
movement's demands. She said the government agreed to remove
special militia units from government buildings, give the congress
airtime on local TV on a weekly basis, and halt trials of those
who volunteered to fight Georgian forces in Abkhazia. The government
also agreed to remove a military unit from the capital within
in one month but rejected the demand for the resignation of the
republic's president. (Ann Sheehy)

CRIMEAN TATARS DEMONSTRATE. Crimean Tatars blocked roads leading
to Simferopol, the capital, and demonstrated in front of the
offices of the procurator general on October 5, a spokeswoman
reported to RFE/RL. The main demand of the protestors is the
release of Crimean Tatars taken into custody after a clash with
the authorities several days ago. About 50 people were hurt in
the incident when authorities tried to remove homes built by
the Crimean Tatars on the property of state farms. A special
session of the Mejlis, the Crimean Tatar parliament, is scheduled
to meet on 6 October to discuss the situation. (Roman Solchanyk)

of Ukraine convened in Donetsk on 3 October, ITAR-TASS and DR-Press
reported. Delegations from 18-oblasts and the Crimea are taking
part. The group favors a federal structure for Ukraine and official
status for the Russian and Ukrainian languages in the Donbass
region. (Roman Solchanyk)


EC REBUFF FOR "TRIANGLE" COUNTRIES. European Community foreign
ministers met for the first time with their counterparts from
the Visegrad triangle of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
on 5-October in Luxembourg, Western agencies report. The current
EC president, British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd, told the
three countries that no timetable can be set for full membership
in the EC. Hurd told a news conference that the EC "sympathizes
with the wish of our friends here to become full members," but
that economic uncertainties stood in the way. The triangle countries
had requested in September that the EC agree to open negotiations
on full membership in 1996, with a view to their joining the
community by the end of the century. A formal reply to this request
is due at an EC summit in December. (Louisa Vinton)

KLAUS AND MECIAR TO MEET TODAY. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus
and his Slovak counterpart Vladimir Meciar agreed to hold a meeting
of their respective parties, the Civic Democratic Party and the
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, today in Moravia, after Meciar
unilaterally cancelled talks between the Czech and Slovak governments
that were scheduled for today. The Slovak Prime Minister argued
that after the rejection of a constitutional amendment by the
federal parliament that would have set the modes for the division
of the country, senior officials of the two coalition partners
should return to the drawing board. Indicating that the main
topic of the talks will be budgetary matters, Klaus said on 5
October that it will not be possible to force the parliaments
to adopt a federal budget similar to those of the past three
years, CSTK reported. He added that because of that, the basis
for a common state will automatically cease to exist on 1-January
1993. Klaus also said that he has a "document necessary for the
declaration of the independence of the Czech Republic" ready.
He did not say if and when he would use it. (Jan Obrman)

RUNOFF CAMPAIGN OPENS IN ROMANIA. Campaigning for the 11-October
runoff for presidency started on 5-October with messages broadcast
by the two candidates. The contest is between Romania's incumbent
president Ion Iliescu, a former high-ranking communist official,
and Bucharest University rector Emil Constantinescu, candidate
of the centrist Democratic Convention. Iliescu rejected public
doubts about the fairness of the 27-September first-round voting
as well as charges that he is opposing reforms. He directed a
particularly vehement attack at Nicolae Manolescu, the president
of the Party of Civic Alliance, whom he accused of "flunkyism
towards circles hostile to Romania" and of obeying "overseas
patrons." In his address, Constantinescu reiterated that if elected
he would respect the constitution and the will of the nation.
(Dan Ionescu)

Adrian Nastase, who had recently been appointed vice president
of Ion Iliescu's Democratic National Salvation Front, said at
a press conference on 5-October that the West should view the
Romanian election results as "a lesson" and that it needs "a
new strategy toward Romania." Nastase claimed that the withholding
of aid by the West helped communists and radical nationalists
in the 27-September elections. He added that last week's rejection
by the US House of Representatives of most-favored-nation trade
status for Romania will only boost support for Iliescu. Nastase,
who has been widely-tipped as Romania's next prime minister,
suggested that an independent would make a better choice for
that position. (Dan Ionescu)

YUGOSLAV AREA UPDATE. The BBC said on 5-October that Sarajevo
has been subjected to renewed, particularly intense shelling
from Serbian positions. Over the weekend, the Serbs began consolidating
their hold on several Sarajevo districts following the expulsion
of many of their Muslim inhabitants the previous week. Elsewhere,
Western news agencies report that the three warring sides in
Bosnia have agreed to release all civilian and military prisoners
by the end of the month as part of an agreement brokered by the
Red Cross. Finally, AFP quotes Croatian President Franjo Tudjman
as saying that he and President of Serbia-Montenegro, Dobrica
Cosic, have agreed to "voluntary and civilized transfers" of
populations of unspecified size and duration. (Patrick Moore)

party chief Gen.-Wojciech Jaruzelski was interrogated by the
Katowice prosecutor on 5-October in an investigation into the
martial law killings of nine miners in the Wujek mine. Special
ZOMO troops opened fire on striking miners there on 16-December
1981. Questioned as a witness, Jaruzelski accepted "moral responsibility"
but no blame for the shootings. Former Internal Affairs Minister
Czeslaw Kiszczak was questioned as a suspect in the case on 1-October.
The prosecutor charges that Kiszczak's coded message to local
officials authorizing the use of force, including firearms, to
clear the mine jeopardized the miners' lives. Kiszczak contends
the shots were fired in the heat of battle. In a different case,
the Warsaw prosecutor told PAP on 5-October that Adam Humer,
chief investigator for the dreaded security ministry from 1945
to 1956, had admitted to murdering "suspects" during interrogation
and secretly burying their corpses in the woods. Zycie Warszawy
reports that Humer is the first former security official to face
charges under a new law that lifts the statute of limitations
on Stalinist crimes. (Louisa Vinton)

in Krosno reported on 5-October that a MI-8 combat helicopter
of Soviet origin had violated Polish airspace over Ustrzyki Dolne
and Ustjanowa, towns near Poland's border with Ukraine, on 3-October.
The helicopter, adorned with a red star, made two low passes
over buildings in Ustrzyki before departing in the direction
of the border. The Polish border guard in Przemysl confirmed
the report, adding that investigations are continuing. Ukrainian
military officials denied that any air force operations had taken
place in the area. (Louisa Vinton)

talks in Budapest on 5-October with President Arpad Goncz and
Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. The goal of the official visit
is to expand bilateral ties between the two countries. The talks
focused on economic ties, Canada's participation in the 1996
Budapest World Fair, and the situation in the former Yugoslavia.
Antall urged that Western countries adopt a comprehensive strategy
aimed at strengthening East Central Europe's new democracies.
Goncz expressed concern about a possible spread of the Yugoslav
crisis and said that future peace treaties should guarantee the
exercise of minority rights. (Edith Oltay)

says the Hungarian government has set up the Hungaria Television
Foundation to finance a satellite station to convey Hungarian
cultural values, provide an objective view of Hungary, cultivate
relations between peoples, and help minorities in other countries
preserve their Hungarian identity. Hungaria TV is to start transmission
three hours a day on 1-November. Programs will deal with politics,
culture, entertainment, and religion, with special emphasis on
education. The station will be overseen by a 13-member board
of trustees consisting of prominent Hungarian cultural figures,
including the writer Sandor Csoori. State subsidies will amount
to 300-million forint this year and 2-billion next year, but
the station is expected to be self-financing by 1997. MTI and
Radio Budapest carried the story. (Edith Oltay)

MORE POLICEMEN IN HUNGARY. Minister of the Interior Peter Boross
told a press conference that this year 2500-new police posts
have been filled and 500-additional policemen are to be hired
next year. Pointing out that public security is becoming a number
one political issue in Hungary, Boross said that the increase
in police personnel has the population's support. Boross stressed
the importance of keeping the police force free of any political
influence. As in all East European countries, the number of crimes
in Hungary has sharply increased in the freer atmosphere brought
about by democratization. (Edith Oltay)

ZHELEV-DIMITROV RIFT DEEPENS. In an interview on Bulgarian radio
on 5-October, Bulgarian Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov accused
President Zhelyu Zhelev of knowingly telling lies about him and
his UDF government. Dimitrov, who did not go into detail, was
apparently referring to Zhelev's account of the background to
their differences in yesterday's issue of 24-chasa. Dimitrov
said the timing of such statements make him believe Zhelev has
joined what he termed a "purposeful and premeditated" campaign
aimed at destabilizing the government. The UDF cabinet has been
at odds with Zhelev since he launched sharp criticism of some
aspects of government policies in late August. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

BULGARIA, UKRAINE SIGN ACCORDS. During a seven-hour visit by
the Ukrainian president to Sofia, Leonid Kravchuk and Bulgarian
President Zhelyu Zhelev signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation
as well as bilateral agreements on trade, cultural exchange and
defense matters, BTA and ITAR-TASS report. The friendship treaty
confirms the territorial integrity of the two states and calls
for peaceful settlement of disputes and respect for human rights.
Zhelev told a press conference that he is pleased with Ukrainian
authorities' attitude toward resolving the problems of the some
240,000 ethnic Bulgarians in their country, saying there was
no need for a special minority clause in the agreements. Kravchuk
noted that Ukraine will soon open an embassy in Sofia. (Kjell

BULGARIAN SCHOOL STRIKE. On 5 October Bulgarian teachers went
on strike to demand higher pay. BTA reports that some 70% of
all teachers participated on the first day of the strike, forcing
some 3,500 of the country's 4,500 schools to close. The teachers'
unions are dissatisfied with the general 26% salary increase
offered in the second half of 1992 and demand an agreement in
principle that will put their salaries at 10% above the average.
They are also seeking more public resources to improve schools.
(Kjell Engelbrekt)

Latvian Supreme Council adopted a resolution raising the amount
of financial aid available to students at institutions of higher
learning, BNS reports. The monthly state scholarship of 1140-rubles
had been less than the official minimum wage of 1500-rubles.
Students may now apply for interest-free loans in an amount up
to 1.5-times the state stipend in addition to the free scholarship
itself. The loans, to be repaid eight years after graduation,
are available to full-time students in the last two years of
their studies who are Latvian citizens. Other loans are available
for needy and disabled students. (Dzintra Bungs)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush & Charles Trumbull

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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