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No. 188, 30 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR TENSE SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev told an RFE/RL correspondent on 29 September that he had not been beaten up and hospitalized, as had been reported by the Nega news agency the previous day. The same day, Moscow and Dushanbe news agencies reported that pro-Nabiev forces from Kulyab Oblast were still in control of the town of Kurgan-Tyube, an opposition stronghold, and that the town had sustained major damage in the fighting. The government in Dushanbe has devised a plan to disarm the population by buying their illegal weapons, but local authorities will have to put up the money. An article in the 30 September issue of Nezavisimaya gazeta draws attention to the rising crime rate in Tajikistan and reports that leaders of the opposing sides in the civil war say they have no control over some 20% of their forces. The same source says that anti-Nabiev forces in Kurgan-Tyube are being led by radical members of the Islamic Renaissance Party. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) STATUS OF BESIEGED RUSSIAN TROOPS IN TAJIKISTAN UNCLEAR. Russian news agencies reported on 29 September that the Russian military unit that was besieged near Kurgan-Tyube by fighters from Kulyab has still not been able to drive off the Tajik fighters trying to capture Russian arms and equipment. Meanwhile, Western news agencies reported on 29 September a statement by the Russian Defense Ministry that a "limited military contingent" of Russian reinforcements had arrived in Tajikistan to protect Russian troops already deployed there, their families, and military facilities. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) FOREIGN HELP FOR TAJIKISTAN? In a speech to the UN General Assembly on 29 September, Tajik Foreign Minister Khudoberdi Kholiknazarov played down the scope of the fighting in his country, saying that it is presently limited to the center of Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. He appealed for international help in ensuring that democracy prevails. The same day Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati told Tajik Minister of Culture Zakirdzhan Vazirov, on a visit to Tehran, that Iran is ready to help in working out a peaceful settlement of the civil war in Tajikistan, Western news agencies reported, quoting the official IRNA news agency. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHANIBOV'S ESCAPE AND SITUATION IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. Musa Shanibov, president of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, was not released from custody, as earlier reported, but escaped, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 30 September. Shanibov, who had been detained for his part in the confederation's despatch of volunteers to Abkhazia, returned in triumph to Nalchik, where he told a meeting of 30,000, reinforced by delegations from North Ossetia, Checheno-Ingushetia, and Karachaevo-Cherkesia, that he would continue the struggle for the independence of the North Caucasus. The meeting called for the removal of Russian troops from Kabardino-Balkaria and the punishment of local officials. The article in Nezavisimaya gazeta gives the impression that the Kabardino-Balkarian authorities are no longer in charge of the situation. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINE REQUESTS SECURITY GUARANTEES, FOREIGN AID. Speaking at the United Nations on 29 September, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatoly Zlenko said that his country expected "strict international guarantees" of its national security against any threat or use of force from nuclear-armed states. In reports of his remarks carried by Western agencies, Zlenko also urged a complete ban on nuclear weapons testing. He said that Ukraine intended to accede to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons "in the nearest future," but at a subsequent press conference he claimed Ukraine needed hundreds of millions of dollars in foreign aid to dismantle its missiles. (Doug Clarke/John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHAPOSHNIKOV WARNS WEST AGAINST INTERFERENCE IN CIS TALKS. At a conference in Paris on 29 September, CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov warned European countries against interfering in talks between CIS states over nuclear weapons control. According to Reuters, Shaposhnikov stated that "when parents have to make delicate decisions, the advice of third parties . . . can cause harm." Shaposhnikov argued that Russia should control all former Soviet nuclear weapons immediately, regardless of their location. Belarus and Kazakhstan have reportedly partly agreed to Russian control, while Ukraine wants to exercise administrative control over nuclear weapons on its territory. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) BRITAIN OFFERS CREDITS TO RUSSIA. UK State Secretary Michael Heseltine and Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin have signed an agreement to provide $480 million worth of British credits for modernizing Russian industrial and transport facilities, Western news agencies reported on 29 September. The agreement follows last week's reports of British reluctance to extend more loans to Russia before coming to an arrangement on existing overdue payments to British creditors. In a related story, an IMF official, Ernesto Cata, suggested in Moscow that current lax fiscal and monetary policies in Russia may endanger the approval of a $3 billion IMF credit hoped for by the end of this year. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA SETTING UP MORE CUSTOMS POSTS. Russia will soon increase the number of customs points on its borders, Interfax reported on 29 September. The sixty-four such posts, up from twenty-four in mid-June, will be functioning by 1 October along Russia's borders with the Baltic states, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Interfax cites "experts" claiming that these posts will be "enough to halt" the illegal export of oil and raw materials. Some Russian officials have reckoned the value of illegal export of oil and oil products at over $100 million in the first half of this year alone. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV TO FACE TRIAL FOR FAILURE TO TESTIFY? On 29 September, the Russian Constitutional Court devoted its entire afternoon session to a discussion of former Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's refusal to testify at the CPSU hearing (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 29 September). According to Russian TV, Chairman Valerii Zorkin viewed the publication of Gorbachev's letter as an "insult." The judges voted in favor of sending yet another summons to Gorbachev with a warning of possible "legal consequences" if he failed to appear. If necessary, the justices would then request that the Russian General Prosecutor bring criminal charges against Gorbachev. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV HOLDS A NEWS CONFERENCE. At a press conference held at the Gorbachev Foundation on 29 September, Mikhail Gorbachev reaffirmed his earlier decision to ignore the summons to testify at the CPSU hearing, Russian TV reported. Gorbachev termed the hearing "a political trial" of seventy-five years of the Soviet history. He quoted rumors to the effect that the decision to summon him and his Politburo colleagues to testify at court had been motivated by a desire to sensationalize a trial that otherwise would continue to draw little public interest. While addressing other issues, Gorbachev criticized the government's privatization program. He also said that if the right moment comes along, he might form a new political party and become its leader. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY DEFENDS SUBMARINE SALE. On 29 September the Russian Foreign Ministry defended its sale of submarines to Iran as a "purely bilateral matter," according to Western news agencies. Despite the Russian government's apparent cancellation of the sale on 25 September, one submarine is reportedly still en route to Iran. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SWEDEN'S "PERISCOPE SYNDROME" CRITICIZED. The Russian Foreign Ministry on 29 September criticized Swedish allegations that a Russian submarine had intruded into Swedish territorial waters. Interfax and Reuters reported that the statement called Swedish Prime Minister Bildt's comments "openly unfriendly towards Russia" and dismissed Sweden's "periscope syndrome," claiming that Sweden had no firm evidence that the submarine was Russian. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIANS AND AMERICANS COOPERATE ON SPACE PROJECTS. The American firm McDonnell Douglas and the Russian Academy of Science's Mechanical Engineering Research Institute announced on 28 September that they would cooperate on a series of space technology research projects. According to a McDonnell Douglas press release, the agreement was part of a company initiative to examine and perhaps utilize Russian expertise in materials, advanced mathematics, space systems, and extended manned space flight. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) MISSILE DEFENSE TALKS TO RESUME IN OCTOBER. According to Western agencies on 29 September, US and Russian negotiators will meet again in Washington in October to continue negotiations over cooperation in the field of joint early warning and ballistic missile defense. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) HALF OF FORMER SOVIET TROOPS OUT OF GERMANY. Half of the former Soviet armed forces that were in Germany have left and the withdrawal remains on schedule for their complete departure by the end of 1994, the DPA news agency reported on 29 September. Two hundred and fifty soldiers and civilians have applied for political asylum in Germany. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) DROP IN RUSSIAN ARMS SALES. The daily Nezavisimaya gazeta on 29 September reported that Russia exported $1.55 billion worth of arms in 1991, resulting in what the paper described as a thirteen-fold drop in profits when compared with the average level of Soviet arms exports in the 1980s. The report said that 69% of the arms sold in 1991 went to the Near and Middle East. The paper quoted officials as saying that this sharp drop in profits from arms sales "was an extremely heavy blow" which, when coupled with shrinking oil exports, led to the bankruptcy of the Bank for Foreign Economic Relations. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TO DEBATE ECONOMY. The Ukrainian parliament, which postponed its debate of the economy because of the visit of Canada's governor-general to Kiev, will discuss economic reforms on 30 September, Western news agencies reported. President Leonid Kravchuk will address the lawmakers, and it is expected that the embattled prime minister, Vitold Fokin, will also make a presentation. The opposition is determined to force the resignation of the present government headed by Fokin. Izvestiya reported on 29 September that parliamentary speaker Ivan Plyushch conceded that the government must go. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIS DEFENSE MINISTERS TO MEET BEFORE BISHKEK SUMMIT. Lieutenant General Leonid Ivashov stated on 28 September that at a meeting of Defense Ministers in Bishkek on 7 October, the question of forming a joint concept of military security will be discussed. ITAR-TASS reported that the ministers will also reexamine the functioning of the CIS joint command in light of recent developments, possibly turning it into a multinational command structure. Ivashov acknowledged that there remained differences between Ukraine and the CIS joint command, but noted that there was "positive movement" in their relations. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) STALEMATE IN RUSSIA'S TALKS WITH TATARSTAN. A session of the collegium of the Russian government on 29 September noted that Russia's talks with Tatarstan have not been crowned with success, ITAR-TASS reported. The head of the Russian government's press center, Gennadii Shipitko, said that Russia was insisting that Tatarstan was part of Russia, while Tatarstan wanted to be considered completely independent in the legal sense and to be treated by Russia according to the norms of international law. Tatarstan also wanted to decide its own military policy, Shipitko added, and was opposed to its citizens having Russian as well as Tatarstan citizenship. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN REPUBLICS SUPPORT KHASBULATOV. On 28 September a statement signed by the leaders of most of the republics of the Russian Federation, in which they expressed their support for the Russian parliament and its chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, was made public, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 29 September. The newspaper's correspondent suggests that the republics have an interest in preserving an equal balance of power between the Russian president, parliament, and government, but it also sees the republics emerging more and more as a fourth force, which could upset the other three if it is not taken into account. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN PRIME MINISTER ON HIS WESTERN VISITS. Back in Chisinau from visits to Bonn and Washington, D.C. Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli told the Moldovan media on 27 September that Germany and Moldova have agreed to open embassies in each other's capitals and that a German delegation is due in Moldova shortly to negotiate an intergovernmental political and economic agreement. In Washington, Sangheli obtained the consent of the International Monetary Fund for a stand-by agreement with Moldova effective 1 January and for a credit to enable Moldova to purchase feed grain to offset crop losses caused by drought. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS ON NEED TO BUTTRESS INDEPENDENT STATEHOOD. At a consultative meeting with President Mircea Snegur on 29 September, the leaders of Moldova's Social-Democrat Party said that the opposition Popular Front's campaign for unification with Romania risks causing a civil war in Moldova, Moldovapres and ITAR-TASS reported. The Social-Democrats agreed with Snegur on the need to "buttress Moldovan independence" and develop Moldova as "a state with the full attributes of sovereignty now and in the future." The Social-Democrats also reserved the right to criticize the Snegur administration for any policy errors. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EXPERTS PREDICT MASSIVE DEATHS IN BOSNIA THIS WINTER. The New York Times on 30 September says that American analysts foresee at least 150,000 deaths from hunger and exposure in the embattled republic unless massive relief operations come into effect, while UN sources predict up to 400,000 deaths in a worst-case scenario. Winter usually arrives in October and is harsh in what even in peacetime was one of the former Yugoslavia's poorer regions. The BBC's "Europe Today" program said that relief flights to Sarajevo are likely to resume this week as a result of special envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen having "moved heaven and earth" to persuade Washington in particular of the urgent necessity to do so. Finally, it appears that UN representatives have convinced Croatian officials to work to prevent a planned march by Croatian refugees to return to their homes in Serb-controlled areas near the Hungarian border. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) BOSNIAN SERBS REJECT MASSACRE ALLEGATIONS. Radio Serbia reports on 29 September that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has rejected US State Department allegations that Serb forces massacred 3,000 Bosnian Muslims in a detention camp near the town of Brcko. Karadzic said the US had been "duped by unsubstantiated Muslim propaganda" and challenged US President George Bush to produce the evidence. Karadzic added that if Bush can prove the massacre took place, he will help arrest the perpetrators and hand them over for trial. Serb officials in Brcko also denied the US claims and invited representatives of any international commission to visit the town as soon as possible. Serb officials added that in the Brcko area some 1,500 Serbs are being held captive by Muslims. France has officially requested the UN and EC immediately to open an investigation. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) ALBANIA BLAMES SERBS FOR YUGOSLAV CONFLICT. Addressing the UN General Assembly in New York, Albanian Prime Minister Alexander Meksi singled out "malicious Serbian nationalism" as responsible for the failure to resolve the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, RTR and Western agencies report. Albania is particularly concerned that the fighting could spill over into the Serbian province of Kosovo, which is 90% ethnic Albanian, and is similarly concerned about the fate of the large number of ethnic Albanians in the now independent ex-Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK PARLIAMENT DEBATES SPLIT. On 29 September 1992, the Federal Assembly began debating a draft law on possible modes of division of the Czechoslovak federation. The law, based on political agreements between Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, provides for four different ways of dissolving the federation: a referendum, a Federal Assembly declaration, an agreement of republican parliaments, and a secession by one republic. CSTK reports that virtually all opposition deputies speaking on 29 September criticized the law and called for a referendum on the split. The debate was adjourned and will continue on the 30th. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES MINORITIES LAW. According to MTI, Parliament began discussion of the long awaited law on minorities on 29 September. The text was prepared in close cooperation with minority leaders, and its codification took much longer than expected. The intention of the law is to stop assimilation of minorities by assuring them collective minority rights and parliamentary representation. In the draft law under debate in Budapest, members of minority groups would also retain a number of individual rights. Collective rights did not figure in the post-World War II treaties, but Hungary has brought the idea up on a number of occasions since. Under this concept, an official representative body would be given legal status to pursue the interests of an ethic or national group. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK CONTACTS. Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall received a delegation of the ethnic Hungarian parties represented in the Slovak parliament, led by Coexistence Chairman Miklos Duray, MTI reported on 29 September. The two sides agreed on the need for good relations between Hungary and an independent Slovakia and for a mutually acceptable solution to the disagreements over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric project and the sections of the Slovak constitution concerning national minorities. The same day a delegation of the opposition Alliance of Young Democrats (FIDESZ) left Budapest for Bratislava for talks with Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko and other officials and with representatives of Slovakia's Hungarian minority. The FIDESZ delegation continues on to Prague for talks with Czech officials. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.) TURKEY RESTRICTS VISITORS FROM BULGARIA. Bulgarian-Turkish relations received a potential setback on 29 September when Turkey unilaterally imposed restrictions on Bulgarian citizens seeking to enter Turkey. The move is intended to reduce the number of Bulgarian Turks leaving Bulgaria in search of better job prospects. The Bulgarian Foreign Ministry indicated that no advanced warning was given and is seeking clarification. Effective immediately, Bulgarian citizens wishing to enter Turkey must demonstrate that they have at least $70 for each day of their stay, or $30 if they are part of an organized tourist group. Those visiting relatives must pledge to return to Bulgaria. Some 300-350,000 Bulgarian Turks fled to Turkey in 1989 as a result of a Bulgarian assimilation policy. While perhaps as many as half later returned, those remaining in Turkey burdening an economy beset by inflation and high unemployment. In a new wave an estimated 40,000 have entered Turkey using tourist visas and have failed to return to Bulgaria. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONSTANTINESCU TO FIGHT ON. Emil Constantinescu, the presidential candidate of the centrist Democratic Convention, vowed to continue his fight for the Romanian presidency despite his clear second-place position. Constantinescu urged all democratic forces to block Ion Iliescu's reelection in the 11 October runoff. He also warned that the parties supporting Iliescu might join into a dominant political force powerful enough to block moves toward free market reforms. Meanwhile, the vote counting is moving forward quickly, and final results are expected much earlier than originally planned. The latest partial results from 29 September (9:00 p.m.) are based on complete counts from 92% of all stations. They show Iliescu leading with 47.6%, followed by Constantinescu with 30.6% of the votes. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ILIESCU AIDE CALLS FOR GRAND COALITION. On 29 September Adrian Nastase, Romanian foreign minister and top Iliescu aide, called for a broad-based government coalition to include reformists from the rival National Salvation Front and the Democratic Convention. Nastase, who is widely tipped as Iliescu's choice to lead the future cabinet, told journalists that the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF) wants "national reconciliation." Latest figures released by Romania's National Statistics Board show the DNSF leading in the legislative elections with 28.6% for the Senate and 27.7% for the Chamber of Deputies. Nastase was quoted as saying that "we shall be looking for a government formula that will not handicap Romania." He was reacting to opposition fears that a possible coalition of the DNSF, the revived communists, and the nationalists would polarize the country and harm Romania's image in the West. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) HOUSE VOTES ON ROMANIA'S MFN STATUS. The US House of Representatives is expected to vote on 30 September on whether to restore Romania's most-favored nation trade status, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington says. Restoration had been postponed because members of the Congress wanted to see the results of the Romanian elections. On 29 September Assistant Secretary of State Thomas Niles said that the elections appeared to have been conducted freely and fairly. Romania's opposition fears that restoration of MFN status now might send the wrong signal, and influence both the presidential runoff and the building of a coalition government. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH ECONOMIC PLANS. The government met a legal deadline by submitting its draft economic program for 1993 to the parliament on 30 September. The program's central aim is to open a period of sustained economic growth. Priorities are promoting the private sector, defending fiscal stability, and reducing interest rates. Half of any increase in GDP is earmarked for investment spending. According to Polish TV, the final draft of the economic program rejected earlier proposals to tax interest income and accelerate the zloty's devaluation. Meeting in closed session, the cabinet also agreed to ask the parliament to increase the 1992 budget deficit ceiling from just over 65 to 80-82 trillion zloty. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski said that across-the-board spending cuts are necessary, but none of them will be drastic. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND'S COALITION PARTNERS BICKER. Any final decision on the shape of the revised 1992 budget was put off pending a "political meeting" of the government coalition parties on 30 September. The coalition partners failed on 29 September to agree on a common assessment of Jan Krzysztof Bielecki's 1991 government, the subject of an upcoming Sejm vote. This is a sensitive topic, as Bielecki and some of his ministers serve in the current cabinet. Rivalry over ministerial posts is also fraying tempers, as ideological conflicts emerge between the two main coalition partners, the liberal UD and the conservative ZChN. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski (ZChN) recently demanded the removal of a "proabortion" deputy health minister (UD), while several ZChN deputies called for the ouster of the Civil Rights Spokesman (UD) because of his legal challenges to religious education in schools. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka admitted to Radio Z on 29 September that she had also faced pressure over appointments from her own party, the UD, but that the coalition was functioning adequately. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) DUTCH PRIME MINISTER LAUDS POLISH REFORMS. Dutch Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers praised the Polish government's commitment to economic reform at the start of a two-day visit to Poland. Lubbers held talks with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 29 September and is to meet with President Lech Walesa on 30 September. Lubbers pledged to encourage increased Dutch investment in Poland. According to PAP, he added that "it is better to export Dutch capital to Poland than to import Polish labor to Holland." He predicted that the Dutch parliament will ratify Poland's association agreement with the EC by year's end. The EC's internal problems will not mean "closing the community" to new members, he said, but full integration will have to wait until EC members settle differences over the pace of unification. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA WARNS BALTS AGAINST "ETHNIC CLEANSING." Russia's delegation to the UN General Assembly on 29 September warned Estonia and Latvia against pursuing a policy of "ethnic cleansing," BNS reports. Upon returning to Moscow from New York, Russian Foreign Ministry press spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told reporters that his government is concerned about policies toward non-Balts in Estonia and Latvia that could lead those two states "to slide down the slope to the practice of ethnic cleansing." Last spring and summer, the Russian Foreign Ministry used the term "apartheid" to describe the Baltic stance toward nonlocal ethnics. The same day Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar told Interfax that the question of sanctions against the Baltic States is to be resolved "either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow." He added that Russian policy toward these states will be conducted in light of their success in finding solutions to their "human rights problems." (Riina Kionka & Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN-POLISH MILITARY TALKS. On 29 September Lithuanian National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius began an official three-day visit to Poland at the invitation of his Polish counterpart Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Radio Lithuania reports. The two discussed the formation of joint work groups to deal with military problems and creating greater mutual cooperation. Butkevicius also held talks with National Security Bureau head Jerzy Milewski and placed a wreath at the monument in Gruenwald, commemorating the 1410 Lithuanian-Polish victory over the Teutonic knights. On 30 September he will visit Cracow. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) WORK OF LATVIAN GOVERNMENT TO BE REASSESSED. Diena reported on 29 September that the work of the government will probably be reassessed by the Supreme Council the week of 5 October. The legislature has asked each minister to submit for evaluation a detailed report of his performance. Minister of State Janis Dinevics said that he does not rule out the possibility that the legislators might ask for the resignation of some members of the government. The day before Diena reported that Supreme Council Deputy Janis Kinna of the Farmers Union also supports the notion of reevaluation of the government's performance, but neither his party, nor three others-the Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and the People's Party-are calling for a resignation of the government at this time. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba and Charles TrumbullRFE/RL Daily Report A Publication of the RFE/RL Research Institute
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