|Be willing to have it so; acceptance of what has happened is the first step to overcoming the consequences of any misfortune. - William James|
No. 187, 29 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR RUSSIA SENDS REINFORCEMENTS TO TAJIKISTAN AS FIGHTING CONTINUES. The head of Kurgan-Tyube's city council, Nurali Kurbanov, told a press conference that hundreds of people, including the city's chief law enforcement official, were killed on 27 September in an attack on the city by Tajik forces loyal to deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, Interfax, as quoted by Western agencies, reported on 28 September. Kurbanov also claimed that Russian troops stationed in Tajikistan were helping the pro-Nabiev forces from Kulyab Oblast. Tajik Radio was quoted as having said that acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov had sent a protest to Russia over the use of Russian tanks by Kulyab forces. The tanks were supposedly stolen by Kulyab fighters from a Russian unit. ITAR-TASS reported that additional Russian troops were being sent to Tajikistan to help those already there defend themselves. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) YELTSIN-SHEVARDNADZE MEETING ON ABKHAZIA. Following Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's protest on 27 September against the Russian parliament's statements on the conflict in Abkhazia, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Shevardnadze for talks at the latter's request on 28 September in Moscow. According to Vyacheslav Kostikov, the Russian president's press secretary, the two leaders discussed ways to implement the Russo-Georgian agreement of 3 September on settling the Abkhazian conflict. Yeltsin and Shevardnadze also agreed to hold regular talks and scheduled a meeting for 13 October. Shevardnadze said he was satisfied with the talks. Speaking at a news conference after the meeting, Shevardnadze said Yeltsin is determined to follow through on democratic reforms in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL Inc.) FIRST NORTH CAUCASIAN VOLUNTEERS LEAVE ABKHAZIA. The first group of fighters sent to Abkhazia by the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus left Abkhazia for Groznyi on 28 September, ITAR-TASS reported. About one hundred were flown out in a Russian plane. The Abkhaz had stated earlier that their departure had been suspended. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES LAW REDUCING YELTSIN'S POWER. The draft law "On the Council of Ministers and the Government of Russia" is currently being examined by the presidium of the Russian parliament, Interfax reported on 28 September. The draft law gives President Yeltsin the right to appoint the prime minister and other leading cabinet members only with the approval of the parliament. If the parliament does not approve the president's candidate, the president will have the right to appoint an acting prime minister for three months. If the law is adopted, Yeltsin will loose his present powers to appoint ministers without the parliament's approval. The presidium of the parliament also proposed two alternative dates, 15 December and 12 January, for convening the Seventh Congress of People's Deputies. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) CIVIC UNION INCREASES PRESSURE ON THE GOVERNMENT. The three principal leaders of the Civic Union have increased their pressure on the government. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi told a youth gathering that some ministers should resign because "their radicalism gives nothing to society," ITAR-TASS reported on 28 September. Arkadii Volsky, the president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, urged the government to make way for a team of industrial managers who understood how to run the country. Nikolai Travkin, the leader of the Democratic Party, said that it was necessary to remove from the government State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, and Economic Minister Andrei Nechaev. All three Civic Union leaders emphasized, however, that Prime Minister Egor Gaidar should stay. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) VOLSKY PLAYS DOWN DIFFERENCES WITH GAIDAR. Despite his increasing criticism of specific Gaidar economic policies, Arkadii Volsky, president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, seems reluctant to be branded as an anti-reformer. At a press conference in St. Petersburg, Volsky said that his group's recently released 13-point "anti-crisis" program is not an "alternative to the present economic course" of the Gaidar government, "Vesti" reported on 27 September. "We never set ourselves the task of creating an alternative program . . .[T]here can be no alternative to a transition to the market," Volsky emphasized. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) NECHAEV ON FALL IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION. Russian Minister of the Economy, Andrei Nechaev, told a conference of young business and political leaders on 28 September that the nation's industrial production is expected to fall by 20% this year, ITAR-TASS reported. According to official statistics, last year's drop was 2.2%. Nechaev also disclosed that state orders from the defense industry this year were cut by 68%. In a subsequent interview with an ITAR-TASS correspondent, Nechaev said that the government intended to limit the decline in 1993 to 8%. In a related story, Nechaev announced that the government had reached a compromise with the Central Bank on a limit of new credit creation to increase enterprise liquidity, according to "Novosti" on 27 September. There were few details. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN DEFENSE BUDGET FOR 1993. Russian Economics Minister Andrei Nechaev on 28 September provided details about the 1993 defense budget. According to Interfax, defense expenditures will total between 1.55 and 1.65 trillion rubles in July 1992 prices, compared to 632 billion rubles in 1992. (Comparing real outlays is complicated by rapid inflation and the arbitrary pricing structure of Russian arms.) Most of the increase is due to personnel and housing construction costs. Procurement spending has been set at 170 billion rubles, a rejection of the Industry Ministry's call to increase it by 60%. Weapons production levels would reportedly remain at the same level as in 1992. (John Lepingwell) RUSSIA NEGOTIATING WITH DEBTORS. Russia is making some progress in settling debts with less-developed countries. According to Interfax on 28 September, Minister of Foreign Economic Relations, Petr Aven, announced that India is soon to begin payments on its $15 billion debt to Russia. Negotiations are also progressing with Tanzania and Poland. Last week Aven said that less-developed nations, many of them former Soviet client states, owed Russia some $142 billion. Aven said he does not expect much of this to be repaid. Cuba, for example, has officially informed Russia that it will not pay back its $28 billion debt. Others owing sums of $10 billion or less, such as Iraq, Angola and Zaire, are in such bad economic condition that repayment is similarly unlikely. (Erik Whitlock) GORBACHEV REFUSES TO TESTIFY AT THE CPSU HEARING. Russian TV newscasts on 28 September cited a press release made by the Constitutional Court, which quotes a letter sent to the Court by former Soviet Communist Party General Secretary, Mikhail Gorbachev. Asked to testify in the current trial of the party, which was banned by President Yeltsin after the failed coup of August 1991, Gorbachev expressed in the letter his "profound respect" for the court as an important democratic institution, but added that he will not take part in the hearing, because the two opposing sides, i.e., those supporting Yeltsin's ban of the party and those defending the CPSU, are eager to exploit it for their own political purposes. (On Friday, 25 September, "Novosti" reported that one of the judges on the Constitutional Court had declared Gorbachev's refusal to appear contempt of court. According to the press release, other former Party leaders have agreed to testify. (Julia Wishnevsky) ...AND PROBABLY WITH GOOD REASON. A 25 September article in the emigre weekly Russkaya mysl', written by its Moscow correspondent, quotes Yeltsin's supporters at the CPSU hearing as saying that no matter what he might say, Gorbachev's testimony may enable his democratic opponents to diminish the former General Secretary's popularity in the West by putting him in the dock for the "party's crimes." Meanwhile, writing in Gudok on 1 September, a representative of the communist side, Anatolii Salutsky, predicted that an "unlimited" opportunity for hardliners to question Gorbachev and Aleksandr Yakovlev in court could bring about "dramatic political consequences . . . on a world scale." (Julia Wishnevsky) CHINA WELCOMES RUSSIAN WITHDRAWAL FROM MONGOLIA. A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry on 28 September welcomed the announcement that all Russian troops have been withdrawn from Mongolia. ITAR-TASS said that the announcement of the final withdrawal was made on the previous day. The last troops left in September. Then Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev had announced a partial Soviet troop withdrawal from Mongolia in January 1989, and talks on a complete pullout began in February 1990. At one time there were as many as 70,000 Soviet troops in Mongolia. (Doug Clarke) PLUTONIUM REACTOR SHUT DOWN. On 29 September, ITAR-TASS reported that the second plutonium production reactor near Krasnoyarsk has been shut down, ending plutonium production for nuclear weapons in Russia. The Krasnoyarsk site housed two reactors deep underground, which for 30 years produced the weapons material that allowed the rapid buildup of Soviet nuclear stockpiles. Specialists at the site are proposing that it be used to build a prototype small nuclear reactor that could provide power to remote locations in Siberia and the north. (John Lepingwell) INTELLIGENCE SPOKESWOMAN EXPLAINS PRIMAKOV'S PROPOSALS. The moratorium on foreign espionage offered by the director of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgennii Primakov,(see RFE/RL Daily Report 28 September) can be realized only if there are "collective guarantees" by the NATO countries, said the agency spokeswoman, Tatyana Samolis, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 September. Even if Great Britain, for example, agrees to cease intelligence activities in Russia, it will still be able to obtain intelligence information about Russia from its NATO allies. Therefore, Russia must receive a collective guarantee from all NATO countries which have "an integrated military and intelligence structure," she added. In light of this statement, it is noteworthy that the Primakov initiative may have the practical effect of dividing Western military and intelligence services at the time when European integration is experiencing a crisis over currency and other issues. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) FOKIN TO DETAIL ECONOMIC REFORMS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitold Fokin is scheduled to address the Ukrainian parliament on 29 September, Interfax reported. The parliament is expected to hear details of the government's new economic program, developed by First Deputy Prime Minister Valentyn Symonenko. Both Fokin and President Leonid Kravchuk are also expected to propose changes in the composition of the government. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN STUDENTS DEMAND CHANGES. The Third Congress of the Ukrainian Students Union (USS) opened in Donetsk on 25 September, Ukrainian TV reported. The USS is taking part in the campaign for new parliamentary elections and supports radical economic reforms. Together with the All-Ukrainian Association of Solidarity with Toilers (VOST), the USS issued a statement calling for new elections and the formation of a government worthy of the public's trust. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) STATE OF EMERGENCY REVOKED IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. The state of emergency proclaimed in Kabardino-Balkaria on 27 September was revoked on 28 September, Radio Mayak reported, and Musa Shanibov, the president of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, was released, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow was told by a local official. The state of emergency had been proclaimed after supporters of the Congress of the Kabardian People staged violent protests in Nalchik to protest Shanibov's detention on 23 September for his role in the despatch of volunteers to Abkhazia. Shanibov is to address an extraordinary congress of the confederation in Groznyi on 2 October. The events in Kabardino-Balkaria are reminiscent of last year's events in Chechnya when the Russian authorities also found it necessary to back down in the face of local resistance. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN CEASEFIRE OBSERVERS ARRIVE IN BAKU. A first batch of Russian observers who will monitor a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh arrived in Baku on 28 September, Azerinform-TASS reported. Additional observers from Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine are expected soon. Meanwhile, both the Azerbaijani and Armenian sides accused each other of violating the ceasefire. On 28 September Armenpress-TASS quoted a report from Stepanakert stating that Azerbaijani forces had fired on the road connecting Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, but traffic did not stop moving. Interfax reported the same day that Azerbaijan's minister of internal affairs had rejected the idea of inviting in CIS troops for peacekeeping duties in the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) UZBEK OPPOSITION LEADER ON CRACKDOWN. Uzbek writer Muhammed Salih, chairman of the tiny opposition Erk (Will) Party, was quoted by Reuter on 28 September as warning that he will call for street demonstrations if the Uzbek government crackdown on the opposition does not stop. Uzbek President Islam Karimov fears that unrest will spread from neighboring Tajikistan and has taken various measures to silence and intimidate the opposition in Uzbekistan. Erk, the only genuine opposition party to be registered, has had its newspaper closed and its bank account confiscated, according to Salih. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE PARTIAL RESULTS IN ROMANIAN ELECTIONS. Latest figures released by the National Statistics Board on 29 September (as of 3:00 a.m.) confirm forecasts from exit polls made by a German and a Romanian survey institute two days before. The partial results, based on complete counts from roughly 65% of all stations, show the incumbent Ion Iliescu leading in the presidential race with 47.3%. He is followed by Emil Constantinescu from the centrist Democratic Convention (DC) with 31.2%; Gheorghe Funar from the nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity (PRNU) with 11%; Caius Traian Dragomir from the National Salvation Front (NSF) with 4.7%; Ion Manzatu from the Republican Party with 3.1%; and Mircea Druc, an independent, with 2.8%. Though a runoff between Iliescu and Constantinescu on 11 October seems inevitable, the former's reelection appears almost certain. The results also show the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), the party backing Iliescu, as leading the vote for the 143-seat Senate with 28.6% and for the 328-seat Chamber of Deputies with 27.6%. It is followed by the DC with 18.6% and 18.7%, respectively; the NSF (10.2% for both); the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania (9.1% and 8.9%); the PRNU (8.2% and 7.8%); the Greater Romania Party (3.7% and 3.8%); the Democratic Agrarian Party (3.3% and 3%); and the Socialist Labor Party, the reborn communist party (3.2% and 3%). Most analysts see a coalition government looming, and believe that the DNSF might form a alliance with nationalist and leftist parties. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) NEW WAVE OF "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA? The 29 September Washington Post quotes international relief officials as saying that Serbian forces have begun a systematic drive to expel the remaining 200,000 Muslims from northwestern Bosnia centering on Banja Luka. The account describes "bombings, burning, torture, and murder," with one relief worker saying: "there's more of this, and worse than anyone can imagine." At least four Muslim villages were destroyed by masked Serbs going "from house to house lobbing grenades, shooting--killing dozens . . ." during the week that peace envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen visited the region. Desperate Muslims are paying Serbs large sums of money to be allowed to make the dangerous trip to the Bosnian-held enclave of Travnik, their one chance of escape. Meanwhile, the 29 September New York Times says that the Bosnian government has again appealed to the UN Security Council to allow it to buy arms to prevent what the Bosnians claim is the Serbs' "final assault" on Sarajevo. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) CROATIANS DEMAND TO RETURN HOME. Reuter on 28 September and the Los Angeles Times the following day report that up to 10,000 male Croats have threatened to march on their former homes in the Baranja region bordering Hungary. UN peacekeepers are trying to pressure the Croatian authorities, who may be encouraging the refugees, to stop what the UN fears could be a massacre if unarmed civilians walk into areas that have been held by Serbian militias since the summer of 1991. The Croats are impatient at the UN's failure to disarm the Serbs and enable the refugees to go home, and this has become a major issue in the Croatian media and in politics. The UN has succeeded in opening some formerly Serb-held areas in the Dalmatian hinterland, but the Croatian authorities and press warned civilians not to go home until the area has been cleared of mines. Some 600,000 people have been displaced in Croatia since local Serbs with the backing of the former Yugoslav army began taking control of Croatian territory in early 1991. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) KOSOVO DEVELOPMENTS. According to Radio Serbia, 19 Kosovo Albanians went on trial in Pec on 28 September. The defendants, members of the National Front of Albanians, have been charged by Serbian authorities with the intention to stage an armed rebellion to sever the Serbian province of Kosovo from Serbia and set up an independent state or annex it to Albania. The defendants are accused of buying foreign-made arms and ammunition and smuggling them into Kosovo. Other charges include unlawful entry into a local textile plant and the manufacture of military uniforms marked with Albanian military insignia. Belgrade Radio reports that one defendant has confessed that he discussed "the defense of Kosovo" with Albanian officers during a visit to Albania. He also admitted smuggling a significant amount of weapons from Switzerland. Before the trial began, the court denied the defense attorneys' request to turn the case over to an international organization. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) TALKS ON THE DIVISION OF CZECHOSLOVAK ARMY. The State Defense Council, the body supervising Czechoslovakia's defense policies, met in Prague on 28 September to discuss the division of the Czechoslovak army. Speaking to reporters after the meeting, Federal Prime Minister and Defense Council Chairman Jan Strasky said that the council asked the chairmen of the republican defense councils to work out details of the army's split. Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak was asked to prepare draft agreements on cooperation between the two new armies after the split. Andrejcak told CSTK that the federal command of the army will cease to exist on the day of Czechoslovakia's split. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar walked out of the council's meeting in protest against what he saw as unacceptable demands by the Czech side that each republic keep those installations and assets now situated on its territory. Speaking on Slovak television, Ivan Gasparovic, chairman of the Slovak parliament, argued that Slovakia could lose as much as 80 billion koruny if the territorial principle were applied to the division of the army's assets. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) BULGARIAN ECONOMIC NEWS. European Community Finance Ministers, meeting in Brussels on 28 September, discussed awarding additional funds to Bulgaria and Romania. Last week talks between Bulgaria and the EC moved Bulgaria closer to associate status and trade terms have been agreed upon, according an RFE/RL correspondent. Further talks will be held on 15 and 16 October. The Sofia government hopes for an agreement by year's end while EC leaders are more reserved, awaiting results of the forthcoming discussions. Also on 28 September Bulgaria, together with Australia, Greece, and Luxembourg, signed an agreement to prohibit money laundering by organized crime. The pact, already signed by 20 other countries but ratified only by Great Britain so far, will make police detection of illegal money flowing into subscribing countries easier. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) PROCEEDINGS STARTED IN 1956 HUNGARIAN KILLINGS. Hungarian TV reported on 27 September that the Christian Democratic People's Party (CDPP) has initiated proceedings against those who ordered soldiers to fire into a crowd at Mosonmagyarovar during the 1956 Revolution. Some 100 died and 200 were injured. A 25-page brief has been filed at the Gyor-Sopron County chief prosecutor's office by two lawyers for the CDPP, against the former officials, who not only have not been punished but currently receive substantial state pensions. The chief prosecutor turned the case over to the military court in Gyor. This is the first attempt by a political party to press legal charges for a crime under the communist regime but that has not yet been prosecuted. A law allowing prosecution of such crimes was ruled unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court earlier this year. The CDPP argues that 1956 offenses constitute war crimes and as such do not fall under the statute of limitation. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) MEDIA WAR AT HUNGARIAN TV CONTINUES. According to Hungarian media reports on 28 September, the president of Hungarian TV, Elemer Hankiss, has fired Palfy G. Istvan, the progovernment chief editor of two influential news programs. The decision is expected to increase the tensions between the government and Hankiss, who was dismissed earlier this year by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. President Arpad Goncz has repeatedly refused to sign Hankiss's dismissal. Hankiss claims that Palfy's programs were not objective and failed to live up to "European standards." Only one progovernment chief editor remains at the state-owned TV. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) LITHUANIAN PRIME MINISTER IN WARSAW. Aleksandras Abisala met with President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka during a one-day visit to Warsaw on 28 September. It was Abisala's first foreign visit as prime minister. Agreements were signed on investment protection, the fight against organized crime, and border controls. Although both sides presented the visit as a step forward, the tensions that have slowed work on a bilateral treaty were also very much in evidence. Polish officials pressed for more equitable treatment of the Polish minority in Lithuania. Abisala insisted that Lithuania's policy meets European standards. For his part, he criticized the position of Poland's Lithuanian minority and pressed for a reckoning with the past, especially the Polish occupation of Vilnius in 1920. Lithuania's defense minister, Audrius Butkevicius, begins a three-day visit to Poland on 29 September. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) LANDSBERGIS AT UNGA. On 28 September Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis addressed the UN General Assembly. The speech, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, focused on the need for the Russian military to leave the Baltic States. Landsbergis noted that Russian conservatives were dividing foreign countries into "inner" and "outer" spheres, with Russia marking out its "special interests" in the former--states that could be taken over much as was done in 1939. Landsbergis held talks with UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that day and on 29 September will meet former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd before returning to Lithuania in the evening. He cancelled a planned trip to Chicago on 30 September. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) GROMOV ON TROOP PULLOUT FROM THE BALTICS. Russia's Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov told Krasnaya zvezda of 25 September the pullout of Russian troops by 1 September 1993 from Lithuania is "by no means synonymous with a readiness to flee." He noted that specific accords on the withdrawal remain to be ratified. (On 23 September Gromov told Interfax that Russian troops in Estonia and Latvia are to be pulled out in 1994, though the final date must still be negotiated.) He pointed out that Russia intends to keep the presence of its Baltic Fleet in the region. Gromov said that there are still about 35,000 Russian officers and enlisted men in Lithuania, over 15,000 in Latvia, and about 24,000 in Estonia. These figures differ from those recently given by other Russian officials. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) TROOPS CLASH OVER BUILDING IN KAUNAS. On 28 September, as a group of unarmed Lithuanian soldiers began to take inventory of a building in Kaunas that had been used by the Russian army, ten armed Russian soldiers burst into the building, threw the Lithuanian soldiers out, and barricaded themselves on the second floor. The Russians later left the building, Radio Lithuania reports, but three unarmed officers remained on the second floor. The first floor is controlled by Lithuanian troops. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) RIGA AVIATION SCHOOL MAY LOSE ITS FOREIGN STUDENTS. BNS reports that as of 1 October the Riga Aviation University may lose nearly 500 of its foreign students because the Latvian government will not take over the costs of their stipends--$2-3,000 per student annually--from Moscow, which sent them for study in Latvia. What is more, Russia has not paid off its debt of 36 million rubles for the education of its students over the last academic year nor made any payments for the first semester of this year. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) IS RUSSIA PREPARING ESTONIA SANCTIONS? The Russian government plans to adopt a political resolution regarding relations with Estonia in the next few days, BNS reports on 28 September, quoting Interfax. The resolution may well direct the government to introduce "political and economic sanctions" against Estonia for its alleged discriminatory treatment of ethnic Russians, especially with regard to Estonia's parliamentary elections last week. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) CONGRESS OF ESTONIA HOLDS FINAL SESSION. The Congress of Estonia movement held its tenth and final session on 28 September, local media report. The meeting adopted a resolution stating that Estonia has restored the constitutional state structure according to the will of the republic's citizens--this had been the goal of the alternative parliament ever since it was established in March 1990. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) POLAND'S COL. KUKLINSKI: HERO OR TRAITOR? The Washington Post of 27 September carried a lengthy report on Col. Ryszard Kuklinski, the highly-placed Polish officer who spied for the US for 11 years and revealed the plans for martial law to the CIA before escaping from Poland in 1981. According to sources quoted in the report, Kuklinski, who now lives in the US under a false identity, provided the CIA with 35,000 pages of documents that one specialist said "virtually defined our knowledge" of Soviet military plans and equipment. The account has evoked discussion in Poland because of Kuklinski's foiled attempts to have his 1984 death sentence for treason (later reduced to 25 years imprisonment) overturned. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz called the case a "moral dilemma" because of the implications Kuklinski's exoneration could have for the Polish army. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull
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