|... samyj bol'shoj pomoschnik - vovremya dannyj sovet. - Ali Ibn-Abi Talib|
No. 186, 28 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR TAJIK FIGHTERS TAKE RUSSIAN TROOPS PRISONER. An operation by law enforcement agencies to disarm supporters of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, who are from Kulyab Oblast but who have been fighting in Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, was supposed to have started on 26-September, ITAR-TASS reported. The following day, however, the same source reported that armed groups from Kulyab had seized four tanks, an armored transporter, and an armored car from Russian forces stationed in Kurgan-Tyube, and that they had captured five members of the Russian unit. According to the commander of the Russian division, the unit that lost the equipment was surrounded by some 350 fighters from Kulyab who wanted to obtain more equipment and weaponry the same way. (Bess Brown) RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT CRITICAL OF GEORGIA ON ABKHAZIA. Following discussion on 25 September of the situation in the North Caucasus and Abkhazia, the Russian parliament issued a statement saying that it "denounces the policy of the Georgian leadership...and demands that the government immediately stop combat operations, withdraw armed units from Abkhazian territory and strictly fulfill international covenants on human rights." The statement also called for the "introduction of necessary contingent of peace-keeping forces" and offered the services of the Russian Federation as a mediator in the conflict, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 September. (Suzanne Crow) ANGRY SHEVARDNADZE TO MEET WITH YELTSIN ON ABKHAZIA. Eduard Shevardnadze, chairman of Georgia's State Council, made an unscheduled stop in Moscow on his way home from the United Nations to discuss with Russian President Boris Yeltsin the Russian parliament's statement on Abkhazia. Shevardnadze was quoted by Russian TV on 27-September as saying: "I cannot recall any precedent for such crude, high-handed, and unforgivable interference in the internal affairs of our Republic." Shevardnadze described the Russian parliament's actions as "impudent and overtly aggressive" and said that the future of Russo-Georgian relations, not just the question of Abkhazia, will be the subject of his meeting with President Yeltsin; Shevardnadze added: "My task is to save these relations," ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. The meeting is scheduled to take place on 28 September. (Suzanne Crow) STATE OF EMERGENCY DECLARED IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. At least 20 people were injured in a confrontation between police and thousands of demonstrators in the Kabardino-Balkar republic in the North Caucasus on 27 September, Interfax reported. The demonstrations followed the detention on 23 September of Musa Shanibov, the chairman of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus, by investigators of the Russian procurator's office. Russia had earlier declared unlawful the activities of the confederation, which has sent volunteers to Abkhazia to support the Abkhaz against Georgia. Following the violent protests a state of emergency for two months was declared in the republic, ITAR-TASS reported. (Ann Sheehy) WITHDRAWAL OF CONFEDERATION'S VOLUNTEERS FROM ABKHAZIA SUSPENDED. Abkhazia's separatist leaders said on 27 September that the pullout of the volunteers sent by the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus would be delayed indefinitely because of Georgia's violations of the ceasefire in Abkhazia, Interfax reported. Georgia had threatened to remove them by force if they were not withdrawn by 25 September. (Ann Sheehy) NAGORNO-KARABAKH CEASEFIRE APPARENTLY BROKEN. ITAR-TASS reported on 26-September that Azerbaijani Defense Minister Rakhim Gaziev ordered his troops to lay down their arms in compliance with a ceasefire arranged the previous weekend, but there were no confirmed reports that the ceasefire was actually being observed by Azerbaijani or Armenian troops in Nagorno-Karabakh. The agreement, mediated by Russia, called for a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh for two months, and a truce along the Azerbaijani-Armenian border for an undetermined period. Also on 26 September, Interfax quoted an Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman as saying that his country would observe the agreement if the Azerbaijani side did the same. On 27 September, however, ITAR-TASS reported that Armenian troops were continuing to attack Azerbaijani positions along the entire front in Nagorno-Karabakh. (Bess Brown) VOLSKY DESCRIBES 13-POINT PROGRAM. Arkadii Volsky, leader of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, outlined his "anti-crisis" program to an ITAR-TASS correspondent in St. Petersburg on 26 September. The thirteen points that comprise his program include refocusing the reform to stabilize production. Also among Volsky's proposals is the creation of a two-sector economy for the transition period. The private economy should be encouraged and receive state support; however, the state should "reestablish regulation of the development of the economy." For the state sector, Volsky vaguely described the introduction of a "new mechanism of management" and a restructuring policy for state enterprises. With regard to the voucher-privatization program, Volsky said without modifications existing plans could turn out to be "a great deception of the workers." (Erik Whitlock) VOLSKY PROPOSES NEW UNION. The leader of the Civic Union, Arkadii Volsky, has proposed the creation of a "Euro-Asiatic" union of six or seven of the members of the CIS, The Financial Times reported on 28 September. He obviously meant those of the CIS members states who signed the agreement on the formation of the Interparliamentary Assembly. Volsky also visited Kazakhstan in September and assisted Kazakh entrepreneurs in the organization of their own industrialists' union. That was a significant step toward the reestablishment of ties between the Russian and Kazakh industrial complexes. (Alexander Rahr) OPPOSITION TO PRIVATIZATION. Conservative deputies made an attempt in parliament to postpone or hold a nationwide referendum on privatization. One of the conservative deputies even threw a handful of vouchers in the face of Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, who is responsible for the privatization program, Western news agencies reported on 25 September. But parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov called upon deputies to end the debate, saying that people have certain expectations and that parliament would be making a mistake if it blocked the voucher plan. Khasbulatov proposed establishing a special parliamentary committee to monitor privatization. (Alexander Rahr) DEMOCRATS SUPPORT RADICAL REFORM.The "Democratic Russia" movement fears that the Civic Union may push it to the sidelines of the political arena, thereby depriving it of its popular support in society, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 September. Leaders of "Democratic Russia" issued a statement calling for a consolidation of all democratic forces on the issue of holding a referendum on private land ownership. They asserted that from the fourteen factions in the Russian parliament, only two-"Democratic Russia" and the "Radical Democrats"-support the government's radical reform course. (Alexander Rahr) RUSSIA TO CUT OIL EXPORTS TO CIS. Minister of the Economy Andrei Nechaev disclosed at a news conference in Moscow that Russia is planning to cut oil exports to other CIS republics by half next year, according to Western news agencies on 26 September. The action is intended to maintain domestic and hard-currency export needs in the face of rapidly falling Russian oil production (at the rate of a million barrels per day, according to a recent World Bank study). Nechaev said the overall reduction in exports to the CIS region would be between 30-40 million tons. The reduction would be very damaging to the other CIS economies, which are heavily dependent on Russian supplies. (Erik Whitlock) SACHS, LIPTON CRITICIZE IMF. "Something is wrong, seriously wrong, with the IMF's role in Russia," wrote Jeffrey Sachs and David Lipton, two US economists advising the Russian government on economic reform, in The Washington Post on 27-September. The two claim that the IMF has to increase its presence in Russia and thereby exert a greater influence on Russian economic policy: "Without [IMF representatives] in residence... the IMF simply has not done the things it can to make the difference." The economists also criticized specific Fund pronouncements and actions, including not effectively organizing Western aid for Russia and opposition to separate national currencies in the other CIS republics. Sachs and Lipton urged the US Congress, which is considering a $12 billion increase in its contribution to the Fund, to pressure the IMF into making "fundamental management changes." (Erik Whitlock) RUSSIA HALTS SUBMARINE SALE TO IRAN. The Russian government has decided to halt the sale of three Kilo-class diesel submarines to Iran due to alleged disagreements over payment. On 25 September, Vladimir Pakhomov of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, informed ITAR-TASS that the sale was not currently on the agenda. Also on 25 September, however, the Pentagon confirmed reports that one of the submarines was already en route to Iran with a training crew on board, according to Western news agencies. If the submarine returns to the Russian naval base in Latvia from which it set sail, it could exacerbate political tensions between Latvia and Russia. (John Lepingwell) NAZARBAYEV CRITICIZES UKRAINE OVER NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev criticized Ukraine on 26 September for vacillating on the elimination of its nuclear arms, Western news agencies reported. According to Nazarbayev, "Ukraine cannot say one thing today and do another thing tomorrow." While Ukraine has reiterated its willingness to eliminate all nuclear weapons on its territory by the end of the decade, some Ukrainian parliamentarians have been criticizing the commitment and raising doubts about it. (John Lepingwell) SHAPOSHNIKOV CONFIRMS CIS MISSILES REMAIN TARGETED ON THE US. On 25-September, Commander in Chief of CIS forces, Marshal Yevgenii Shaposhnikov, confirmed that CIS missiles are still targeted on the United States. In January 1992, President Boris Yeltsin made several vague promises and assurances that Russian missiles would not be targeted on US cities, but these statements were discounted by the military as political in nature and technically meaningless. Shaposhnikov did confirm that many missiles have been taken off alert, according to Western news agencies. (John Lepingwell) PRIMAKOV PROPOSES MORATORIUM ON FOREIGN ESPIONAGE. The director of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgenii Primakov, has offered to recall his spies from countries that agree to cease their intelligence activities in Russia. In an interview with The Sunday Times on 27 September, Primakov said that such a step must be fortified by "a government guarantee." He also revealed that his agency has closed about 30 former KGB stations in Africa and Far East; because of personnel and budget cuts about half of all his intelligence officers will be recalled by the end of the year, he added. Primakov's offer echoed the US-Soviet intelligence pact proposed by Dr. Georgii Arbatov last year (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 27 November, 1991). At that time, Arbatov proposed a reciprocal cessation of agent recruitment by Russia and the United States, and a concomitant redirection of intelligence resources on both sides towards analytical work; meanwhile, counterintelligence forces on both sides would verify that the respective countries were abiding by the treaty. (Victor Yasmann) CRIMEA AMENDS CONSTITUTION. The Crimean parliament, meeting for a two-day session on 24-and 25 September, adopted amendments to its constitution and approved a state flag and symbols, Ukrinform-TASS reported on 25 September. The Crimean constitution now states that the Republic of the Crimea is part of Ukraine, with which it conducts its relations on the basis of mutually agreed upon laws and agreements. The Crimea's powers are defined by its constitution and the Ukrainian law delineating power between Kiev and Simferopol. The Crimean government will have its permanent representation in Kiev. Every Crimean citizen is simultaneously a Ukrainian citizen, and Crimeans reserve the right to have dual citizenship. (Roman Solchanyk) YELTSIN, NAZARBAEV, ELCHIBEI ON CIS. Yeltsin's press secretary said on 25 September that Yeltsin had sent a personal message to the leaders of the CIS states in advance of the summit meeting in Bishkek on 9 October in which he proposed that individual CIS states should move towards integration insofar as they were ready, ITAR-TASS reported. Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev said he shared Yeltsin's view, ITAR-TASS reported. Nazarbaev said no one should be dragged into the CIS, and some states could be associated members and others observers. Azerbaijan's president Abulfaz Elchibei said on CIS TV on 22 September that he personally was against Azerbaijan being a member, because it still lacked the hallmarks of genuine independence, namely a national currency, army, and gold reserve. Elchibei had said three days earlier, however, that it was a matter for the parliament to decide. (Ann Sheehy) TURKMENISTAN PLACES HOPES ON GAS. The gas pipeline that is to be built from Turkmenistan to Europe via Turkey will enable Turkmenistan to break into the world market, Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov said in an interview with the Moscow journal Svobodnaya mysl, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. Niyazov believes that Turkmenistan can cushion the shock of introducing a market economy through selling its gas, oil, and cotton. Western economists have been inclined to agree with him. In the interview Niyazov also praised his country's stability. (Bess Brown) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ROMANIAN ELECTIONS ORDERLY, GOOD TURNOUT. On 27 September Romanians voted in the second presidential and general elections after the collapse of Nicolae Ceausescu's regime in December 1989. The elections came at the end of a relatively calm electoral campaign, in sharp contrast with the one in May 1990, which was marred by violence, fraud, and intimidation. There were six presidential candidates and more than 10,600 candidates from 83-parties and alliances competing for seats in the 471-seat, two-chamber parliament. An estimated 75% of the 16.4-million electorate turned out at the 14,000-odd polling stations, under the eyes of more than 500-foreign and 8,000-domestic observers. (Dan Ionescu) ILIESCU LEADS-RUNOFF LIKELY. Preliminary results circulated by Romanian TV shortly before the polling stations closed at 9:00-p.m. showed incumbent President Ion Iliescu leading with 48% of the vote over his main challenger, Emil Constantinescu (33%), running on the ticket of the Democratic Convention (DC), an alliance of 18 centrist parties and organizations. If accurate, these projections, based on an exit poll made by the German Applied Social Research Institute and the Romanian Institute for Public Opinion Survey, indicate that Iliescu is likely to win the reelection in a runoff to be held on 11-October. A former high-ranking communist official, Iliescu appears to have enjoyed massive support from the less educated, conservative electorate in rural areas and small towns. The Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), the party supporting Iliescu, is also leading with 27.5% in those projections. The contest for the parliament, however, seems much tighter, with the DC in second place with 23% and Petre Roman's National Salvation Front on the third, with 11%. This suggests that a coalition will be needed to form the next government. Among the DNSF's possible allies are nationalist and leftist parties. First official preliminary results are expected at midday 28-September, while the final outcome will probably not be known before 6 October. (Dan Ionescu) FIGHTING CONTINUES IN BOSNIA. International media reported over the weekend that all contenders are trying to consolidate their positions before the harsh Balkan winter arrives in October. The BBC on 28 September quotes Serbian sources as saying that they now control all of the far eastern part of Bosnia except Gorazde, while Bosnian media reported Serbian air attacks on Jajce and Bosanski Brod. Meanwhile, Serbian heavy artillery continued to pound parts of Sarajevo. (Patrick Moore) MORE REPORTS ON "ETHNIC CLEANSING" BY SERBS IN BOSNIA. Reuters on 26-September said that EC mediator Lord Owen and his UN counterpart Cyrus Vance visited Serbian-controlled Banja Luka in western Bosnia to investigate reports of atrocities. They described how 3-4,000 Muslim and Croatian refugees were fired upon and shelled as they tried to cross over to the Bosnian side during a round of "ethnic cleansing." On 27 September the Los Angeles Times quoted State Department officials as confirming another massacre of 3,000 Muslims near Brcko during the summer. They were killed in groups of 50-at a time, and the bodies were secretly disposed of. The State Department suggested that Brcko might not be an isolated case, and Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger said that Washington wants to move quickly on setting up a commission to investigate Bosnian war crimes. On 28-September the Washington Post cited Serbian police officials in Banja Luka as confirming a massacre of Muslim male civilians at Varjanta. The killers appear to have been Serbian police acting on their own, and police officials said they will be "brought to justice." (Patrick Moore) SLOVAK PREMIER WANTS NEW TREATY WITH GERMANY. Czechoslovak media quoted Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar on 25 September as saying that Slovakia wants to renegotiate the Czechoslovak-German Treaty signed in February 1992 because it does not take into account all Slovak demands. Slovakia has criticized the fact that the treaty's preamble disregards the existence of the 1939-45 Slovak State. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said on 25 September that he sees no need for renegotiation because a division of the treaty between the successor states of Czechoslovakia is simply a technical matter. On 27 September Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko told CSTK that Slovakia will conclude a new treaty with Germany after January 1993, when Czechoslovakia is to split, and that it will do so without a prior agreement with the Czech Republic. (Jiri Pehe) NO PLANS FOR "TRIANGLE" MILITARY PACT. Speaking at a press conference after the meeting of defense ministers of the "Visegrad Triangle," in Tatranske Zruby, Slovakia, Czechoslovak Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak said that Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland do not plan to conclude a military pact or form a defense union. Andrejcak said that the three defense ministers had agreed on new areas of cooperation, such as opening garrisons to mutual inspections and discussed ways of mutual cooperation after the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz said he hopes that military cooperation within the Visegrad Triangle will continue after Czechoslovakia's breakup. Pledging to resolve conflicts among themselves by political means, the three said that the common goal of the Visegrad countries is gaining membership in the European Community and West European military structures. Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur ruled out the possibility that tensions on the Slovak-Hungarian border could rise significantly and a mobilization of the Hungarian armed forces could be needed. He said that no military actions have taken place on the Slovak-Hungarian border and none are planned. (Jiri Pehe) HUNGARIAN SMALLHOLDERS' PARTY HAS NEW CAUCUS LEADER. On 26 September the larger faction of the Independent Smallholders' Party elected a new caucus leader, lawyer Janos Szabo. The party split earlier this year into two factions: the smaller supported the party's chairman Jozsef Torgyan and left the coalition, the larger remains in the coalition. The former faction leader Gyula Pasztor resigned, saying he wants to spend more time in his voting district, but it is possible that he had to leave for political reasons, since he obstructed the reunification of the two factions. Szabo wants to start talks with the Torgyan faction and wants to work toward the reunification of the two factions. The report was carried by MTI. (Judith Pataki) ZHELEV NOTES STRAINS WITH GOVERNMENT. Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev, in an interview on Bulgarian Radio on 27 September, admitted that he has had differences with the ruling Union of Democratic Forces government, BTA reports. He denied, however, that he is "at war" with the cabinet. Rather, Zhelev noted that there has been conflict between the government and the presidency over the extent of each's authority, as well as over the extent and pace of reforms. Zhelev was at pains to avoid criticizing the government-but neither did he express direct support for it. (Duncan Perry) COALITION TALKS CONTINUE IN TALLINN. Coalition talks are continuing in the wake of last week's parliamentary elections in Estonia, and RFE/RL correspondent reports. The Pro Patria (Isamaa) election coalition, along with the Moderates and the Estonian National Independence Party, has formed a bloc comprising parliamentary majority. Pro Patria is currently negotiating with potential defectors from other parties to strengthen this bloc while conducting closed-door talks on forming a government. Speculation over the composition of the government continues: Pro Patria leader Mart Laar currently tops the list for prime minister candidates, Kiel University professor Hain Rebas (from ENIP) has been mentioned for the Defense Ministry, and deputy speaker to the Supreme Council. Marju Lauristin (from the Moderates). may be tapped as Labor Minister. (Riina Kionka) FINAL LITHUANIAN PRE-ELECTION POLLS. On 26 September newspapers published the results of political polls conducted by the Sociological Research Laboratory of Vilnius University (SLVU) and the Sociological Research Department of Lithuanian Radio and TV (SDRTV), BNS reports. Election law does not permit publishing any more poll results before elections on 25 October. According to SLVU, 67.4% of the voters say that they will vote, while SDRTV reported a figure of 58.1%. Five parties (Sajudis coalition, the Democratic Labor Party, the Center Movement, the Christian Democratic Party, and the Social Democratic Party) would break the 4% barrier needed to gain seats in the proportional voting system, according to SLVU. The favored candidates for president in both polls were Vytautas Landsbergis and Algirdas Brazauskas. (Saulius Girnius) WALESA EXHORTS IN GDANSK. Polish President Lech Walesa continued his current campaign to rouse public activism with visits to the Gdansk shipyard on 25 September and St. Brygida's Church on 27 September. Walesa admitted that Poland has "American prices and Polish wages," but told Gdansk residents that Poles could attain American living standards in four years' time-provided everyone gets down to work and stops expecting the government and the president to solve all the problems. Walesa repeated his threat to form a presidential party should a "master plan of reform" not take effect in six months. (Louisa Vinton) POLISH GOVERNMENT DEFINES SOCIAL SECURITY MINIMUM. The government completed work on the fourth of its five priority programs, "citizens' social security," on 26-September. The program defines which social services will be guaranteed by the state and which are the responsibility of local governments, employers, and individuals. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka met with representatives of the 13-smaller trade unions on 25-September to open talks on the "pact on state firms." She also discussed the pact with business organizations. Business owners and managers criticized the proposed pact for guaranteeing only the rights of employees, an imbalance they said would slow privatization and impede foreign investment. (Louisa Vinton) POLAND BARGAINS WITH IMF OVER DEFICIT. Speaking to journalists on 25-September after returning from Washington, Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski reported that a new agreement with the IMF will be possible only after the 1992 budget is amended to cut spending and increase revenues. Osiatynski indicated that the IMF is prepared to accept a raised budget deficit ceiling of 8% of GDP for 1992 and 6% for 1993, despite having insisted on a 5% limit earlier this year. The IMF's chief worry, Osiatynski reported, is not the size of the deficit, but the manner in which it is financed. He also noted that the 17-countries that funded the $1-billion stabilization fund are to decide by 15-December whether to allow it to be used to release banks from the bad debts of state firms. Gazeta Wyborcza ran the report on 25-September under the headline "They've Taken a Liking to Our Deficit." (Louisa Vinton) LITHUANIA, RUSSIA INITIAL AGREEMENTS. In Moscow Lithuania and Russia initialed three agreements on settling accounts between the two countries, Radio Lithuania reported on 27-September. Lithuanian delegation head, Deputy Economics Minister Vytas Navickas, said that for now firms in both countries can pay each other in rubles, Lithuanian temporary coupons, or foreign currency, but no agreement was reached on settling accounts after Lithuania introduces its currency, the litas. Russia has not agreed to pay back the money from Lithuania's valuta accounts in the Vneshekonombank seized last year. The Russian delegation also did not agree to 31-August 1993 as the final date for the withdrawal of its troops from Lithuania, suggesting that the agreements signed on 8 September 1992 may be changed. (Saulius Girnius) RUSSIAN DEPUTIES IN ESTONIA PAY FAREWELL VISIT. Three outgoing Estonian Supreme Council deputies paid a visit to the Paldiski Naval Base west of Tallinn, BNS reported on 25 September. Genik Israeljan, Vladimir Lebedev and Nikolai Aksinin met with officers, who said living conditions at the base are difficult for those charged with maintaining the nuclear reactors there. Officers reportedly told the deputies that it would take 10-15 years to dismantle the reactors, the existence of which Estonian authorities discovered only last year. The three deputies, who were not eligible to stand for last week's parliamentary elections because they are not citizens, called their outing "a farewell visit" to their constituents. (Riina Kionka) LATVIA INVITES UN TO RUSSIAN TROOP PULLOUT TALKS. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 25 September, Latvia's head of state Anatolijs Gorbunovs invited the UN Security Council to send observers to negotiations on the pullout of Russian troops. Gorbunovs, challenging Russia to live up to its earlier promises, explained that Russia has often changed its position on issues already agreed upon and that Latvia has not been permitted to monitor Russian troop movements on its territory. Gorbunovs noted the "dangerous alteration of the demographic situation" (Latvians now comprise about 52% of the population) in Latvia that resulted from the Soviet Union's occupation of Latvia in 1940 and "the Soviet Union's colonial policies." He rejected Russia's accusation that rights of minorities are being violated in Latvia, adding that his country wants to integrate into its citizenry those immigrants who support Latvian independence; those who find an independent Latvia unacceptable, however, should leave. Western agencies carried the story. (Dzintra Bungs) [ As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles TrumbullThe RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. DAILY REPORT
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