Любишь ты жизнь? Тогда не теряй времени; ибо время - ткань, из которой состоит жизнь. - Б. Франклин
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 186, 28 September 1992


law enforcement agencies to disarm supporters of deposed President
Rakhmon Nabiev, who are from Kulyab Oblast but who have been
fighting in Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, was supposed to have started
on 26-September, ITAR-TASS reported. The following day, however,
the same source reported that armed groups from Kulyab had seized
four tanks, an armored transporter, and an armored car from Russian
forces stationed in Kurgan-Tyube, and that they had captured
five members of the Russian unit. According to the commander
of the Russian division, the unit that lost the equipment was
surrounded by some 350 fighters from Kulyab who wanted to obtain
more equipment and weaponry the same way. (Bess Brown)

discussion on 25 September of the situation in the North Caucasus
and Abkhazia, the Russian parliament issued a statement saying
that it "denounces the policy of the Georgian leadership...and
demands that the government immediately stop combat operations,
withdraw armed units from Abkhazian territory and strictly fulfill
international covenants on human rights." The statement also
called for the "introduction of necessary contingent of peace-keeping
forces" and offered the services of the Russian Federation as
a mediator in the conflict, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 September.
(Suzanne Crow)

chairman of Georgia's State Council, made an unscheduled stop
in Moscow on his way home from the United Nations to discuss
with Russian President Boris Yeltsin the Russian parliament's
statement on Abkhazia. Shevardnadze was quoted by Russian TV
on 27-September as saying: "I cannot recall any precedent for
such crude, high-handed, and unforgivable interference in the
internal affairs of our Republic." Shevardnadze described the
Russian parliament's actions as "impudent and overtly aggressive"
and said that the future of Russo-Georgian relations, not just
the question of Abkhazia, will be the subject of his meeting
with President Yeltsin; Shevardnadze added: "My task is to save
these relations," ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. The meeting
is scheduled to take place on 28 September. (Suzanne Crow)

people were injured in a confrontation between police and thousands
of demonstrators in the Kabardino-Balkar republic in the North
Caucasus on 27 September, Interfax reported. The demonstrations
followed the detention on 23 September of Musa Shanibov, the
chairman of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the
North Caucasus, by investigators of the Russian procurator's
office. Russia had earlier declared unlawful the activities of
the confederation, which has sent volunteers to Abkhazia to support
the Abkhaz against Georgia. Following the violent protests a
state of emergency for two months was declared in the republic,
ITAR-TASS reported. (Ann Sheehy)

Abkhazia's separatist leaders said on 27 September that the pullout
of the volunteers sent by the Confederation of Mountain Peoples
of the North Caucasus would be delayed indefinitely because of
Georgia's violations of the ceasefire in Abkhazia, Interfax reported.
Georgia had threatened to remove them by force if they were not
withdrawn by 25 September. (Ann Sheehy)

on 26-September that Azerbaijani Defense Minister Rakhim Gaziev
ordered his troops to lay down their arms in compliance with
a ceasefire arranged the previous weekend, but there were no
confirmed reports that the ceasefire was actually being observed
by Azerbaijani or Armenian troops in Nagorno-Karabakh. The agreement,
mediated by Russia, called for a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh
for two months, and a truce along the Azerbaijani-Armenian border
for an undetermined period. Also on 26 September, Interfax quoted
an Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman as saying that his country
would observe the agreement if the Azerbaijani side did the same.
On 27 September, however, ITAR-TASS reported that Armenian troops
were continuing to attack Azerbaijani positions along the entire
front in Nagorno-Karabakh. (Bess Brown)

VOLSKY DESCRIBES 13-POINT PROGRAM. Arkadii Volsky, leader of
the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, outlined
his "anti-crisis" program to an ITAR-TASS correspondent in St.
Petersburg on 26 September. The thirteen points that comprise
his program include refocusing the reform to stabilize production.
Also among Volsky's proposals is the creation of a two-sector
economy for the transition period. The private economy should
be encouraged and receive state support; however, the state should
"reestablish regulation of the development of the economy." For
the state sector, Volsky vaguely described the introduction of
a "new mechanism of management" and a restructuring policy for
state enterprises. With regard to the voucher-privatization program,
Volsky said without modifications existing plans could turn out
to be "a great deception of the workers." (Erik Whitlock)

VOLSKY PROPOSES NEW UNION. The leader of the Civic Union, Arkadii
Volsky, has proposed the creation of a "Euro-Asiatic" union of
six or seven of the members of the CIS, The Financial Times reported
on 28 September. He obviously meant those of the CIS members
states who signed the agreement on the formation of the Interparliamentary
Assembly. Volsky also visited Kazakhstan in September and assisted
Kazakh entrepreneurs in the organization of their own industrialists'
union. That was a significant step toward the reestablishment
of ties between the Russian and Kazakh industrial complexes.
(Alexander Rahr)

OPPOSITION TO PRIVATIZATION. Conservative deputies made an attempt
in parliament to postpone or hold a nationwide referendum on
privatization. One of the conservative deputies even threw a
handful of vouchers in the face of Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii
Chubais, who is responsible for the privatization program, Western
news agencies reported on 25 September. But parliamentary speaker
Ruslan Khasbulatov called upon deputies to end the debate, saying
that people have certain expectations and that parliament would
be making a mistake if it blocked the voucher plan. Khasbulatov
proposed establishing a special parliamentary committee to monitor
privatization. (Alexander Rahr)

DEMOCRATS SUPPORT RADICAL REFORM.The "Democratic Russia" movement
fears that the Civic Union may push it to the sidelines of the
political arena, thereby depriving it of its popular support
in society, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 September. Leaders of "Democratic
Russia" issued a statement calling for a consolidation of all
democratic forces on the issue of holding a referendum on private
land ownership. They asserted that from the fourteen factions
in the Russian parliament, only two-"Democratic Russia" and the
"Radical Democrats"-support the government's radical reform course.
(Alexander Rahr)

RUSSIA TO CUT OIL EXPORTS TO CIS. Minister of the Economy Andrei
Nechaev disclosed at a news conference in Moscow that Russia
is planning to cut oil exports to other CIS republics by half
next year, according to Western news agencies on 26 September.
The action is intended to maintain domestic and hard-currency
export needs in the face of rapidly falling Russian oil production
(at the rate of a million barrels per day, according to a recent
World Bank study). Nechaev said the overall reduction in exports
to the CIS region would be between 30-40 million tons. The reduction
would be very damaging to the other CIS economies, which are
heavily dependent on Russian supplies. (Erik Whitlock)

SACHS, LIPTON CRITICIZE IMF. "Something is wrong, seriously wrong,
with the IMF's role in Russia," wrote Jeffrey Sachs and David
Lipton, two US economists advising the Russian government on
economic reform, in The Washington Post on 27-September. The
two claim that the IMF has to increase its presence in Russia
and thereby exert a greater influence on Russian economic policy:
"Without [IMF representatives] in residence... the IMF simply
has not done the things it can to make the difference." The economists
also criticized specific Fund pronouncements and actions, including
not effectively organizing Western aid for Russia and opposition
to separate national currencies in the other CIS republics. Sachs
and Lipton urged the US Congress, which is considering a $12
billion increase in its contribution to the Fund, to pressure
the IMF into making "fundamental management changes." (Erik Whitlock)

decided to halt the sale of three Kilo-class diesel submarines
to Iran due to alleged disagreements over payment. On 25 September,
Vladimir Pakhomov of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, informed
ITAR-TASS that the sale was not currently on the agenda. Also
on 25 September, however, the Pentagon confirmed reports that
one of the submarines was already en route to Iran with a training
crew on board, according to Western news agencies. If the submarine
returns to the Russian naval base in Latvia from which it set
sail, it could exacerbate political tensions between Latvia and
Russia. (John Lepingwell)

Nursultan Nazarbayev criticized Ukraine on 26 September for vacillating
on the elimination of its nuclear arms, Western news agencies
reported. According to Nazarbayev, "Ukraine cannot say one thing
today and do another thing tomorrow." While Ukraine has reiterated
its willingness to eliminate all nuclear weapons on its territory
by the end of the decade, some Ukrainian parliamentarians have
been criticizing the commitment and raising doubts about it.
(John Lepingwell)

On 25-September, Commander in Chief of CIS forces, Marshal Yevgenii
Shaposhnikov, confirmed that CIS missiles are still targeted
on the United States. In January 1992, President Boris Yeltsin
made several vague promises and assurances that Russian missiles
would not be targeted on US cities, but these statements were
discounted by the military as political in nature and technically
meaningless. Shaposhnikov did confirm that many missiles have
been taken off alert, according to Western news agencies. (John

of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgenii Primakov,
has offered to recall his spies from countries that agree to
cease their intelligence activities in Russia. In an interview
with The Sunday Times on 27 September, Primakov said that such
a step must be fortified by "a government guarantee." He also
revealed that his agency has closed about 30 former KGB stations
in Africa and Far East; because of personnel and budget cuts
about half of all his intelligence officers will be recalled
by the end of the year, he added. Primakov's offer echoed the
US-Soviet intelligence pact proposed by Dr. Georgii Arbatov last
year (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 27 November, 1991). At that time,
Arbatov proposed a reciprocal cessation of agent recruitment
by Russia and the United States, and a concomitant redirection
of intelligence resources on both sides towards analytical work;
meanwhile, counterintelligence forces on both sides would verify
that the respective countries were abiding by the treaty. (Victor

CRIMEA AMENDS CONSTITUTION. The Crimean parliament, meeting for
a two-day session on 24-and 25 September, adopted amendments
to its constitution and approved a state flag and symbols, Ukrinform-TASS
reported on 25 September. The Crimean constitution now states
that the Republic of the Crimea is part of Ukraine, with which
it conducts its relations on the basis of mutually agreed upon
laws and agreements. The Crimea's powers are defined by its constitution
and the Ukrainian law delineating power between Kiev and Simferopol.
The Crimean government will have its permanent representation
in Kiev. Every Crimean citizen is simultaneously a Ukrainian
citizen, and Crimeans reserve the right to have dual citizenship.
(Roman Solchanyk)

YELTSIN, NAZARBAEV, ELCHIBEI ON CIS. Yeltsin's press secretary
said on 25 September that Yeltsin had sent a personal message
to the leaders of the CIS states in advance of the summit meeting
in Bishkek on 9 October in which he proposed that individual
CIS states should move towards integration insofar as they were
ready, ITAR-TASS reported. Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev
said he shared Yeltsin's view, ITAR-TASS reported. Nazarbaev
said no one should be dragged into the CIS, and some states could
be associated members and others observers. Azerbaijan's president
Abulfaz Elchibei said on CIS TV on 22 September that he personally
was against Azerbaijan being a member, because it still lacked
the hallmarks of genuine independence, namely a national currency,
army, and gold reserve. Elchibei had said three days earlier,
however, that it was a matter for the parliament to decide. (Ann

TURKMENISTAN PLACES HOPES ON GAS. The gas pipeline that is to
be built from Turkmenistan to Europe via Turkey will enable Turkmenistan
to break into the world market, Turkmen President Saparmurad
Niyazov said in an interview with the Moscow journal Svobodnaya
mysl, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. Niyazov believes that
Turkmenistan can cushion the shock of introducing a market economy
through selling its gas, oil, and cotton. Western economists
have been inclined to agree with him. In the interview Niyazov
also praised his country's stability. (Bess Brown)


voted in the second presidential and general elections after
the collapse of Nicolae Ceausescu's regime in December 1989.
The elections came at the end of a relatively calm electoral
campaign, in sharp contrast with the one in May 1990, which was
marred by violence, fraud, and intimidation. There were six presidential
candidates and more than 10,600 candidates from 83-parties and
alliances competing for seats in the 471-seat, two-chamber parliament.
An estimated 75% of the 16.4-million electorate turned out at
the 14,000-odd polling stations, under the eyes of more than
500-foreign and 8,000-domestic observers. (Dan Ionescu)

ILIESCU LEADS-RUNOFF LIKELY. Preliminary results circulated by
Romanian TV shortly before the polling stations closed at 9:00-p.m.
showed incumbent President Ion Iliescu leading with 48% of the
vote over his main challenger, Emil Constantinescu (33%), running
on the ticket of the Democratic Convention (DC), an alliance
of 18 centrist parties and organizations. If accurate, these
projections, based on an exit poll made by the German Applied
Social Research Institute and the Romanian Institute for Public
Opinion Survey, indicate that Iliescu is likely to win the reelection
in a runoff to be held on 11-October. A former high-ranking communist
official, Iliescu appears to have enjoyed massive support from
the less educated, conservative electorate in rural areas and
small towns. The Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF),
the party supporting Iliescu, is also leading with 27.5% in those
projections. The contest for the parliament, however, seems much
tighter, with the DC in second place with 23% and Petre Roman's
National Salvation Front on the third, with 11%. This suggests
that a coalition will be needed to form the next government.
Among the DNSF's possible allies are nationalist and leftist
parties. First official preliminary results are expected at midday
28-September, while the final outcome will probably not be known
before 6 October. (Dan Ionescu)

FIGHTING CONTINUES IN BOSNIA. International media reported over
the weekend that all contenders are trying to consolidate their
positions before the harsh Balkan winter arrives in October.
The BBC on 28 September quotes Serbian sources as saying that
they now control all of the far eastern part of Bosnia except
Gorazde, while Bosnian media reported Serbian air attacks on
Jajce and Bosanski Brod. Meanwhile, Serbian heavy artillery continued
to pound parts of Sarajevo. (Patrick Moore)

on 26-September said that EC mediator Lord Owen and his UN counterpart
Cyrus Vance visited Serbian-controlled Banja Luka in western
Bosnia to investigate reports of atrocities. They described how
3-4,000 Muslim and Croatian refugees were fired upon and shelled
as they tried to cross over to the Bosnian side during a round
of "ethnic cleansing." On 27 September the Los Angeles Times
quoted State Department officials as confirming another massacre
of 3,000 Muslims near Brcko during the summer. They were killed
in groups of 50-at a time, and the bodies were secretly disposed
of. The State Department suggested that Brcko might not be an
isolated case, and Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger
said that Washington wants to move quickly on setting up a commission
to investigate Bosnian war crimes. On 28-September the Washington
Post cited Serbian police officials in Banja Luka as confirming
a massacre of Muslim male civilians at Varjanta. The killers
appear to have been Serbian police acting on their own, and police
officials said they will be "brought to justice." (Patrick Moore)

quoted Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar on 25 September
as saying that Slovakia wants to renegotiate the Czechoslovak-German
Treaty signed in February 1992 because it does not take into
account all Slovak demands. Slovakia has criticized the fact
that the treaty's preamble disregards the existence of the 1939-45
Slovak State. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said on 25 September
that he sees no need for renegotiation because a division of
the treaty between the successor states of Czechoslovakia is
simply a technical matter. On 27 September Slovak Foreign Minister
Milan Knazko told CSTK that Slovakia will conclude a new treaty
with Germany after January 1993, when Czechoslovakia is to split,
and that it will do so without a prior agreement with the Czech
Republic. (Jiri Pehe)

NO PLANS FOR "TRIANGLE" MILITARY PACT. Speaking at a press conference
after the meeting of defense ministers of the "Visegrad Triangle,"
in Tatranske Zruby, Slovakia, Czechoslovak Defense Minister Imrich
Andrejcak said that Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland do not
plan to conclude a military pact or form a defense union. Andrejcak
said that the three defense ministers had agreed on new areas
of cooperation, such as opening garrisons to mutual inspections
and discussed ways of mutual cooperation after the breakup of
Czechoslovakia. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz said
he hopes that military cooperation within the Visegrad Triangle
will continue after Czechoslovakia's breakup. Pledging to resolve
conflicts among themselves by political means, the three said
that the common goal of the Visegrad countries is gaining membership
in the European Community and West European military structures.
Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur ruled out the possibility
that tensions on the Slovak-Hungarian border could rise significantly
and a mobilization of the Hungarian armed forces could be needed.
He said that no military actions have taken place on the Slovak-Hungarian
border and none are planned. (Jiri Pehe)

the larger faction of the Independent Smallholders' Party elected
a new caucus leader, lawyer Janos Szabo. The party split earlier
this year into two factions: the smaller supported the party's
chairman Jozsef Torgyan and left the coalition, the larger remains
in the coalition. The former faction leader Gyula Pasztor resigned,
saying he wants to spend more time in his voting district, but
it is possible that he had to leave for political reasons, since
he obstructed the reunification of the two factions. Szabo wants
to start talks with the Torgyan faction and wants to work toward
the reunification of the two factions. The report was carried
by MTI. (Judith Pataki)

Zhelev, in an interview on Bulgarian Radio on 27 September, admitted
that he has had differences with the ruling Union of Democratic
Forces government, BTA reports. He denied, however, that he is
"at war" with the cabinet. Rather, Zhelev noted that there has
been conflict between the government and the presidency over
the extent of each's authority, as well as over the extent and
pace of reforms. Zhelev was at pains to avoid criticizing the
government-but neither did he express direct support for it.
(Duncan Perry)

COALITION TALKS CONTINUE IN TALLINN. Coalition talks are continuing
in the wake of last week's parliamentary elections in Estonia,
and RFE/RL correspondent reports. The Pro Patria (Isamaa) election
coalition, along with the Moderates and the Estonian National
Independence Party, has formed a bloc comprising parliamentary
majority. Pro Patria is currently negotiating with potential
defectors from other parties to strengthen this bloc while conducting
closed-door talks on forming a government. Speculation over the
composition of the government continues: Pro Patria leader Mart
Laar currently tops the list for prime minister candidates, Kiel
University professor Hain Rebas (from ENIP) has been mentioned
for the Defense Ministry, and deputy speaker to the Supreme Council.
Marju Lauristin (from the Moderates). may be tapped as Labor
Minister. (Riina Kionka)

published the results of political polls conducted by the Sociological
Research Laboratory of Vilnius University (SLVU) and the Sociological
Research Department of Lithuanian Radio and TV (SDRTV), BNS reports.
Election law does not permit publishing any more poll results
before elections on 25 October. According to SLVU, 67.4% of the
voters say that they will vote, while SDRTV reported a figure
of 58.1%. Five parties (Sajudis coalition, the Democratic Labor
Party, the Center Movement, the Christian Democratic Party, and
the Social Democratic Party) would break the 4% barrier needed
to gain seats in the proportional voting system, according to
SLVU. The favored candidates for president in both polls were
Vytautas Landsbergis and Algirdas Brazauskas. (Saulius Girnius)

WALESA EXHORTS IN GDANSK. Polish President Lech Walesa continued
his current campaign to rouse public activism with visits to
the Gdansk shipyard on 25 September and St. Brygida's Church
on 27 September. Walesa admitted that Poland has "American prices
and Polish wages," but told Gdansk residents that Poles could
attain American living standards in four years' time-provided
everyone gets down to work and stops expecting the government
and the president to solve all the problems. Walesa repeated
his threat to form a presidential party should a "master plan
of reform" not take effect in six months. (Louisa Vinton)

completed work on the fourth of its five priority programs, "citizens'
social security," on 26-September. The program defines which
social services will be guaranteed by the state and which are
the responsibility of local governments, employers, and individuals.
Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka met with representatives of the
13-smaller trade unions on 25-September to open talks on the
"pact on state firms." She also discussed the pact with business
organizations. Business owners and managers criticized the proposed
pact for guaranteeing only the rights of employees, an imbalance
they said would slow privatization and impede foreign investment.
(Louisa Vinton)

on 25-September after returning from Washington, Finance Minister
Jerzy Osiatynski reported that a new agreement with the IMF will
be possible only after the 1992 budget is amended to cut spending
and increase revenues. Osiatynski indicated that the IMF is prepared
to accept a raised budget deficit ceiling of 8% of GDP for 1992
and 6% for 1993, despite having insisted on a 5% limit earlier
this year. The IMF's chief worry, Osiatynski reported, is not
the size of the deficit, but the manner in which it is financed.
He also noted that the 17-countries that funded the $1-billion
stabilization fund are to decide by 15-December whether to allow
it to be used to release banks from the bad debts of state firms.
Gazeta Wyborcza ran the report on 25-September under the headline
"They've Taken a Liking to Our Deficit." (Louisa Vinton)

Russia initialed three agreements on settling accounts between
the two countries, Radio Lithuania reported on 27-September.
Lithuanian delegation head, Deputy Economics Minister Vytas Navickas,
said that for now firms in both countries can pay each other
in rubles, Lithuanian temporary coupons, or foreign currency,
but no agreement was reached on settling accounts after Lithuania
introduces its currency, the litas. Russia has not agreed to
pay back the money from Lithuania's valuta accounts in the Vneshekonombank
seized last year. The Russian delegation also did not agree to
31-August 1993 as the final date for the withdrawal of its troops
from Lithuania, suggesting that the agreements signed on 8 September
1992 may be changed. (Saulius Girnius)

Estonian Supreme Council deputies paid a visit to the Paldiski
Naval Base west of Tallinn, BNS reported on 25 September. Genik
Israeljan, Vladimir Lebedev and Nikolai Aksinin met with officers,
who said living conditions at the base are difficult for those
charged with maintaining the nuclear reactors there. Officers
reportedly told the deputies that it would take 10-15 years to
dismantle the reactors, the existence of which Estonian authorities
discovered only last year. The three deputies, who were not eligible
to stand for last week's parliamentary elections because they
are not citizens, called their outing "a farewell visit" to their
constituents. (Riina Kionka)

the UN General Assembly on 25 September, Latvia's head of state
Anatolijs Gorbunovs invited the UN Security Council to send observers
to negotiations on the pullout of Russian troops. Gorbunovs,
challenging Russia to live up to its earlier promises, explained
that Russia has often changed its position on issues already
agreed upon and that Latvia has not been permitted to monitor
Russian troop movements on its territory. Gorbunovs noted the
"dangerous alteration of the demographic situation" (Latvians
now comprise about 52% of the population) in Latvia that resulted
from the Soviet Union's occupation of Latvia in 1940 and "the
Soviet Union's colonial policies." He rejected Russia's accusation
that rights of minorities are being violated in Latvia, adding
that his country wants to integrate into its citizenry those
immigrants who support Latvian independence; those who find an
independent Latvia unacceptable, however, should leave. Western
agencies carried the story. (Dzintra Bungs) [ As of 1200 CET]
Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull

The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900; fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22; Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642; fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. DAILY REPORT

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