Logic, n. The act of thinking and reasoning in strict accordance with the limitations and incapacities of the human understanding. - Ambrose Bierce
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 184, 24 September 1992



A Publication of the RFE/RL Research Institute

SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

TAJIK LEADER CALLS FOR VOLUNTEERS. Acting President Akbarsho
Iskandarov has signed a decree calling for volunteers to join
Internal Affairs troops and Russian units to try to stop the
fighting in Kurgan-Tyube Oblast south of Dushanbe, Interfax reported
on 23-September. The same day ITAR-TASS reported that about 50,000
refugees from Kurgan-Tyube have gone to neighboring Kulyab Oblast,
where 800,000 inhabitants are reported to be already on the verge
of starvation. Attempts to send food shipments by road from Dushanbe
have been blocked by fighting along the highway. Ostankino TV
on 21 September reported having learned that Tajikistan's foreign
minister planned to ask the UN General Assembly to authorize
UN peacekeeping forces for Tajikistan. (Bess Brown)

NEW ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE; Shanibov DETAINED. A new ceasefire agreement
was signed on 23 September by Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian representatives,
whereby Abkhaz and Georgian troops would be withdrawn from the
River Bzyb, which is to become a demilitarized zone, ITAR-TASS
reported. The agreement also provides for the creation of a commission
which will begin work on 1 October to stabilize the situation
in Sukhumi; at that time Georgia will withdraw from the area
all its troops except those needed to protect roads and railways.
Meanwhile, Yuri Shanibov, the chairman of the Confederation of
Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (the body responsible for sending
volunteers to fight in Abkhazia) has been detained in Nalchik
by investigators from the Russian procurator's office, which
last month began proceedings against him for "endangering the
security of the state and spreading war propaganda," an RFE/RL
correspondent reported from Moscow. (Liz-Fuller)

AZERBAIJAN CLAIMS STRATEGIC GAINS IN ADVANCE OF CEASEFIRE. Azerbaijani
forces retook the Nagorno-Karabakh town of Martuni on 23 September
and subjected the capital of Stepanakert to aerial bombardment;
fierce fighting was also reported along the Armenian-Azerbaijani
border, ITAR-TASS reported. Commenting on the 19 September meeting
at which the ceasefire agreement was concluded, Azerbaijan Minister
of Defense Rahim Kaziev told ITAR-TASS that until a clear mechanism
for enforcing the ceasefire is worked out, it is premature to
claim that the conflict has been resolved. Russian Defense Minister
Grachev told Russian journalists that one reason why Armenia
and Azerbaijan agreed to the ceasefire was that they are running
out of military hardware. Azerbaijan President Abulfaz Elchibey
was quoted last week by ITAR-TASS as claiming that the war was
costing each side 25-30 million roubles per day. (Liz Fuller)


YELTSIN RETURNS DRAFT LAW TO PARLIAMENT. Russian President Boris
Yeltsin has sent back to the parliament a draft law on the constitutional
protection of the power of state institutions, arguing that the
draft violated the Russian constitution, Interfax reported on
23-September. The parliament's draft envisioned the creation
of "parallel power structures." Yeltsin said that these bodies
would confer executive power on the parliamentary presidium,
a development that he opposed. He recommended that the matter
be reviewed by the Constitutional Supervisory Committee. The
draft further demonstrates the effort by parliamentary speaker
Ruslan Khasbulatov to strengthen his position. (Alexander Rahr)


KHASBULATOV AGAINST REMOVAL OF GOVERNMENT. Although many conservative
deputies, such as Communist leader Sergei Baburin, insisted on
a vote of no-confidence in the government, parliamentary speaker
Ruslan Khasbulatov told the parliament to let the team of Acting
Prime Minister Egor Gaidar continue working, ITAR-TASS reported
on 23-September. Khasbulatov backed away from a confrontation
with the government after President Boris Yeltsin publicly declared
that he also no longer sought to abolish the present legislature.
Khasbulatov rejected demands by conservative deputies to convene
an extraordinary Congress and stated that preparations for the
next Congress will start, as required by the constitution, in
November-December. (Alexander Rahr)

SHOKHIN ON IMPORTS, WESTERN LOANS. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr
Shokhin said that Russia is having some problems making use of
credits extended by Western nations and international agencies,
the New York Times reported on 24 September. Shokhin, in Washington
with other high level Russian officials to discuss debt issues,
claimed that Russia had not yet drawn on the $1 billion dollar
loan approved by the IMF in August because the interest payments,
at 7.5%, would be too burdensome. Shokhin also said that at the
current low ruble rate of exchange, Western imports were too
expensive for many Russian enterprises despite the availability
of Western financing. (Erik Whitlock)

RUSSIA BUILDS GRAIN RESERVES. The Russian grain reserve, which
will total over 20-million tons, is being divided into federal
and regional "funds," Interfax reported on 23-September. Regional
authorities apparently will send grain procured in their localities
in excess of current consumption and local reserve requirements
to the federal fund. The federal fund will serve as the reserve
for the needs of the army, large cities, and territories with
low local grain production. Any shortfalls in building the funds
will be made up for with imports. The Russian grain reserve was
established by presidential decree in late August. (Erik Whitlock)


CIVIC UNION COOPERATES. The leaders of the Civic Union, Arkadii
Volsky and Aleksandr Rutskoi, stated at a press conference that
they want to cooperate with the government, ITAR-TASS reported
on 23 September. Volsky said that the Civic Union's economic
program should not be regarded as an alternative program. He
criticized the government for refusing to invite leading economists
from the beginning to work on its reform plan and for not having
learned from the Chinese reform experience, which preserved the
state sector. Volsky's economic aide, Iosif Diskin, said that
the Civic Union's economic program seeks first of all to protect
key industries from economic decline and only at the second stage
does it envision measures to stimulate production. (Alexander
Rahr)

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY CALLS FOR INCREASED MILITARY EXPENDITURES
IN 1993. According to a Reuters report of 22 September, Russian
Minister for Industry Alexander Titkin called for a 60% increase
in defense spending in 1993 over planned levels. Titkin reportedly
made the suggestion in an internal government memorandum obtained
by Reuters. The planned 1993 military procurement budget is reportedly
164 billion rubles, a 10% percent increase over current levels.
Titkin argued that expenditures should increase to 263 billion
rubles to prevent plant closures and the loss of up to 800,000
jobs in defense and related industries. In the absence of such
an increase, Titkin claimed that production of such weapons as
the MiG-29, MiG-31 and T-72 tank would have to be halted. (John
Lepingwell)

GROMOV ON RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL PLANS. In a speech to the
Russian Supreme Soviet on 22 September, Deputy Defense Minister
Boris Gromov stated that the 14th Army will be withdrawn from
Moldova "only when the situation in the region gets stabilized,"
according to Interfax. He estimated that this might happen in
2 to 3 years. Gromov also repeated Russian plans to withdraw
troops from Lithuania by the end of 1993, and from the other
Baltic states by the end of 1994 if withdrawal agreements are
reached. All but 6,000 troops are to be withdrawn from Poland
by 15 November 1992, with the rest leaving by the end of 1993.
(John Lepingwell)

SUPREME SOVIET COMMITTEE CRITICIZES LITHUANIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL
AGREEMENT. The agreement to withdraw troops from Lithuania was
criticized on 22-September by the Russian Supreme Soviet's Committee
on International Affairs for failing to protect Russian interests
and the rights of Russian servicemen in Lithuania, according
to ITAR-TASS. The committee requested that the agreement be renegotiated.
The committee's reaction, together with the increasing strength
of Russian nationalists in the Supreme Soviet, suggests that
the treaty with Lithuania, and potential treaties with Latvia
and Estonia may run into parliamentary roadblocks and possibly
even non-ratification.(John Lepingwell)

US-RUSSIAN OFFICIALS DISCUSS GLOBAL DEFENSES. On 21-22 September,
US and Russian officials met to discuss potential areas of cooperation
in the development and deployment of early warning systems and
ballistic missile defenses. In a communique issued on 22 September
and carried by ITAR-TASS, they reported positive discussions
on topics including the exchange of ideas on global defense systems,
cooperative technical development projects, and legal bases for
cooperation. There was also discussion of a possible "demonstration
experiment" to exchange early warning information. Despite the
positive report, however, the indications are that two sides
are not close to substantive agreements on joint defenses. (John
Lepingwell)

NEW RUSSIAN NAVAL COMMAND APPOINTMENTS. On 22 September, Krasnaya
zvezda reported that to replace retiring officers new personnel
were being appointed to the Russian Navy high command. Admiral
Valentin Selivanov, formerly commander of the Leningrad naval
base, was appointed chief of the main staff. Vice-Admirals Georgii
Gurinov and Vasilii Eremin were both appointed deputy commanders
of the Navy. Vice Admiral Aleksandr Gorbunov was appointed deputy
commander for combat readiness. The announcement indicated that
a substantial restructuring and restaffing of the Navy command
is underway. Interfax on 23 September reported that the controversial
commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Igor Kasatonov, also
may be appointed deputy commander of the Navy. (John Lepingwell)


RUSSIA REJECTS SWEDISH SUBMARINE ALLEGATIONS. A spokesman for
the Russian Ministry of Defense on September 23 rejected Swedish
charges that a Russian submarine had entered Swedish waters,
ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. The spokesman pointed out
that the Swedish Navy had been unable to identify the submarine
and claimed that Russian submarines carry out their training
exercises and combat operations outside the territorial waters
of other states. (John Lepingwell)

PRUNSKIENE DENIES VOLUNTARY COOPERATION WITH KGB. In interviews
given to Literaturnaya gazeta, (No. 39) and Komsomolskaya pravda,
on 16-September, the former prime minister of Lithuania, Kazimiera
Prunskiene, called the verdict of the Lithuanian Supreme Court
confirming her collaboration with the KGB a "politically biased
decision" (See, RFE/RL Daily Report, 15 September). Prunskiene
said that her reports about her scientific contacts abroad that
were discovered in the KGB's archives were signed in her own
name; the agents of the KGB, however, usually had to sign their
"denunciations" (a term that was used in KGB domestic operations)
with their KGB cover name. Prunskiene failed to mention that
she was accused of collaboration not with the KGB's domestic
services, but with the first department of the Lithuanian KGB,
which was an element of the Soviet KGB's foreign intelligence
service. (Victor Yasmann)

KASATONOV FAVORED FOR CRIMEAN PRESIDENCY. Komsomolskaya pravda
of 22-September reports that the extraordinary congress of the
All-Crimean Movement of the Electorate for the Republic of the
Crimea has named Admiral Igor Kasatonov, the commander of the
Black Sea Fleet, as its choice for president of the Crimea. The
congress expressed its dissatisfaction with the Crimean parliament,
calling for its early dissolution and new elections. The congress
also demanded that the moratorium on a referendum defining the
Crimea's state status be lifted. (Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT MEETS ON THE ECONOMY. The Ukrainian Cabinet
of Ministers has met to discuss steps to intensify economic reform
in the country, Ukrainian radio and TV reported on 22-September.
The main speaker was First Deputy Prime Minister Valentyn Symonenko,
who presented an overview of his plan, which is said to propose
that Ukraine abandon the ruble zone in the very near future.
According to the report, the plan demonstrates the government's
determination to take full responsibility for implementing economic
reforms. (Roman Solchanyk)

GEORGIAN RADICAL QUESTIONS LEGITIMACY OF ELECTING PARLIAMENTARY
SPEAKER. The chairman of the Georgian National Independence Party,
Irakli Tsereteli, has demanded that the Georgian Supreme Court
rule on whether the proposal to elect a parliament chairman by
majority vote with no alternative candidate conforms with the
Georgian Constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. A
court ruling is expected by the end of this week. (Liz-Fuller)


NAZARBAEV IN FRANCE. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev
arrived in France on 23 September for a three-day state visit,
Western agencies reported. He signed a friendship treaty with
France providing for regular top-level meetings between France
and Kazakhstan and also signed the CSCE Charter. Before ending
his official visit to Germany and traveling to France, Nazarbaev
signed a deal with Daimler-Benz under which the German firm will
assemble buses in Kazakhstan and deliver used Mercedes cars and
trucks to the Central Asian state. (Bess Brown)

BIRLIK, DEMROSSIYA TO ISSUE STATEMENT ON ABUSES IN UZBEKISTAN.
The Democratic Russia Movement and the Uzbek Popular Front movement
Birlik have prepared a statement on human rights abuses in Uzbekistan,
a DemRossiya official told an RFE/RL correspondent on 23 September.
The DemRossiya Coordinating Council has asked Russian President
Boris Yeltsin and the Russian Supreme Soviet to look into the
charges raised in the statement, including the use of violence
against the opposition in Uzbekistan, before Russia concludes
a bilateral treaty with that country. (Bess Brown)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

CROATIA, BOSNIA ANNOUNCE DEFENSE PACT. International media on
23 September quoted Presidents Franjo Tudjman of Croatia and
Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia in New York as saying that they have
reached a defense agreement covering the territory of the two
republics. This follows upon previous understandings and agreements
reached earlier this year, but details of the new text are not
yet available. Regular and paramilitary Croatian units alike
in Bosnia and Herzegovina formally follow a policy of good relations
with the Muslims, but there have been some clashes between Bosnian
and Croatian regular forces in recent weeks. The Croatian authorities
blame agents of the ex-Yugoslav military intelligence for sowing
mistrust between what they term "two victims of the same [Serbian]
aggressor." Time alone will tell what, if anything, the latest
Tudjman-Izetbegovic agreement will mean in practice. (Patrick
Moore)

SERBS SHELL BIHAC, SLAVONSKI BROD. Western news agencies on 23
September reported that Serbian artillery hit the hospital in
the besieged mainly Muslim town of Bihac, killing 11 and wounding
20. Meanwhile in eastern Croatia, almost daily bombardment has
continued for four months against Slavonski Brod and the surrounding
villages. (Patrick Moore)

KOSOVO DEVELOPMENTS. Fehmi Agani, vice president of Kosovo's
main party, the Democratic Alliance, told reporters on 18 September
that Kosovo's Albanian delegation attending the peace talks at
the UN-EC mediated conference on the former Yugoslavia in Geneva
will demand recognition as an independent republic. Kosovo, formerly
an autnomous province within Serbia, is about 90% Albanian. Agani
also said his party received the rump Yugoslav federal government's
14-point draft program on Kosovo and commented that Albanian
parties will not agree on Kosovo remaining a part of Serbia.
He added that the proposals are only initiatives for future talks.
He did say, however, that his party regards the government's
proposal on lifting all restrictive measures on the Albanian-language
media as encouraging. Belgrade media carried the report on 20
September. Western agencies report on 23 September that street
names in Pristina have been "Serbianized," and the city's university
has been named after Dositej Obradovic, an 18th-early 19th century
Serbian scholar. According to the reports, Albanian children
and their teachers have been barred from entering schools by
Serbian police. Last month federal Prime Minister Milan Panic
ordered all schools opened to Albanians, despite protests from
local Serbs and Serbia's government. (Milan Andrejevich)

HAVEL SAYS THAT REFERENDUM WOULD NOT HELP SITUATION. Former Czechoslovak
President Vaclav Havel said in an interview with the Czech daily
Mlada Fronta dnes published on 24 September that it is too late
for a referendum on the future of the Czechoslovak federation.
Havel, who was one of the staunchest supporters of a referendum
on Czechoslovakia's constitutional setup, said that the democratically
elected Slovak leadership wants an independent state and will
not allow anything but a "ratification" of the republic's independence.
Even if Czechs vote in favor of a common state, it will not have
any impact on developments. Havel stressed that Slovaks have
the right to be independent and that it is in the interest of
all involved to carry out the division in a proper way. (Jan
Obrman)

BULGARIAN PARLIAMENTARY TROUBLES. Stefan Savov, president of
the National Assembly and leader of Bulgaria's Democratic Party,
faces a no-confidence vote on 24-September. The vote, postponed
from 23 September, results from accusations that he has failed
to represent the parliamentary coalition majority even-handedly.
His ouster is being sought by the leaders of the Movement for
Rights and Freedoms, Bulgaria's predominantly Turkish party.
They issued a declaration on 23 September calling for the removal
not only of Savov, but also of Prime Minister, Filip Dimitrov
as well as for a restructuring of the government and a new strategy
to stimulate economic reform. According to the declaration obtained
by RFE/RL's Sofia Bureau, the MRF alleges that the Coordinating
Council of the UDF has often forgotten that the parliamentary
majority the governing Union of Democratic Forces holds in the
National Assembly results from an informal UDF-MRF coalition,
which has now all but fallen apart. Meanwhile, the Bulgarian
Socialist Party has indicated it supports the idea of a restructured
Dimitrov cabinet. (Duncan Perry)

POLAND, HUNGARY AGREE ON FREE TRADE ZONE. Poland and Hungary
intend to create a bilateral free trade zone, possibly as early
as 1 January 1993, Western agencies reported. Polish Prime Minister
Hanna Suchocka and her Hungarian counterpart Jozsef Antall reached
agreement on the issue on 23 September, during Suchocka's two-day
official visit to Budapest. Czechoslovakia had been envisaged
as a third partner to the agreement, but its disintegration prompted
Hungary and Poland to press ahead with a bilateral arrangement.
The final agreement, to be signed in November 1992 in Cracow,
is expected to boost bilateral trade, which Antall says has declined
such that trade with Poland now only accounts for 1.5% to 2%
of Hungary's total. Suchocka and Antall signed agreements eliminating
double taxation and facilitating the flow of capital between
the two countries. Antall also urged the EC to provide a clear
outline of the conditions the "triangle" countries would have
to fulfill to become full members of that body. (Louisa Vinton
& Karoly Okolicsanyi)

VISEGRAD TRIANGLE MILITARY LEADERS TO MEET. MTI reports, quoting
government sources, that the Defense Ministers of Poland, Czechoslovakia,
and Hungary will meet on 25-September in Tatranske Zruby, Czechoslovakia,
to discuss European security issues, including the Yugoslav crisis.
(Karoly Okolicsanyi)

LIVE FROM WARSAW: WALESA ON RFE. In a 50-minute live broadcast
from Warsaw on 23-September, Polish President Lech Walesa took
questions from RFE/RL journalists and listeners. Walesa expressed
the hope that the borders between Poland and its neighbors will
cease to divide and instead begin to bring together different
nations. He added that while politicians can create the conditions
for international cooperation, they cannot dictate it. The interview
with Walesa was broadcast by RFE/RL to Belarus, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. (Louisa Vinton)

SOLIDARITY REFUSES TALKS WITH POSTCOMMUNIST UNIONS. Meeting behind
closed doors in Gdansk on 23 September, Solidarity's National
Commission decided to enter into negotiations with the government
on the "pact on state firms," but "staunchly refused" to sit
at the same table with other trade unions during the talks. A
spokesman charged that the former official OPZZ federation is
more interested in the legitimacy it could gain from sitting
at Solidarity's side than in the outcome of the negotiations.
The Solidarity leadership also rejected a demand from its radical
Mazowsze region for changes in the union's parliamentary caucus.
The region had expressed outrage that some Solidarity deputies
had voted against the motion to dismiss Privatization Minister
Janusz Lewandowski on 18 September. (Louisa Vinton)

BIG OPPOSITION RALLY IN BUCHAREST. Thousands of Romanians marched
through central Bucharest on 23 September to show their support
for Emil Constantinescu, the main opposition candidate in the
27-September elections. Constantinescu is running on the ticket
of the Democratic Convention (DC), an alliance of 18-centrist
parties and organizations. In a rally following the march, DC
supporters called for "true democracy" in Romania and denounced
incumbent president Ion Iliescu as "Bolshevik." Western agencies
report that in his speech Constantinescu stressed the need for
"moral rebirth" and the DC's concern for minority rights in Romania.
Geza Domokos, a prominent member of the Hungarian minority in
Transylvania, also addressed the crowd. (Dan Ionescu)

ROMANIA'S NSF LEADER ON POST-ELECTORAL STRATEGY. Petre Roman,
leader of the National Salvation Front and former prime minister,
praised his opposition rivals at a press conference on 23-September.
Roman said that the DC is likely to win the elections and to
form Romania's first genuinely democratic government since the
1989 anti-communist revolution. He further pledged his party's
support for the DC in the parliament, even if the NSF is not
part of the next government; but added that the offer was limited
to the period necessary to achieve stability in Romania. Roman
declined to be drawn out on press speculations that he could
become foreign minister in the new cabinet. (Dan Ionescu)

ESTONIA REBUTS RUSSIAN STATEMENT. The Estonian Foreign Ministry
has rebuked the Russian government for interfering in Estonia's
internal affairs. In a sharply worded statement issued by Tallinn
on 23 September, the Estonian government takes issue with remarks
made by the Russian government's press spokesman Gennadii Shipitko
to ITAR-TASS on 22 September alleging that last weekend's elections
in Estonia ignored the interests of Russian-speakers there. The
Estonian Foreign Ministry "regards [the statements] as a threat
directed at the Republic of Estonia-.-.-. and as an attempt to
influence the activities of the newly-elected Riigikogu (parliament)
and the soon-to-be elected president." (Riina Kionka)

LANDSBERGIS CONCLUDES VISIT TO BELGIUM. On 23 September Lithuanian
Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis completed a three-day
official visit to Belgium. On 21-September he met with King Baudouin-I
and Belgian Senate officials. On 22-September he participated
in ceremonies opening the Lithuanian embassy and gave a speech
at the Royal Institute for International Relations. On 23-September
he held talks at NATO headquarters with Secretary-General Manfred
Woerner and urged NATO to send observers to oversee Russian troop
withdrawals and help the Baltic States establish their own armed
forces. He also had meetings with EC president Jacques Delors
and European Parliament chairman Egon Klepsch. On 24 September
he held a press conference on the visit, broadcast live by Radio
Lithuania. (Saulius Girnius)

LITHUANIA TO ABANDON RUBLE ON 1 OCTOBER. On 23 September Prime
Minister Aleksandras Abisala told national television that Lithuania
will abandon the ruble as its currency on 1 October, replacing
it with temporary coupons that can be exchanged for rubles on
a one-to-one basis until that day. Thereafter rubles will be
exchanged as foreign currency in Lithuanian banks. The coupons
will be valid until the introduction of the litas at some as
yet unannounced date. (Saulius Girnius)

UNEXPECTED SUCCESS OF CZECHOSLOVAK ECONOMIC REFORM. According
to Josef Tosovsky, the President of Czechoslovak State (Central)
Bank, Czechoslovak economic reforms have been successful and
will continue even after the country's disintegration. Tosovsky
told reporters in Washington on 22-September that inflation is
under control and the rate will remain lower than 10% throughout
the year; GDP growth is expected to be higher than last year.
Tosovsky said that the country's economy is doing so well that
it will not need to draw on the remaining $285-million of its
current stand-by loan from the IMF. The IMF reportedly anticipated
a $600-million balance-of-payments deficit for Czechoslovakia,
but it turns out that the country had a $1-billion surplus for
the first eight months of the year instead. (Jan Obrman)

ITALIAN CONCERN INVESTS IN POLISH STEEL MILL. On 23 September,
the Italian firm Lucchini signed an agreement with trade unions
from the Huta Warszawa steel mill. Officials say the agreement
paves the way for a $300-million investment in Poland's troubled
steel industry. In return for a 51% share in the mill, Lucchini
has granted a six-month moratorium on dismissals and promised
average monthly wage increases of 2-million zloty ($143) over
the coming 18-months. The work force endorsed the agreement almost
unanimously, Polish TV reported. Meanwhile, Deputy Prime Minister
Henryk Goryszewski told an audience of bankers, managers, and
unionists in Poznan that "Poland must be open to foreign capital."
Poland's shortage of domestic resources rules out "capital autarky,"
Goryszewski said. (Louisa Vinton)

FOREIGN CAPITAL FLOW TO HUNGARY CONTINUES. MTI reports that in
the first seven months of 1992, $827-million worth of capital
came into Hungary. This year's plan calls for $1.5-billion, but
present trends indicate that at the end of the year final amounts
will be higher. (Karoly Okolicsanyi)

ESTONIA: GOOD WORKS FOR THE JOBLESS. The outgoing Estonian government
adopted a ruling on 23-September saying that the unemployed may
be used in emergency relief works for up to 10-days each month
with a maximum of 80-hours per month, BNS reported. Labor Minister
Arvo Kuddo is quoted as saying that those who refuse to participate
in the program for reasons other than health will be denied unemployment
benefits for a two-week period. (Riina Kionka)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull




[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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