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RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 181, 21 September 1992


Azerbaijan launched a largescale offensive against Armenian units
in Nagorno-Karabakh on 18 September and advanced to within 10
km of the capital of Stepanakert, Radio Baku reported on 19 September.
On 20 September, the Azerbaijani military command and President
Abulfaz Elchibey issued an ultimatum to Armenian fighters in
Shusha to withdraw from the town within two days, in which case
they will be guaranteed an unobstructed retreat along the Lachin
corridor that links Armenia with Nagorno-Karabakh, CIS media
reported. Nagorno-Karabakh authorities claimed hundreds of people
had been killed in fighting in recent days. Elchibey cancelled
his trip to the US to participate in the work of the UN General
Assembly, Radio Mayak reported on 20 September; he will be represented
by Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL,

MEET. Interfax reported on 19 September that the Abkhaz population
of Sukhumi was fleeing the town en masse because of rumors that
Abkhaz forces were planning an attack. At least six Georgian
troops were killed on 19 September when the bus in which they
were travelling was blown up near Gagra; it is not known what
caused the explosion, nor who was responsible, according to ITAR-TASS.
On 20 September Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani met
with his Russian counterpart Pavel Grachev in Sochi to review
the work of the tripartite commission charged with monitoring
the Abkhaz ceasefire agreement. Georgian State Council Chairman
Eduard Shevardnadze had on 18 September criticized the commission
as "ineffective" and said that he would ask Russian President
Boris Yeltsin for it to be transferred from Sochi to Sukhumi.
(Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.)

FIGHTING CONTINUES IN TAJIKISTAN. A UN fact-finding mission visited
Kurgan-Tyube, still the "hottest" center of conflict in Tajikistan,
on 20 September, ITAR-TASS reported. Not only was fighting continuing
in rural areas of Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, but firing was heard in
the environs of Dushanbe on 18 and 19 September, and several
law enforcement officials were taken hostage. A group of around
a thousand people seized seven buses in the capital to join the
fighting in Kurgan-Tyube. Two columns of trucks have been sent
to Kulyab Oblast with food--apparently there is danger of starvation
in parts of the region. Although clashes are continuing between
Russian border troops and Tajiks returning from Afghanistan,
officers of the border troops told ITAR-TASS on 19 September
that Afghan border guards are helping stop the illegal traffic.
(Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Paris Club and the G-7 came and went last week without any decision
on the rescheduling of Russia's debt. Western accounts suggest
that the Western creditor nations are divided on Russia's proposals
for long-term rescheduling with significant payment deferrals.
The US is reportedly more receptive to the Russian position than
is either Germany or Japan. Among the sticking points in the
negotiations are doubts about Russia's commitment to tough economic
reform policies, questionable estimates on its capacity to service
its foreign debt, and Russia's recent offer to assume other republics'
shares of the former debt of the Soviet Union. A decision on
the issue is expected at the end of the month at the earliest,
according to Western news agencies on 20 September. (Erik Whitlock,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

Democratic Russia Movement and the Republican Party have called
on the parliament to consider removing Viktor Gerashchenko from
the chairmanship of the Russian Central Bank, "Novosti" and "Telemikst"
reported on 17 September. Petr Filippov, a leader in the Republic
party, who was the first and most vocal critic of Gerashchenko's
infamous 28 July telegram authorizing hundreds of billions of
rubles worth of new credits for heavily indebted state enterprises,
detailed new allegations in Izvestiya on 18 September. Filippov
writes that the central bank has again contradicted government
policy by issuing hundreds of billions of rubles worth of credits
to other republics of the CIS which serve primarliy to exacerbate
inflation at home. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.)

KHASBULATOV CRITICIZED. The chairman of the Russian parliamentary
Comittee for Mass Media and Information, Vyacheslav Bragin, told
Argumenty i fakty (no 35, RFE/RL, Inc.) that parliamentary speaker
Ruslan Khasbulatov's far-reaching ambitions include becoming
Russian president. Bragin stated that Khasbulatov has allied
himself firmly with right-wing forces and that he wants to hinder
the government from conducting radical reforms. He described
how Khasbulatov left the room while Yeltsin was presiding over
a recent meeting of the Russian leadership with provincial leaders
in Cheboksary. He also criticized Khasbulatov for reducing members
of the parliamentary presidium to the level of simple political
servants. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

The Civic Union is backing away from a direct confrontation with
the Russian government. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi rejected
demands by the conservative parliamentary faction "Russian Unity"
to convene an extraordinary Congress to replace the government,
ITAR-TASS reported on 18 September. The chairman of the People's
Party of Free Russia, Vasilii Lipitsky, denied previous reports
that Rutskoi may become prime minister and said that the Civic
Union--the bloc to which the party belongs--intends to cooperate
with the government in a constructive manner and does not seek
to replace any of the present government leaders. (Alexander
Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MOSCOW WORKERS DEMONSTRATE. Moscow workers demonstrated on 17
September outside the Russian government building but in far
fewer numbers than predicted by the Federation of Trade Unions,
an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported. About 2,000 people
turned out for the demonstration to urge the government to prevent
mass unemployment and a collapse of Russian industry. The federation
had earlier predicted a turnout of about 20,000 people. (Vera
Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.)

KOZYREV ON UN VOTE. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev,
the leader of the Russian delegation to the United Nations which
arrived on 19 September, said: "We will try to strengthen cooperation
with countries which share democratic values. Much attention
will be devoted to contacts with countries which represent the
so-called Third World." Kozyrev, who has consistently rejected
expulsion of rump Yugoslavia from international organizations,
said the decision requiring Serbia-Montenegro to reapply for
UN admission was "the right approach" and stressed that such
a mechanism would force that country to show its interest in
cooperating with the UN. As for Russia, Kozyrev emphasized that
"it will become a distinguishing feature of our delegation's
activities to share the concerns of the world community but in
light of direct and specific interests of our own state," ITAR-TASS
reported. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.)

BLACK SEA FLEET UPDATE. Aleksandr Temerko, the chairman of a
Russian Defense Ministry committee on insuring social guarantees
for servicemen, told naval officers in Sevastopol on 18 September
that the Russian government has allocated 258 million rubles
to construct and rent housing in Novorossisk for officers of
the Black Sea Fleet, Interfax reported. On 19 September, Radio
Ukraine reported that all Black Sea Fleet military facilities
(presumably in Ukraine) will henceforth be subordinated to the
Ukrainian Defense Ministry. Meanwhile, Russian and Ukrainian
negotiations on the fleet are scheduled to resume on 21 September
in Kiev, Interfax reported on 18 September. The process of creating
a unified command is to be completed at the meeting and, according
to Ukrainian Naval Commander Boris Kozhin, a new fleet commander
will be chosen within ten days of the close of the meeting. (Stephen
Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

(NATO designation "Fulcrum") fighter planes, including 24 combat
aircraft and 6 trainers, Interfax reported on 17 September. The
information on the sale reportedly came from Anatolii Belosvet,
identified as a senior designer at the Mikoyan design bureau.
Belosvet said that the sale could be finalized during President
Boris Yeltsin's planned visit to India in January. A tentative
agreement on the sale was apparently reached during a September
visit of India's defense minister to Moscow. Interfax also reported
that Russia intends to grant some $830 million in credits to
India to finance construction of ships, aircraft, and tanks under
agreements reached between the former USSR and India. (Stephen
Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

former chief of the counter-intelligence department of the Bundesverfassungsschutz
(The German Office for the Protection of the Constitution), Hans-Joachim
Tiedke, has obtained Russian citizenship and is living in Moscow,
ITAR-TASS reported on September 20. Tiedke, who was in charge
of tracking down East German spies, defected to the GDR in 1985;
there he wrote a classified Ph.D. dissertation, in which he summarized
the secrets he had obtained during his service. (Victor Yasmann,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

"Rukh" met on 19 September in Kiev, with preparations for the
planned referendum on early parliamentary elections topping the
agenda, DR-Press reported. The session was told that the referendum
had not gotten off to a good start, with only three initiative
groups for the gathering of signatures officially registered;
more than fifty groups are currently being organized throughout
the country. It was also reported that the parliament has the
support of 37% of the population; 30% were said not to trust
the lawmakers. "Rukh," it was reported, lags behind President
Leonid Kravchuk and Prime Minister Vitold Fokin with regard to
public confidence, with only a 17 percent share opting for the
opposition. The session also discussed the forthcoming "Rukh"
congress and changes in its statute and concepts of state-building.
(Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ONE-DAY STRIKE PLANNED FOR KIEV. The All-Ukrainian Association
of Solidarity of the Toilers (VOST) has decided to hold a one-day
strike in Kiev on 19 October, Ostankino reported on 16 September.
In addition to economic demands, the group is demanding the immediate
resignation of the government and the formation of a government
that enjoyes the trust of its citizens; new parliamentary elections;
and Ukraine's withdrawal from the CIS. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL,

ANTONOV ON UKRAINIAN CONVERSION. Viktor Antonov, Ukrainian Minister
of Engineering, the Military-Industrial Complex, and Defense
Conversion, said in Washington on 18 September that Ukraine,
in contrast to Russia, had chosen a "civilized" path to conversion.
According to AFP, Antonov said that Kiev envisioned maintaining
only a small portion of its military technological base "to support
a smaller Ukrainian army, and to convert everything else to consumer
and civilian goods." He said that Ukraine's military orders totaled
160 billion rubles in 1991 and 10 billion rubles in 1992 (calculated
in constant rubles). Antonov also said that without Western help,
Ukrainian conversion would take some ten years, while with Western
aid, the process could be shorted to three or four years. (Stephen
Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Ministry on 18 September demanded that it be given a "fair" share
of the ex-Soviet Air Force and Navy, AFP reported (citing ITAR-TASS).
The Defense Ministry claimed that it still had not received a
single military aircraft and stated that its lack of warships
had had a "negative impact" on the republic's ability to defend
itself. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

KARIMOV IN AUSTRIA. Uzbek President Islam Karimov left Vienna
on 20 September after a three-day state visit that concentrated
primarily on economic and trade ties, ITAR-TASS reported. An
agreement was signed on the protection of foreign investments
and work was begun on a series of other economic and trade agreements,
which included financing and credit guarantees for specific projects
in Uzbekistan. The Uzbek side is looking for help in developing
processing industries for agricultural products and food, and
wants to set up educational exchanges with Austrian universities.
(Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Republic Supreme Soviet Chairman" Grigorii Marakutsa told a news
conference in Tiraspol on 16 September that "Russia's support
for the Dniester region' [is] not only moral and political, but
also material and military," DR-Press and Radio Rossii reported.
Marakutsa said that he was recently received in Moscow by Yeltsin
and Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar (if so, a major breakthrough).
In Moscow he learned that the Russian leadership has decided
to condition the 14th Army's withdrawal on Moldova's acceptance
of a political status for the "Dniester region," and that the
Russian government has granted the "Dniester region" a credit
of 1 billion rubles on concessionary terms, offered to double
that amount, and instructed Russia's Ministry of Trade to conclude
an economic agreement with the "Dniester government." Yeltsin
also promised to confirm the militantly anti-Moldovan Maj.Gen.
Aleksandr Lebed in his post as commander of the 14th Army, Marakutsa
said. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.)

PROMOTION FOR LEBED. Aleksandr Lebed, the controversial commander
of the Russian Fourteenth Army in Moldova, has been promoted
on orders from President Boris Yeltsin to the rank of Lt.Gen.,
Interfax reported on 18 September. That Lebed would be promoted,
despite a series of warnings from the Russian Defense Ministry
that he cease making provocative statements about the political
situation in Moldova, suggests that Lebed's activities are in
fact viewed with favor by at least some forces inside the Kremlin.
(Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)


Estonia's 20 September parliamentary elections point to a big
victory for the conservative election coalition Pro Patria (Isamaa).
According to the official election commission, Pro Patria has
won 28 of the 101 seats in the new State Assembly. The leftist
grouping Secure Home came in next with 18 seats, and, in a surprise
result, the Popular Front took only 16 seats. The rest of the
seats went to the Moderates (12); the Estonian National Independence
Party (10); the coalition Estonian Citizen (8); the Independent
Royalists (8) and the Estonian Entrepreneurs' Party (1). Official
results are expected only on 23 September, but it seems likely
that Pro Patria will form a coalition with the social-democratically-oriented
Moderates and the ENIP. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

PARLIAMENT TO CHOOSE PRESIDENT. None of the four candidates for
head of state in Estonia won over 50% of the popular vote. According
to figures released by the official election press center early
on 21 September, Arnold Ruutel, current Supreme Council chairman
and Andropov-appointee, won 42.7% of the vote as the candidate
of the leftist election coalition Secure Home. Former foreign
minister Lennart Meri, running on the conservative Pro Patria
ticket, garnered 28.8%, while the Popular Front candidate, University
of California--Irvine professor Rein Taagepera, took 23.8%. Lagle
Parek, running for the Estonian National Independence Party,
brought up the rear with 3.85% of the vote. According to the
terms of the election law, the new State Assembly will choose
between the top two candidates. Because a number of political
groupings have already made a deal among themselves to choose
anyone but Ruutel, it seems almost certain that Lennart Meri
will be Estonia's first postwar president. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL,

the UN Security Council passed a resolution that the Belgrade-
based state does not have the right to inherit federal Yugoslavia's
seat and will have to apply for admission. Belgrade authorities
subsequently expressed their displeasure, international media
report. Meanwhile, Serbian tanks continued to blast Sarajevo,
but on 20 September a test flight into and out of the capital's
airport was expected to pave the way for a resumption of relief
flights on 22 September. Finally, the BBC said on 18 September
that the Bosnian peace talks in Geneva have produced little if
any progress. UN and EC officials met separately with each of
the three warring parties and more talks are slated for 21 September.
(Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Slobodna Dalmacija carried an interview with the head of Croatia's
MPs. He denied rumors that some of his people had formed after-hours
"death squads" and stressed that all military police, including
the 5% of the applicants who are female, would be held to strict
professional standards. The same issue of the independent Split
daily, however, also ran an interview with the MP commander in
Mostar. He admitted that certain unspecified individuals had
somehow "misused" Croatian MP uniforms, but provided no details.
He reminded readers that anyone claiming to be a Croatian MP
on official business must produce proper identification papers.
(Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.)

BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT UNDER FIRE. Bulgaria's ruling Union of Democratic
Forces is in disarray according to RFE/RL correspondents and
BTA. State President Zhelyu Zhelev walked out of a closed-door
UDF conference two hours after it began on 18 September. It appears
that hard-core, anti-communist members of the coalition oppose
the president's moderate approach to national reconciliation.
Meantime, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, a predominantly
Turkish party which has up until now supported the UDF minority
government, called for a vote of no-confidence. confidence. MRF
leaders have sought the replacement of several ministers, including
the prime minister, whom they argue ignores MRF recommendations.
Reports from 20 September indicate that UDF leaders will seek
reconciliation with the MRF and the president. MRF leaders noted
that failure to achieve an understanding would result in the
MRF negotiating separately with UDF factions and parties, a tactic
which if successful would threaten the government unless it can
win enough support from the opposition Bulgarian Socialist Party
to make up for defections. The latter is highly unlikely. (Duncan
Perry & Nick Kaltchev, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Demonstrators requested the resignation of the media chiefs and
appointment of government commissioners to head Hungarian Radio
and TV, MTI reports. Organizers, quoting police, estimated the
Saturday crowd at 70-80,000, while wire services put it at 15,000.
Speakers addressing the crowd said that the present chiefs serve
"antinational" interests. They also accused President Arpad Goncz
of serving the interest of the political opposition. The main
rally, in front of television headquarters, was addressed by
Istvan Csurka, the controversial vice president of the ruling
Hungarian Democratic Forum, whose caustic views of the domestic
scene have recently raised political tempers. Csurka charged
that the "liberal press" is trying to reestablish the communist
regime. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.)

POLISH RIGHT-WING PARTIES REGROUP. The conservative wing of Tadeusz
Mazowiecki's Democratic Union, the Democratic Right Forum, announced
on 20 September it is leaving the party to found a separate "modern
right-wing formation." The group, headed by Aleksander Hall,
combines conservative social positions with support for a more
rapid transition to a market economy. The group's departure reduces
the Democratic Union's parliamentary caucus to 56 deputies, making
the postcommunist Democratic Left the largest party in parliament.
Hall said the new formation will continue to support the government.
On the same day, fundamentalist-patriotic supporters of former
Prime Minister Jan Olszewski founded a "Coalition for the Republic"
in Warsaw. The coalition is dedicated to exposing former communist
agents and purging former party members. The meeting featured
shrill rhetoric, PAP reports, including former Defense Minister
Jan Parys's attack on the current government as "cryptocommunist"
and "pro-Russian." (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.)

"ACCORD FOR A DEMOCRATIC LITHUANIA." On 19 September the major
Lithuanian right-wing parties and political movements held a
joint conference in Vilnius, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports.
They formed an "Accord for a Democratic Lithuania" and signed
a pledge to cooperate in the Seimas. They will run under three
separate lists: the Sajudis coalition (Sajudis, Citizens Charter,
Political Prisoner Union, Farmers' Sajudis, and Greens Party);
a coalition of the Christian Democratic Party, Democratic Party,
and the Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees; and the Nationalist
Union. The tone of the speeches was moderate. (Saulius Girnius,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

COMMUNIST UNION IN LATVIA. On 12 September former Latvian Communist
Party members founded the Communist Association of Latvia, which
is led by Igor Lopatin, former leader of the outlawed Interfront.
Lopatin said that his new organization is a social and political
movement that wants to oppose, through constitutional methods,
the resurgence of capitalism in Latvia. Lopatin also said that
he considers his organization to be the ideological successor
of the Latvian Communist Party, which was also banned in August
1991. He claimed that some 37,000 persons support his organization,
BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Pozsgay, a leading political figure during the 1988-90 political
changes, announced the creation of the National Democratic Association
(NDA), MTI reports. The new party, which selected Pozsgay as
its chairman, wants to function as a national center party, according
to the organizers. They accused the government of distancing
itself from the Hungarian population. The NDA wants to run in
the 1994 general election and may form its own parliamentary
faction if it can attract independents and deputies from other
parties, Pozsgay said. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ILIESCU ATTACKS OPPOSITION. At an electoral rally held in Bucharest
on 19 September Romania's President Ion Iliescu directed a sharp
attack at the opposition. The gathering was staged by the Democratic
National Salvation Front, the party that backs Iliescu for reelection
in the presidential race scheduled for 27 September. Iliescu
accused the opposition, and especially the Democratic Convention,
of dispatching "organized gangs" to disturb his public appearances.
He also charged Romania's traditional democratic parties with
trying to revive the style of the pre-World-War-II electoral
campaigns," which, he claimed, were conducted with "clubs and
Schnapps." (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

continue between Slovakia and Hungary over the massive police
action against Hungarian soccer fans at a match in Bratislava
on 16 September. According to various news agencies, on the 18th
Geza Entz, state secretary for Hungarians abroad, called the
incident "an open political provocation." Hungarian Foreign Ministry
spokesman Janos Herman told the daily Nepszabadsag that the clashes
are "especially regrettable because now there is the danger they
will lead to a hostile atmosphere between the two countries."
The Slovak Interior Ministry meanwhile rejected all Hungarian
criticism. A spokesman for the ministry said on 19 September
that it had been "unequivocally proven that the Hungarian fans
violated public order and provoked clashes. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL,

UPDATE ON KLAUS IN WASHINGTON. On 18 September Czech Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus met with White House Chief of Staff James Baker
and National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft to discuss the
consequences of the split in Czechoslovakia scheduled for January
1993. On the 19th Klaus held talks with IMF Managing Director
Michel Camdessus and World Bank President Lewis Preston to solicit
support for making both the Czech and Slovak republics successor
states in the IMF and World Bank rather than requiring them to
reapply individually after the breakup. Camdessus issued a statement
on 20 September saying that the IMF will indeed allow the Czech
and Slovak Republics to remain members after the dissolution
of Czechoslovakia. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Finance Minister Mihaly Kupa said on 20 September that he had
discussed the idea with Klaus in Washington, according to RFE/RL's
correspondent in Washington. Klaus said last week that Czechoslovakia
should establish a free trade zone with Hungary and Poland before
it moves into such pacts with the US or even Western Europe and
that he is ready to take such action immediately. Kupa told reporters
that he likes Klaus's idea but that it should only be discussed
after the Czech Republic and Slovakia have been established as
independent countries. He added that it might be "wise" also
to include Slovenia in such a free trade zone. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL,

BULGARIA GETS HIGH MARKS FROM IMF. IMF official Anoop Singh praised
Bulgaria in a news conference on 18 September, saying that its
continuing transition from a command economy to a free market
economy meets IMF performance standards. Bulgaria has managed
so far to avoid high inflation, and the lev is generally stable
while exports have exceeded IMF expectations, BTA reports. (Duncan
Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.)

LANDSBERGIS TO BELGIUM. On 20 September Supreme Council Chairman
Vytautas Landsbergis flew to Brussels for a three-day official
visit, Radio Lithuania reports. He is accompanied by Foreign
Minister Algirdas Saudargas and Deputy Minister of International
Economic Relations Vytautas Gricius. On 21 September he will
meet with King Baudouin I and the Belgian Senate chairman. Later
he is scheduled to open the Lithuanian embassy in Brussels and
confer with representatives of international organizations. (Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

talks on 17 and 18 September in Kiev on prospects for economic
cooperation. The talks focused on the future of an iron ore enrichment
plant at Krivoi Rog, a project started in 1987 with 51% Ukrainian
and 27% Romanian investment, (the rest being divided between
the former German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria).
The two sides decided to continue the construction. Radio Bucharest,
which described the project as Romania's largest investment abroad,
stressed that halting it would entail "enormous social costs
for both countries." (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

ZOTOV WARNS AGAINST ULTIMATUMS. Sergei Zotov, head of the Russian
delegation for talks with Latvia, told Baltfax on 17 September
that Russia will not tolerate "the language of ultimatums." Zotov
was responding to the Latvian Supreme Council's guidelines of
15 September regarding Latvian-Russian relations and the withdrawal
of Russian troops from Latvia. Zotov also regarded as "unfriendly
gestures" Baltic efforts to internationalize the troop withdrawal
issues, especially their intention to raise the issue at the
UN General Assembly. Zotov countered by claiming that these Baltic
efforts were "a maneuver" to divert world attention from "flagrant
and multiple cases of human rights violations" in Estonia and
Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs)

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Updated: 1998-11-

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