Genius is an African who dreams up snow. Vladimir Nabokov - Vladimir Nabokov
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 179, 17 September 1992


ABKHAZ UPDATE. Georgian troops and Abkhaz National Guardsmen
clashed near the Black Sea town of Gagra on 16 September despite
the new ceasefire agreement due to take effect at midnight on
15 September, Reuters reported quoting local journalists. Under
the terms of the new agreement, all troops subordinate to the
Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus must leave
Georgian territory within ten days. The first plenary meeting
of the CIS inter-parliamentary assembly in Bishkek issued a statement
expressing concern that the armed conflict in Abkhazia could
spread to neighboring states and calling for the disengagement
of troops and an immediate ceasefire, ITAR-TASS reported. It
also called on CIS member states to provide humanitarian aid
to Abkhazia. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.)

on 16 September between Armenian and Azerbaijani working groups
ended in deadlock after the Azerbaijani delegation announced
that it was not empowered to conduct negotiations and proposed
a meeting between the Presidents of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan,
ITAR-TASS reported. The Armenians agreed in principle on the
condition that the Azerbaijani side first respond to the ceasefire
proposal made on 25 August by Italian mediator Mario Raffaelli.
A further round of talks was scheduled for early October. (Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.)

of Foreign Economic Relations reports that the volume of foreign
trade over the first eight months of this year is 27% less than
that of the same period last year. The report, carried by ITAR-TASS
on 16 September, indicated that trade with former socialist countries
(former members of the COMECON trading group) remains the weakest,
down 48%. Trade with developed industrial and developing nations
was down 21% and 20% respectively. This year's trade deficit
at the end of August was $200 million, which is an improvement
over the deficit of $700 billion at the end of July, but way
down from last year's January-to-August surplus of $6 billion.
(Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.)

LIBERAL REFORMISTS ATTACK GAIDAR. Two leading Russian reformers
have attacked the leadership of acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar.
Grigorii Yavlinski told the Italian newspaper La Stampa on 16
September that the "center"--by which he meant the Russian leadership--has
already lost control over the political and economic processes
at the periphery. According to him, Russia will soon disintegrate
if the executive does not change its policy and reestablish its
lost authority in the regions. Meanwhile, the Russian Minister
of Economics, Andrei Nechaev, told Ostankino TV on the same day
that his ministry has provided Gaidar's cabinet a new economic
project because Gaidar has no clear reform concept of his own.
(Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

COURT. On 16 September, former Soviet dissident, Pyotr Abovin-Egides,
testified as an expert witness on behalf of the communist party
(CPSU), Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. In a rousing defense
of the CPSU, he attacked Russian President Yeltsin as well as
former Soviet President Gorbachev and the coup leaders, arguing
that, thanks to them, "the West won the third world war without
a single shot." Abovin-Egides said the ban should be lifted since
it "sows cruelty and hatred, intolerance of ideology, extremism,
bitterness, confrontation and social disparity." After a short
recess, however, the court struck the dissident's testimony from
the record because Abovin-Egides had failed to speak about the
issues and had abused his rights as an expert witness by making
ideological rather than legal arguments. Court Chairman Valerii
Zorkin repeated an earlier warning to both parties in the case
on the inadmissibility of anti-constitutional proclamations and
political evaluations. (Carla Thorson, RFE/RL, Inc.)

talks on 16 September with the prime minister of Serbia-Montenegro,
Milan Panic, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told reporters
that Russia wants "the new Yugoslavia, that of Milan Panic, to
receive international recognition and to occupy a worthy place
in the family of civilized free peoples." Kozyrev added that
Russia fully supports Panic's intention to apply for a UN seat
for the "new Yugoslavia," and he stressed that Russia will do
everything possible to see "full membership of a peaceful democratic
Yugoslavia at the United Nations." (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUTSKOI ON KOZYREV. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi
is quoted by Interfax on 15 September as saying that Foreign
Minister Andrei Kozyrev will remain in his job. Two months ago,
Rutskoi had openly declared that he insists on the dismissal
of Kozyrev. But he asserted that other reform-minded government
members may be replaced at the next parliamentary session which
is opening on 22 September. Rutskoi stated that the atmosphere
at the session will be "tense" because of "conflicting opinions
over developments in the Russian economy." (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL,

RUSSIAN DECREE ON TAIWAN. Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed
a decree on 15 September on "Relations Between the Russian Federation
and Taiwan," ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. The decree was
issued, according to its text, because of "differing interpretations
of the position of the Russian leadership with regard to Taiwan."
To clarify the Russian position, the decree states: "In its policy,
Russia proceeds from the premise that only one China exists and
that Taiwan is an indivisible part of it. Because of this, Russia
does not maintain official interstate relations with Taiwan."
(Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.)

session of the newly created Interparliamentary Assembly of CIS
states in Bishkek ended with the adoptation of an Assembly statute
and the formation of five Assembly Commissions: for legal affairs,
economics and finance, social politics and human rights, environmental
problems, and security, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. Ruslan
Khasbulatov said that his election as first chairman of the Assembly
demonstrates that the other CIS states trust Russia. He stated
that the Assembly is scheduled to become a supranational parliamentary
organ which will "neutralize many of the negative processes characteristic
of the CIS." (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

CIS SUMMIT DELAYED. The leaders of Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Kazakhstan,
Ukraine and Belarus have decided to postpone the next summit
of CIS state and government leaders which had been scheduled
for 24-25 September to 9 October, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September.
According to a statement issued by the Kyrgyzstan president's
press service, CIS leaders want to further examine some documents
which will be discussed at the summit in Bishkek. (Alexander
Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.)

at a press conference in Moscow on 16 September, the co-chairman
of Russia's Party of Economic Freedom, Konstantin Borovoi, said
his party supports the dissolution of the Russian Congress of
People's Deputies and the parliament, Interfax reported. He said
a constituent assembly should be set up instead. Borovoi accused
the congress and the parliament of blocking economic reforms
in Russia. He said he believed that at the next session the Congress
would try to force Boris Yeltsin to resign. Borovoi said his
party supports the idea of holding a referendum on the dissolution
of the congress. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MINISTERS VISIT NUCLEAR TEST SITE. Pavel Grachev and Viktor Mikhailov,
the Russian Ministers of Defense and Atomic Energy, respectively,
arrived on 16 September at the nuclear test site on the arctic
island of Novaya Zemlya. They joined the Commander in Chief of
the Russian Navy, Admiral Feliks Gromov, who had arrived the
day before. ITAR-TASS reported that the purpose of the visit
was to investigate both the state of the technology at the test
site and to inquire into problems facing personnel stationed
on the island. Since the shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear
testing site in Kazakhstan, Novaya Zemlya has been viewed by
the Russian government as the likely main site for any future
nuclear arms tests. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MORE SQUABBLES OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. According to Interfax reports
on 15 and 16 September, a disagreement has broken out between
Ukrainian and Russian military authorities over the disposition
of two Naval academies in Sevastopol. Ukraine apparently wants
to take control of the schools, while Russian officials contend
that previous agreements place the academies under CIS jurisdiction.
Interfax also reported on 16 September that Black Sea Fleet commander
Igor Kasatonov has protested what he says are attempts by Kiev
to transfer parts of the Kerchensko-Feodosisky naval base to
Ukrainian jurisdiction. On the same day, the commander of the
Black Sea Fleet from 1983-1985, Aleksei Kalinin, said on Sevastopol
radio that Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantyn Morozov ought
to be dismissed for what he described as illegal actions leading
to the weakening of the fleet. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.)

RUSSIAN TROOPS TO LEAVE CUBA BY MID-1993. The Cuban government
announced on 16 September that the Russian troops still stationed
in Cuba will be withdrawn by the middle of 1993. Western agency
accounts quoted the official announcement as saying the presence
of the troops had lost its meaning. The Soviets had what was
known as a "training brigade" stationed in Cuba as well as a
number of military advisors and a large intelligence facility.
When the formal talks on withdrawing these troops began in September
1991, there were some 8,000 Soviet military and intelligence
personnel in Cuba. In February of this year the Russians announced
that the "training brigade" had been unilateraly cut from 2,800
to 2,150 men. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

reported that Russia promised to pay its outstanding debts to
the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The announcement
was made to the agency's board of governors on 16 September at
their meeting in Vienna. As the legal successor to the Soviet
Union in the IAEA, Russia must also pay outstanding contributions
for 1991. The reports said that Russia is responsible for around
13% of the agency's yearly budget of $186 million, or some $24
million per year. Russia would loose its voting rights in the
agency should the debts remain unpaid. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL,

Design Bureau has established a joint collaborative business
alliance with an American aircraft engine manufacturer, Textron
Lycoming's Turbine Engine Division. According to a 15 September
company press release at the Farnborough air show in England,
the American company will initially supply turbofan engines to
replace the present engines on the small YAK-40 regional airliner.
Lycoming could also supply the engines for the next-generation
YAK-48 executive business aircraft. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.)

"RUKH" LEADERSHIP MEETS. The leadership of "Rukh" met on 12 September
and decided to convene a session of its Grand Council on 19 September,
DR-Press reported on 13 September. The Grand Council will discuss
questions related to the convening of the Fourth Congress of
"Rukh," which should be held at the end of October. (Roman Solchanyk,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

GERMAN "REBIRTH" SOCIETY IN UKRAINE. The "Rebirth" society, which
groups together members of the German minority in the former
Soviet Union, held its official presentation in Kiev on 15 September,
Radio Ukraine reported. The Kiev branch of "Rebirth" works closely
with the German Cultural Union, which has forty-two centers in
the former Soviet Union. The group's aim is to unite all Germans
interested in their history and culture. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL,

in Tajikistan during the last four months has caused a serious
worsening of economic conditions in the country. ITAR-TASS reported
on 16 September that a lack of fuel in Dushanbe has caused interruptions
in public transport and in deliveries of food to the capital.
Tajikistan may be in for a difficult winter. Foreign correspondents
have reported seeing crops neglected in the fields while rural
people were fighting for or against the now-deposed President
Rakhmon Nabiev. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.)


of the 52 states participating in the CSCE process convened in
Prague on 16 September for a three-day meeting. An RFE/RL corespondent
reports that the meeting will hear reports by special investigators
on the situation in Serb-controlled detention camps, and on the
possibility of the civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina spilling over
into the Serbian province of Kosovo and the independent Republic
of Macedonia. CSTK reports that Macedonia's application to join
the CSCE process was rejected at the meeting. The meeting will
also focus on the situation in Moldova and Nagorno-Karabakh.
(Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.)

MAZOWIECKI ON FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. Speaking at a press conference
in Prague on 16 September, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, former Polish
prime minister and currently a special UN rapporteur for human
rights in former Yugoslavia, said that human rights are being
widely violated on the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Muslims
in particular are victims of wide-spread human rights abuses
as well as of ethnic genocide. According to Mazowiecki, the situation
is most serious in concentration camps and besieged towns. Mazowiecki
proposed the creation of an independent press agency, which would
inform about the situation in former Yugoslavia in an objective
manner. He warned that the conflict could easily spread to Kosovo,
Vojvodina, and the Sandzak. Mazowiecki ruled out military intervention
in Bosnia but suggested that UN peacekeeping troops be strengthened
so that they can intervene when needed. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.)

September Washington Post reports that Serbian forces around
Sarajevo continued "their three-day-old tank offensive" against
the Bosnian capital on 16 September, despite UN pleas to register
the tanks with monitors. The Croatian media in recent days, for
their part, have also been reporting on the months-old siege
of Gradacac in northern Bosnia, which is on the strategic route
connecting Serbia with Serb-held areas of Bosnia and Croatia
but where there are no Western correspondents. Croatian military
and local Muslims have successfully resisted intensified Serbian
shelling, which has destroyed over 80% of the mainly Muslim town,
including its landmark medieval tower and central mosques. The
local Croatian commander said that the spirit of Croat and Muslim
defenders was good. Elsewhere, Slobodna Dalmacija on 16 September
said that Cardinal Franjo Kuharic consecrated Herzegovina's new
archbishop on 13 September in Neum, with Muslim leaders, including
the Mufti of Herzegovina, in attendance. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

of the self-proclaimed state of Herceg-Bosna and chairman of
the Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) in Bosnia-Herzegovina,
said that a ruling by the Constitutional Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina
annulling a decision by the Croats to form their own republic
in Bosnia-Herzegovina is "completely unconstitutional." The "Community
of Herceg-Bosna," established in November 1991 and comprising
municipalities in the south of Bosnia-Herzegovina where Croats
are the majority population, declared itself an independent state
on 3 July. Sarajevo Radio quoted Boban on 15 September as saying
that his party will "ignore" the court's ruling. Srecko Vucina,
spokesman for the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) in Mostar, indignantly
rejected the ruling, which he says "seeks to discredit everything
that the HDZ and HVO have done so far in the defense of the area
around Mostar and Herceg-Bosna." (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL,

a state secretary in the Foreign Affairs Ministry, arrived in
Belgrade on 16 September. In an interview with Radio Bucharest,
Melescanu said that he discussed issues of mutual interest with
officials in Belgrade, including recent Western initiatives to
exclude the Yugoslav rump state from the UN. In a separate development,
Traian Chebeleu, a spokesman for the foreign ministry, reafirmed
his country's willingness to accept foreign observers to monitor
the traffic to and from Serbia and Montenegro. (Dan Ionescu,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

spokesman Traian Chebeleu said a recent statement by Gen. Aleksandr
Lebed, commander of the 14th Russian Army in Moldova, may cause
serious harm to Romanian-Russian relations. On Moscow's "Ostankino"
TV on 14 September Lebed reportedly described the Romanian flag
as "the flag of [Marshall Ion] Antonescu and Romanian fascists."
Chebeleu said he finds such statements "irresponsible and insulting"
to Romania. Romanian Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase summoned
the Russian ambassador to Bucharest to protest Lebed's statement.
(Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

September to consider a motion to dismiss Privatization Minister
Janusz Lewandowski, who served in the same post for most of 1991.
The motion was submitted by the Confederation for an Independent
Poland (KPN) on the basis of a report by the Supreme Chamber
of Control (NIK), Poland's central auditing institution. The
government coalition parties say they will oppose the motion,
and Solidarity deputies condemned the KPN's attack on Lewandowski
as "a political game." NIK officials admitted on 16 September
that their criterion for evaluating the ministry's performance
was the letter of the law, not economic rationality. They also
conceded that their inspectors were not experts in privatization.
Lewandowski has argued that legal shortcuts were unavoidable
in a system where private business was just taking root. The
Sejm is also scheduled to debate the government's mass privatization
program. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.)

POLISH GOVERNMENT SETS "PACT" TIMETABLE. Meeting with union representatives
on 16 September, labor ministry officials proposed that negotiations
on the government's draft "pact on state firms" conclude by the
end of the month. Signing would be possible by the end of October.
The labor ministry recommended that the unions send a joint representation
to the talks; this would be a major departure for Solidarity,
which has refused to negotiate in tandem with the former procommunist
OPZZ federation. The government's economic committee recommended
setting as a target the production of at least 50% of GDP (excluding
agriculture) by private firms by the end of 1994. The committee
also recommended shutting down seven of Poland's 26 steel mills
by 2002, which would eliminate 80,000 jobs. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL,

Parliament on 16 September, Prime Minister Jozsef Antall drew
a positive balance of the performance of his government during
its first two years in office, MTI and Radio Budapest report.
He stressed in particular that the legal framework needed for
a state based on the rule of law has been created through the
parliament's legislative activity and that the government has
successfully adjusted its foreign and economic policy to the
changing international environment. Antall admitted that economic
problems remain and that the government has to take unpopular
measures in switching from a command to a market economy. He
stressed, however, that his government has been able to keep
the country solvent and has launched the largest and most successful
privatization program in all of Eastern Europe. (Edith Oltay,
RFE/RL, Inc.)

ESTONIAN ELECTION UPDATE. The Estonian Ministry of Internal Affairs
plans no special security measures in northeastern Estonia for
the 20 September parliamentary and presidential elections. Deputy
Minister Juri Kaljuvee told BNS on 16 September that he does
not expect any provocations that day because local authorities
"have realized that the prospects for international cooperation
are better in Estonia than in Russia." Meanwhile, Lennart Meri,
a presidential candidate and former foreign minister, has received
a positive response from Council of Europe Secretary-General
Catherine Lalumière on the establishment of a special international
commission to look into charges against his father, diplomat
Georg Meri. Lennart Meri proposed convening a special commission
after widespread reports last week that Georg Meri was a KGB
operative in the interwar period. In his letter to Lalumière,
Lennart Meri said that the charges brought against his father
"are absolutely false, but have been arranged in order to undermine
my [presidential] candidacy," BNS reports. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL,

LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT SESSION. At its 15 September meeting the
Supreme Council two deputy speakers, Laima Andrikiene and Ceslovas
Jursenas, were reelected, Radio Lithuania reports. Two laws--on
competition and on the bankruptcy of enterprises--were passed
and will go into effect on 1 November. Economics Minister Albertas
Simenas noted that the purpose of the competition law is to prevent
the formation of monopolies and thus allow consumers. to purchase
goods at lower prices. An agency will be formed to monitor prices
and a council composed of producer, consumer, and government
representatives will apply sanctions when necessary. (Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

LITHUANIAN MODERATE MOVEMENT. On 16 September representatives
of the Moderate Movement held a briefing at the Parliament, BNS
reports. The movement intends to present a general list of 27
candidates for the Seimas elections who will also compete in
single mandate districts. The list is headed by parliament deputy
Eugenijus Gentvilas and includes in its top ten Albertas Simenas,
Minister without Portfolio Stasys Kropas, and Zigmas Vaisvila,
a former deputy prime minister. The movement's election program
calls for 350 of the largest enterprises not to be privatized.
Smaller businesses would be privatized under this plan, and foreign
investors would be given the right to purchase the land on which
the enterprise stands. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)

a cabinet meeting on 16 September, Romanian Prime Minister Theodor
Stolojan ordered increased security for presidential candidates.
The move followed an attack on nationalist candidate Gheorghe
Funar in Timisoara the previous day. Funar, who runs on the ticket
of the Party for Romanian National Unity, had to be rescued by
police from a crowd of about 2,000 jeering protesters. In a separate
statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the government deplored
the incident and urged the Timisoara police to identify the culprits.
(Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)

PARFENOV TRIAL STARTS IN RIGA. The trial of Sergei Parfenov,
former deputy commander of OMON units in Riga, opened on 16 September,
Radio Riga reports. Parfenov is charged with abuse of power and
will have to answer for attacks against civilians by members
of OMON, a special force under the jurisdiction of the USSR Ministry
of Internal Affairs, in Sigulda and the Vecmilgravis section
of Riga in 1990 and Ainazi in 1991. Parfenov, who considers himself
a Russian citizen and his supporters in Tyumen region want the
case to be tried in Russia, while the Latvian authorities, who
obtained his extradition from Tyumen, believe that the trial
should be held in Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)

BALTIC COUNCIL APPEALS TO CSCE. Leaders of the three Baltic States
have appealed to the CSCE to not let up pressure for withdrawal
of Russian troops from their territories because of the recent
Russian-Lithuanian agreement for early pullout, BNS reports.
In the joint communiqué issued by the Baltic Council after its
16 September Tallinn meeting, council members state that the
Helsinki Declaration requirements can be considered fulfilled
only when agreements [similar to that with Lithuania] are concluded
and the whole of the Russian military has left all the Baltic
States. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)

the Supreme Council adopted guidelines for further negotiations
with Russia regarding the withdrawal of troops. Diena of 15 September
says the document calls for the unconditional withdrawal of all
troops by the end of 1993; the recognition that Latvia has borders
that have been fixed and recognized by international treaties
(especially the Latvian-Russian peace treaty of 11 August 1922);
no naturalization of new citizens as long as a foreign army is
present in Latvia; and the necessity of Russian forces in Latvia
to act according to regulations approved by the Supreme Council.
(Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)

Polish Minister of Defense Janusz Onyszkiewicz signed a military
cooperation accord, Radio Riga reports. Details were not reported.
During his three-day visit to Latvia, Onyszkiewicz met with Latvian
officials and saw military training facilities at Sigulda and
the naval harbor in Liepaja. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)

DUBCEK'S CONDITION STILL SERIOUS. Two weeks after the car crash
in which he broke his spine, ribs, and pelvis, Alexander Dubcek,
leader of the 1968 Prague Spring and former chairman of the Czechoslovak
parliament, is still too ill to have further surgery. Dubcek
underwent an operation on his spine immediately after the 1 September
accident. A statement from the Prague hospital treating Dubcek,
released by CSTK on 15 September, says that another operation,
as well as long-term rehabilitation, can take place only after
stabilization of the patient's condition and after he is transferred
to a specialized clinic. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.)

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