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No. 174, 10 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN ABRUPTLY CALLS OFF JAPAN VISIT. On 9 September, Russian President Boris Yeltsin indefinitely postponed his long-planned visit to Japan just four days before it was scheduled to begin. Japanese Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe would not confirm whether or not Yeltsin's decision stemmed from Japan's refusal to provide large-scale economic aid to Russia until the Kuril Islands dispute is resolved in Japan's favor, Western agencies reported. On 6 September, Yeltsin had noted that "I have to consider the attitude of 150 million Russians," when considering the Kuril Islands issue, "Novosti" reported on 7 September. Yeltsin also announced that his trip to South Korea would be postponed until December when Yeltsin is already scheduled to visit China. (Hal Kosiba, RFE/RL Inc.) BURBULIS CRITICIZES JAPAN. Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has warned Japan not to "exaggerate its role and importance to the detriment of other states in the Pacific region." He told ITAR-TASS on 9 September that Russian-Japanese relations "are not the only prospects in this region" for Russia. Burbulis said that according to a recent opinion poll published by Interfax on 8 September, 60 percent of Russians oppose returning the Kuril islands to Japan, and he noted that Yeltsin and government officials must take the opinion and sentiments of the Russian population into account. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) ON THE ROLE OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL. Russian President Boris Yeltsin indicated in his phone conversation with Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa that the decision to postpone his visit to Japan had been made by the Security Council rather than by him personally. If this statement is accurate, it demonstrates the extent to which this recently created committee has become a major collective decision-making body in Russia. However, First Deputy Parliamentary Speaker Sergei Filatov, who is also a member of the Security Council, was not present at the meeting and was unaware of the postponement, Western news agencies reported on 9 September. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) CSCE KARABAKH TALKS IN JEOPARDY? Azerbaijan's intransigence in refusing to agree to the proposal made by Mario Raffaelli, chairman of the CSCE-sponsored Rome Karabakh peace talks, for a cease-fire in Nagorno-Karabakh may lead to the complete collapse of the negotiations, unnamed Western diplomats told Reuters on 9 September. ITAR-TASS quoted Armenian presidential advisor Gerard Liparitian as stating that the US, France, and Russia had condemned Azerbaijan's use of military aircraft against the civilian population in Nagorno-Karabakh, and that delegates to the Rome talks had demanded that Azerbaijan respond to Raffaelli's proposal by 15 September. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) NEW CEASE-FIRE IN ABKHAZIA. The tripartite Russian/Georgian/ Abkhaz commission to monitor implementation of the 3 September Moscow agreement met in Sukhumi on 9 September and concluded a new cease-fire agreement to take effect at midnight local time on 9 September, ITAR-TASS reported. Beginning on 10 September, military formations on both sides will be disbanded and hostages and prisoners released. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) VOLSKY FOR GOVERNMENT CHANGE. The leader of the industrial lobby, Arkadii Volsky, said that his main goal is the struggle to correct the government's reform course. He told Pravda on 9 September that the government is gradually losing its authority to conduct reforms. He stated that he has many differences with acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar. For instance, he dismissed Gaidar's efforts to create a market economy and an ownership class, stressing instead the need to improve the efficiency of the economy and to raise the living standard of the population. He asserted that the industrial lobby will ensure that the leaders and the parties which gain power will protect the people's economic interests. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN FOOD SUPPLY DOWN. The Russian State Committee for Statistics (Roskomstat) announced on 9 September that food production during the past few months has declined by an average of 22% when compared with the same period of 1991, ITAR-TASS reported. Roskomstat attributed part of the decline to shortfalls in contractual deliveries from other CIS members and from the Baltic states. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) SCALE OF RUSSIAN CAPITAL FLIGHT MINIMIZED. The Russian First Deputy Minister for Foreign Economic Relations, Sergei Glaziev, announced on 9 September that Russia has exported some $2 billion to date in 1992, Interfax reported. About half of this sum has been retained abroad legally to purchase foreign goods and materials. The rest has been transferred illegally but has also been used to buy foreign goods. The total sum is far below some Western estimates of capital flight: these Glaziev attributed to Western banks which spread the reports in order to raise their interest rates charged because of the implied risk factor. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) FURTHER RAISES FOR RUSSIAN COAL MINERS. Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and coal union officials signed an agreement on 8 September that provides for gradual increases in coal miners' wages, Interfax reported on 9 September. Starting on 1 September, average wages for those working in mining, processing, and transportation of coal will rise by 60%; by the end of the year, the increment will reach 80%. The average monthly wage for coal miners in July was 10,900 rubles. A union official said that the raises will not be funded by means of budget subsidies. Instead, mines will increase wholesale prices of coal by up to 30%--the current average price of coal is 95 rubles a ton--which should cover the pay raise. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA ASKS PARDON FOR OFFICER CONDEMNED TO DEATH IN AZERBAIJAN. Russian authorities have asked Azerbaijan to pardon an Russian officer sentenced to death by the Azerbaijan Supreme Court's military collegium on 31 August. According to ITAR-TASS, the Russian Defense Ministry and a public committee concerned with servicemen's social rights appealed on 9 September to Azeri leaders to stay the execution of Lieutenant Evgenii Lukin. Lukin was in charge of the guard at the Baku Military School on 7 September 1991 when it was attacked by an armed group seeking to obtain weapons in the school's depot. When the attackers failed to retreat in the face of warning shots, Lukin ordered his men to shoot to kill. Three attackers lost their lives. The Russians claim that Lukin should have been tried by a Russian court. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN/SOUTH KOREAN NAVAL AGREEMENT IN THE WORKS. Russian and South Korean naval officials on 9 September ended two-days of talks in Seoul on a bilateral agreement regarding the prevention of incidents at sea. Vice Admiral Vladimir Lyashenko, the first deputy chief of the CIS naval headquarters, told ITAR-TASS that the negotiations had gotten off to a successful start. The next round will take place in a month. The agreement would provide confidence-building measures between the two navies. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN OFFICER DEFECTS TO FINLAND. ITAR-TASS on 9 September reported that a officer of the border guards defected to Finland on 1 September. According to the press center of the Russian Border Forces, Major Andrei Vykhrystyuk--the commander of a guard unit on the border with Finland--had been on the brink of a nervous breakdown and was drinking heavily prior to the incident. The agency report said that the major's father and wife were insisting that he be repatriated. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) "NEW UKRAINE" CALLS FOR ORGANIZED OPPOSITION. The opposition coalition "New Ukraine" held a press conference in Kiev on 8 September devoted to the current political situation in Ukraine, DR-Press reported on 9 September. Volodymyr Filenko, the chairman of the coalition, emphasized the need to form an organized opposition aimed at gaining a majority in the parliament. Filenko also did not exclude the possibility of "New Ukraine" participating in a government of popular trust. The former economics minister, Volodymyr Lanovyi, told reporters that he intends to establish a National Center of Market Reforms. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN DELEGATION IN WASHINGTON. A Ukrainian parliamentary delegation led by Ivan Plyushch, head of the Ukrainian parliament, is in Washington for meetings with top American officials, Radio Ukraine reported on 8 September. Members of the delegation are scheduled to meet with Secretary of State Dick Cheney, National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft, senators and congressmen, and other US officials. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) TURKEY PROVIDING WEAPONS TO NAKHICHEVAN? According to an unconfirmed report on 9 September by Armenia's Snark News Agency, the military council of the Ninth Corps of the Turkish army has decided, with the Turkish government's consent, to supply considerable quantities of Soviet-made weapons and combat material to the government of Azerbaijan's Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. To date, the Turkish government has publicly resisted pressure to offer military assistance to Azerbaijan. Turkish Prime Minister Suleiman Demirel visited Nakhichevan last month and promised financial and food aid worth $10 million to counter the effects of the Armenian blockade of the region. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" ESTABLISHES OWN AIR FORCE. The "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet" on 8 September formally approved the establishment of its own air force and a "department of military aviation," consisting of "airplanes and helicopters based on its territory," DR-Press reported from Tiraspol on 9 September. The report clearly refers to the aircraft of Russia's 14th Army. Some aircraft have already been turned over to the "Dniester" forces by that Army, and they took part in the "Dniester" military parade on the anniversary of the "republic" on 2 September in the presence of the Army's commander, Major General Aleksandr Lebed, DR-Press reported that day. An RFE/RL correspondent and the St. Petersburg TV program "600 Seconds" reported on 7 and 8 September, respectively, that the "Dniester republic" had warned that any Moldovan overflight of the area without "Dniester" permission would be treated as a military attack. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" OFFICIALLY REIMPOSES RUSSIAN SCRIPT ON "MOLDOVAN" LANGUAGE. The "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet" on 8 September voted in a language law reimposing the Russian alphabet on the "Moldovan" (i.e. Romanian) language in the territory under its control. As cited by Radio Rossii, the "law" requires the use of the Russian alphabet for "all situations in which the Moldovan language is used." The measure is likely to force part of the local Moldovan intelligentsia out of their jobs and out of the area. Although the law formally stipulates the equality of the Russian, Ukrainian, and "Moldovan" languages, the "Dniester authorities" promote the old policy of linguistic russification. Moldovans, who comprise 40.1% of the population, are the largest ethnic group in the territory at issue, but ethnic Russians, who form only the third-largest ethnic group (behind Ukrainians), rule the area. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN COMMANDER BLAMES BOSNIANS FOR ATTACK. On 9 September the commander of the UN forces in Sarajevo, Egyptian General Hussein Ali Abdul Razik, said that the two French soldiers were killed on 8 September by bullets fired by "irresponsible elements" who disobeyed orders of the local Bosnian commander. The shots came from positions held by Bosnian government troops, Razik said, "There is no mistake about this because visibility at the time of the attack was good." State Presidency member Ejup Ganic denied that Bosnian forces attacked the convoy. Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic stated that "it's totally illogical" that Bosnian forces would fire on "those providing relief." UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb released a statement saying that the Italian relief plane downed on 3 September was shot down in an area controlled by Croatian forces. But the statement adds "exactly how or by whom is the subject of intensive study." The statement also lays blame on Bosnian government forces for the 8 September attack on the convoy. International media carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) VANCE SAYS RELIEF CONVOYS TO CONTINUE. UN envoy Cyrus Vance told reporters in Zagreb on 9 September that overland relief convoys to Sarajevo will continue despite the recent tragedy, which he described as "cold-blooded murder." Vance, along with EC envoy Lord Owen were in Zagreb for talks with UN, Red Cross, and Croatian officials. They will continue with stops in Sarajevo and Belgrade in an effort to secure further guarantees that overland convoys and air relief flights will not be attacked. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) IRANIAN ARMS SEIZED BY CROATIA. Radio Croatia and Western media report on 10 September that Croatian security forces have impounded an Iranian Boeing-747 aircraft loaded with arms bound for the Muslim-dominated government forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The incident occurred on 4 September. Officials seized 4,000 guns and more than one million rounds of ammunition and deported about 40 Iranians found hidden in the aircraft. The New York Times on 10 September stated that the interception of arms from Iran is the first documented evidence of military support by an Islamic country to the Bosnian government. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) PANIC STRIKES HARD. In his first interview since surviving the vote of no-confidence in the Federal Assembly on 4 September, Milan Panic, prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia, told Belgrade Radio on 9 September that he has replaced the Yugoslav negotiating team at the Geneva peace conference. Panic said the previous team had "lost all battles," a clear reference to the Socialists ,who brought Serbia-Montenegro into virtually total global isolation after being accused of fomenting war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The new team will be led by Ljubisa Rakic, former dean of Belgrade University's medical school. Panic also described the no-confidence motion as a phase of democracy, but said he was surprised at how "few details . . . and lies" his critics presented. Panic also singled out the privatization of the media as one of the most important domestic issues. Turning to the Kosovo situation, Panic said that some laws there are clearly "detrimental to Albanians and they ought to be changed immediately." He also proposed that the state provide financial assistance for classes taught privately in the Albanian language at the university, secondary, and primary school levels. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) WALESA IN ACTIVIST MODE. After giving Justice Minister Zbigniew Dyka a tongue-lashing on 8 September for failing to clear up prominent scandals on time, President Lech Walesa spent another busy day in his campaign to channel public energies into productive work rather than strikes. At an early morning mass and breakfast with former prime minister Waldemar Pawlak, Walesa stressed that there was room in his "solidarity confederation of reformist forces" for the postcommunist peasant party. Next, in a radio interview, Walesa said that justice for past abuses was not as important as "building the future." If no progress was made in six months, he warned, a "presidential system" would be necessary. Finally, during a visit to a police training center near Warsaw, the president repeatedly stressed the need to close the chapter on the past, and begin joint work for the good of Poland. "No one can be punished without proof of individual guilt," Walesa said. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) GOVERNMENT PRESENTS "PACT ON STATE FIRMS." Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka and five of her ministers held a press conference on 9 September to present the government's proposed "pact on state firms." This package, now under consideration by the trade unions, is designed to improve the functioning of state firms and forestall protest by giving workers a bigger stake in their enterprises. The pact includes: the chance for struggling firms to choose their own method of privatization, with 10% of the shares provided free to the work force; selective debt-relief for firms with sound restructuring plans; the replacement of the despised popiwek (tax on excess wages) with negotiated wage limits; and the creation of a fund to guarantee payment of wages in the event of bankruptcy. The pact's psychological aims may be as important as its economic goals; the point is to shift workers' attention from demands on the state to concern with the fate of their own firms. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) POLAND'S FIRST POLITICAL PRISONER? On 9 September, Poland's Supreme Court turned down a request by the chief prosecutor to reconsider the case of Roman Galuszko, who was sentenced by a Cracow military court in April to 18 months imprisonment for draft evasion. Galuszko's request for alternate service on moral and religious grounds was rejected; the draft board refused to accept the Catholic faith as a valid argument against military service. This rationale has stirred controversy. In another judicial development, the Bialystok prosecutor announced on 9 September that "criminal arson" caused the fire in January 1989 that killed Stanislaw Suchowolec, an activist Solidarity priest. The communist police had ruled the death accidental. Suchowolec was one of three activist priests killed in mysterious circumstances in the period before and after the round-table talks. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) STOLOJAN APPEALS TO RAILWAY UNION LEADERS TO END HUNGER STRIKE. Romanian Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan sent a letter to four railway union leaders who have been on a hunger strike for more than 20 days. The full text was read on Radio Bucharest on 4 September. Stolojan pleaded with the union leaders to abandon their protest until a solution can be found to their claims. The four--Stefan Siromascenco, Cristian Peride, Victor Condurache, and Nicolae Fieraru--are protesting the signing of a labor contract as well as their dismissals. Stolojan met the protesters on 3 September and promised to set up an inquiry commission to examine the demands. He insisted, however, that he has no right to overturn decisions made by Romanian Railways board of directors. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS URGE TOKES TO END HUNGER STRIKE. Magyar Bishop Laszlo Tokes has been urged by his supporters to abandon his week-old protest fast. In a statement read on Radio Bucharest, the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania, which represents the country's Hungarian minority, urged Tokes to "preserve his strength to fight for the victory of truth and moral values." Tokes began his hunger strike in an attempt to force the authorities to identify the murderers of the 1,033 victims of the 1989 Romanian uprising. President Ion Iliescu offered last week to meet Tokes but has effectively rejected the latter's demands from the outset. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE ELECTIONS. Patriarch Teoctist of Romania said in a pastoral address that the Romanian Orthodox Church "would not express a preference for any candidate or party in the presidential and parliamentary elections" scheduled for 27 September, Radio Bucharest reported on 4 September. However, the patriarch added that this "political neutrality" did not mean "indifference from the moral and social point of view;" he urged the faithful to vote for "belief in God" and the "safeguarding of freedom," in what Reuters reported to be an appeal "for the preservation of Christianity against atheism and Communism." (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) REMAINS FOUND IN MASS GRAVE IN ROMANIA. Western agencies report from Bucharest that a mass grave containing about 140 skeletons dating from the 1950's has been found on premises run by the Securitate, the former secret police, an Interior Ministry statement said. The remains, which appear to be from members of peasant families who opposed collectivization, were found at Caciulati, near Bucharest, according to the Association of Former Political Detainees. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) HEAD OF CZECHOSLOVAK PRESS AGENCY REPLACED. The Czechoslovak government dismissed Petr Uhl, general director of CSTK, on 9 September and replaced him with Tomas Kopriva, a deputy representing Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party in the Federal Assembly. Explaining Uhl's dismissal, Czechoslovak Deputy Prime Minister Miroslav Macek told a CSTK reporter that Kopriva would better be able to carry out the planned partition of CSTK into two republican agencies. Uhl, a former dissident who headed the agency since 1990, is known for his leftist views and is an advocate of preserving the Czechoslovak federation. He insists that he was dismissed for political reasons. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER ON RELATIONS WITH EC. Speaking to reporters in Brussels after his talks with EC officials on 9 September, Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik said the Czech and Slovak republics will need two separate but identical association agreements with the European Community after Czechoslovakia splits into two states. Moravcik said the agreements should be modeled on the EC association accord that Czechoslovakia signed last December. Moravcik also said he hopes that the Czech Republic and Slovakia will be able to apply for full EC membership at the same time, together with Poland and Hungary. The EC has taken no official position on the planned breakup of Czechoslovakia. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) NO BREAKTHROUGH IN HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK RELATIONS. The first meeting since the June 1992 Czechoslovak elections between Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall and his Slovak counterpart Vladimir Meciar in Budapest did not result in any breakthroughs, Radio Budapest and MTI announced. Meciar thanked Antall for Budapest's recognition of the division of Czechoslovakia without trying to "make political capital" out of it. The two premiers agreed to set up three joint parliamentary commissions: on the situation of their respective national minorities, on bilateral relations as a whole, and on the problem of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric plant. On the latter issue, questions such as the validity of the Czechoslovak-Hungarian agreement (unilaterally abrogated by Hungary in May 1992) and the legality of Slovakia's plans to divert the Danube River (which forms the Slovak-Hungarian border), are still not resolved. Budapest has suggested that the International Court of Justice be asked to rule on the matter--a solution not favored but also not rejected by Meciar. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc.) MECIAR MEETS WITH SLOVAK MINORITY LEADERS. At the start of his Budapest visit, Meciar met with representatives of Hungary's 100,000-strong Slovak minority. He rejected the notion of "collective minority rights," and said that emphasis should be placed on the assertion of citizens' individual rights. The ethnic Slovaks asked for Bratislava's support in printing publications in their language and supported a "sister-city" program for Hungarian and Slovak towns and villages. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc.) NEW DRAFT CONSTITUTION FOR LITHUANIA. On 9 September deputies Aurimas Taurantas and Narcizas Rasimanicius held a news briefing to report on efforts to prepare a unified draft constitution to be voted on in a referendum on 25 October, at the same time as elections to Parliament (the Seimas), BNS reports. Other draft constitutions, differing greatly on the proposed powers of the president, had been proposed by a parliament commission and the Sajudis Coalition for a Democratic Lithuania. The coordinated draft changes three much-criticized articles of the commission's draft. Now all deputies would be elected for four years instead of reelecting half every two years, the president would have the power to dissolve the Seimas under certain circumstances, and procedures for amending the constitution would be simplified. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) LITHUANIAN SALARIES TOP 6,000 RUBLES. The Lithuanian Statistics Department reports that the average salary before taxes in July was 6,175 rubles, BNS reported on 7 September. Average salaries range from 19,615 rubles for workers in the nuclear energy system to 2,257 rubles for kitchen utensil producers. Industrial workers earn 7,157 rubles, scientific workers--6,165, and employees of budget organizations--4,536. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) SWEDISH ROYAL COUPLE IN LATVIA. On 9 September Sweden's King Carl XVI Gustav and Queen Silvia started a three-day official visit to Latvia, Radio Riga reported. Arriving in the frigate Visborg, the traditional salute at the Riga passenger port was executed with cannons borrowed from Sweden, since Latvia does not own any (Estonia lent its cannons for the recent visit of the Danish royal family). A busy day, involving meetings with Parliament and government leaders and members of the diplomatic corps and visits to historic and cultural sites in Riga, ended with a dinner hosted by Latvia's Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs at the Rundale Palace. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) UNEMPLOYMENT UP IN LATVIA. BNS reported on 9 September that unemployment continues to rise with about 30,000 persons seeking new jobs. Over one half--approximately 16,500--have been classified as unemployed and of these 14,726 are receiving unemployment compensation. Already 181 persons are no longer getting unemployment benefits since they have been on the dole for more than six months. Most of the unemployed are laid-off factory workers whose former employers have had to reduce their labor force on account declining output. A large number of the unemployed are well-educated women. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) LATVIAN MP: RUSSIA DRIVING A WEDGE BETWEEN BALTS. Supreme Council deputy Mihails Stepicevs told Diena on 8 September that Russia is trying to drive a wedge between the three Baltic States by holding separate talks with each and because President Yeltsin is planning to meet separately with each country's leaders. Stepicevs, a member of the Supreme Council's commission on defense, also accused Moscow of delaying talks on troop withdrawal from Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) ESTONIA, RUSSIA RESUME TALKS. Estonian and Russian delegates began the sixth round of general disengagement talks on 9 September in Moscow, BNS reports. The agenda focused on economic issues, including protection of mutual investments, the former USSR's foreign debt and transportation questions. Meanwhile, Estonian Foreign Minister Jaan Manitski met with Russian ambassador Aleksander Trofimov in Tallinn to discuss troop withdrawals. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) BALTIC-NORDIC WOMEN'S CONFERENCE. A conference on women, politics, and economics sponsored by the Nordic Council, was held in Riga on 5-6 September. The conference, the first of its kind in the Baltic States since they regained their independence, is intended to provide a forum for exchanging information on women's status in society and discussing requirements to achieve more equal status for women in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Among the participants (mostly women) were various ministers, parliament members, economists, businesswomen and other professionals from Scandinavia, Finland, and the Baltic States, Radio Riga reported on 6 September. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull
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