|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 171, 07 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR FIGHTING CONTINUES DESPITE ABKHAZ CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT. Fifteen people were killed during the night of 5-6 September in ongoing fighting between Georgian and Abkhaz troops near Gudauta and Gagra despite the cease-fire agreement that had been scheduled to take effect at midday local time on 5 September, Western agencies reported. Georgian Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua met with Abkhaz troop commander Colonel Viktor Kakalia and other Abkhaz officials in Sukhumi on 6 September, and signed a protocol on implementing the ceasefire agreement, ITAR-TASS reported. On 5 September, UN Secretary-General Boutros Ghali announced in Moscow that the UN will send observers to monitor the ceasefire agreement in Abkhazia, Interfax reported. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) TAJIK OPPOSITION UNABLE TO DISLODGE NABIEV. Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet was unable to muster a quorum on 4 or 5 September for a special session to decide the future of President Rakhmon Nabiev, who was declared deposed by the Supreme Soviet Presidium and Cabinet of Ministers on 2 September. Another attempt to open the session was scheduled for 7 September. Nabiev remained in hiding over the weekend, but correspondents and government officials who spoke to him said that he still considered himself president. According to one Western press report, Nabiev blamed Tajikistan's highest-ranking Muslim clergyman, Kazi Akbar Turadzhonzoda, for the recent unrest, and accused him of planning a coup to replace the present government with an Islamic one. The kazi has denied such charges in the past. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) "HUNDREDS" REPORTED KILLED IN FIGHTING IN SOUTHERN TAJIKISTAN. The deputy commander of CIS border troops in Tajikistan, Colonel Valerii Kochinov, was quoted by ITAR-TASS and Western agencies on 5 September as reporting that several hundred people had been killed in fighting in the town of Kurgan-Tyube between opponents of President Nabiev and Nabiev supporters who apparently came from neighboring Kulyab Oblast. Nabiev himself, still in hiding, declared a state of emergency in Kurgan-Tyube. Tajik Radio reports gave a figure of 30 dead, but Kochinov said this included only the dead who had been identified. ITAR-TASS reported on 6 September that Kurgan-Tyube was quiet. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) HOSTAGE FOUND DEAD. The deputy chairman of the Kulyab oblast soviet, Sasiddin Sangov, was found dead near Dushanbe on 4 September, but anti-Nabiev forces say they had nothing to do with the killing, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported on 6 September. Sangov was reported to have been one of the officials taken hostage by opposition demonstrators last week. The hostages were freed on 3 September, and opposition parliamentary deputy Mohammed Dost said that Sangov had been freed with the others, but had fallen into the hands of refugees from Kulyab Oblast, which has been the scene of intermittent fighting between pro- and anti-Nabiev forces since June. On 5 September, ITAR-TASS reported that news of the murder was aggravating the situation in the town of Kulyab, where several thousand people had been demonstrating for two days. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN OFFICIALS ON PRICE INCREASES. Russian Economics Minister Andrei Nechaev told Interfax on 4 September that the government hopes to limit price increases for consumer goods and especially foodstuffs to around 1%-1.5% a week. Nechaev cited the expected steep rise in energy costs and higher grain purchase prices as factors stimulating overall price increases. Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar, in an interview with Komsomolskaya pravda on 5 September, ruled out raising fuel prices to world levels in one leap as in Poland and Czechoslovakia, because "the economy will not be able to cope." The deputy chairman of the Russian parliament told Interfax on 4 September that local authorities have enough authority gradually to increase fuel prices and are doing so. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA TO SUPPORT RUBLE WITH WORLD BANK FUNDS? Konstantin Kagalovsky, a senior government official negotiating with international financial agencies, reportedly told Interfax on 4 September that Russia would support the ruble with $250 million of World Bank credit. Kagalovsky said that the central bank would use the money in currency operations on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange. It was not clear whether Kagalovsky was referring to funds already approved by the World Bank. Nor was the World Bank's position on the action mentioned. The ruble has fallen in value over 20% against the dollar over the last two weeks and many expect further devaluation without significant central bank intervention. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) PHILIP MORRIS TO BUILD CIGARETTE FACTORY NEAR VYBORG. Philip Morris International announced on 4 September that it will build a factory near Vyborg capable of producing 10 billion cigarettes a year, Western agencies reported. The factory should be completed in 1993. The governor of the Leningrad oblast was quoted as conceding that smoking was unhealthy, but he suggested that Philip Morris cigarettes were much safer than Russian brands. The announcement follows widespread reports of shortfalls in domestic cigarette production. Radio Moscow on 18 July put the annual demand at over 240 billion cigarettes and the annual domestic capacity at only 100 billion. Seventeen out of twenty-our cigarette factories were then being repaired, and there was little hard currency available for imports. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) NUCLEAR SAFETY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION AND RUSSIA. In a series of articles in The Los Angeles Times of 5 September, John-Thor Dahlburg provides a comprehensive and devastating picture of past negligence by Soviet authorities of minimum safety standards with respect to nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Citing Western and CIS specialists, Dahlburg portrays the lethal legacy of official high-handedness and unconcern and, disturbingly, a continued penchant for secrecy over nuclear wastes that present a major hazard to the well-being of millions of CIS citizens and those of neighboring countries. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN COMPUTER COUNTER-ESPIONAGE CHIEF RENOUNCES "MOSCOW NEWS" REPORT. The chairman of the State Commission for Countermeasures against Technical Intelligence, Nikolai Brusnitsyn, said he was surprised by the Moscow News report about American electronic "bugs" in VAX computers bought by a Russian defense sector ministry, according to Komsomolskaya Pravda on 28 August (See RFE/RL Daily Report, 2 September). Significantly, the Russian language article appeared neither in the English nor in the German editions of Moscow News. (This suggests that security officials in Moscow still consider Russian audiences worthy targets for old fashioned manipulation, whereas they are now reluctant to produce the same stories for Western consumption.) Lt. Gen. Brusnitsyn added that the alleged incident occurred three years ago, and that the screening of all imported computers is now so thorough that the danger of such built-in "bugs" reaching their destinations in Russia undetected is negligible. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) PRIMAKOV ARGUES FOR RUSSIAN CONTROL OF CENTRAL ASIAN BORDERS. The Director of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, Evgenii Primakov, has declared that "Russia has no interest in leaving its borders open so that they can be crossed by gangs carrying weapons and drugs," Interfax reported on 5 September. Primakov was commenting on the recent decision to transfer the control of Tajikistan's borders to Russian authorities. Primakov added that this temporary measure is necessary, because the Central Asian states "are not able to guard their own borders." Primakov also said that a speaker of parliament in an unnamed Baltic state has spoken about the possibility of cooperating with and providing a base "to secret services which will work against Russia in his state." Primakov stressed that "if this occurs, we shall be forced to take countermeasures." (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TREATY IN OCTOBER. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told a group of Japanese journalists in Kiev that Ukraine is ready to sign a treaty of friendship and cooperation with Russia at the end of October, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 September. Kravchuk also expressed the view that after solving its political and economic problems, the CIS would become a purely economic association similar to the EC. The CIS, he remarked, was originally conceived as a temporary structure for the peaceful transformation of the USSR. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINE WANTS IMF MONEY FOR CURRENCY SUPPORT. Ukrainian government officials have announced that a currency stabilization fund will be an important component of future IMF assistance. The government, however, seems as yet unsure about how much money will be necessary for such an effort. Finance Minister Hryhoriy Pyatachenko said that the nation will need $1.5 billion to support its currency, Western news agencies reported on 4 September. A day later, Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitold Fokin claimed that Ukraine was seeking a stabilization fund of $6 to $6.5 billion, according to the Financial Times on 5 September. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) AZERBAIJAN'S GOLD RESERVES. In an interview in the 6 September issue of the newspaper Azadlyg, as summarized by ITAR-TASS, the chairman of Azerbaijan's State Committee for Geology and Mineral Resources, Ekrem Shekinsky, claimed that Azerbaijan's gold reserves exceeded those of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Algeria, Germany and Great Britain combined. Although in the past many of Azerbaijan's numerous gold deposits were declared unviable, the exploitation of only four of them would yield approximately 4 tons of gold per year. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina reports on 5 September that the current cold spell has dramatically changed the situation in Sarajevo. The city is without water and electricity and, because of the suspension of UN relief flights, food supplies are depleted. Aid will continue to arrive by land, however. A UN relief supply warehouse in Sarajevo was destroyed by mortar fire. Widespread fighting in the republic was reported, particularly in Jajce. On 6 September Radio Croatia quoted Pope John Paul as saying the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina brings to mind images of World War II. Also on the 6th, international mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen in Geneva gave Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic a deadline by which he is to place his army's heavy weapons around four key cities under UN control by 12 September; they did not specify what the consequences would be for failure to comply. Meanwhile UN investigators say it may be weeks or months before the cause of the crash on 3 September near Sarajevo of an Italian plane carrying relief supplies is determined. Initial reports suggest the plane was downed by two portable heat-guided surface-to-air missiles. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) CROATIAN FORCES THREATEN BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. The Sarajevo commander of the Croatian Defense Forces (HVO) told reporters on 6 September that he has received orders from Mate Boban, president of the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna, to stop helping Bosnia's Muslim-dominated armed forces try to break the Serb ring around Sarajevo. HVO commander Velimir Maric detailed allegedly systematic attacks by the Muslim forces on HVO headquarters and positions in the suburb of Stup. Six HVO members have been killed and 60 Croatian houses razed in fighting since mid-August and members of Bosnia's military police have reportedly looted property. Maric said that he was instructed by HVO's main headquarters in Mostar to deliver an ultimatum to the Bosnian armed forces to withdraw from six previously held Croat districts by 6:00 a.m. on 6 September or "it could result in war." Maric also called for the partition of the republic into separate Croat, Muslim and Serb zones, adding there is no such nationality as "Bosnian." At a separate news conference, Bosnia's army commander Mustafa Hajrulahovic rejected Maric's statement on partition but did not respond to the ultimatum. Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) EC OBSERVERS ARRIVE IN HUNGARY. A five-member EC observer delegation arrived on 3 September in Szeged near the Yugoslav border, MTI reports. The delegation discussed the technical aspects of the establishment of a center in Szeged for twenty to thirty EC observers who will regularly monitor the Hungarian-Yugoslav border and whose arrival is expected within one month. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc.) PANIC RIDES OUT NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. On 4 September, Milan Panic, prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia, easily survived a vote of no-confidence in the Chamber of Citizens, the lower house of the Federal Assembly. The vote was 66 to 30 with 7 abstaining. Both houses of the assembly also endorsed Panic's work at the London conference by a vote of 111 to 33. Radio Serbia carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT CONFIRMED. On 4 September the Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia elected Branko Crvenkovski, chairman of the Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (former communists), as prime minister. Crvenkovski's government has the same number of ministers as the previous government, except there is now no Ministry of Information. Two deputy prime ministers, Becir Zuta, an ethnic Albanian, and Jovan Andonov, as well as the ministers of foreign relations, internal affairs, labor and social affairs, and education, and one of the ministers without portfolio, served in the previous government. Crvenkovski identified his government's priorities as preserving peace and stability in Macedonia, gaining international recognition of the republic, and the introduction of market-oriented reforms. Radio Macedonia carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) ZHIVKOV GUILTY OF EMBEZZLEMENT. Todor Zhivkov, former chief of the Bulgarian Communist Party and chairman of the Politburo, who ran Bulgaria for much of the 45 years it was under communist rule, was found guilty of embezzlement in a Sofia court on 4 September, BTA and Western agencies report. The trial lasted 18 months. Zhivkov was tried for using 21.5 million leva (about $24 million at the then current rate) of government funds to buy automobiles and apartments for associates and family. He will begin his jail sentence immediately but is appealing the verdict. Charges of promoting terrorism, sanctioning the forced assimilation of ethnic Turks, responsibility for labor camps, and generally ruining the state economy are pending. Zhivkov turned 81 on 7 September. (Duncan M. Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) ILIESCU BARRED FROM RUNNING FOR THE SENATE. Following a suit filed by the Democratic Convention against President Ion Iliescu's candidacy, the Bucharest Municipal Tribunal has barred him from running for a Senate seat on the slate of the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), Western agencies report from Bucharest. The court said the law does not allow independents to be on the lists of parties running in the elections, and Iliescu could not be a member of the DNSF because the law prohibits the president from being a member of a political party. The decision was made by a majority vote of two judges to one. The ruling does not affect Iliescu's presidential candidacy. The DNSF said it will appeal. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.). BISHOP TOKES'S PROTEST FAST. In an open letter addressed to Iliescu on 6 September, Bishop Laszlo Tokes said that he would agree to meet him, Radio Bucharest reports. Tokes thus reversed an earlier refusal to meet Iliescu. A spokesman for the bishop said on 5 September that six more people had joined his protest fast--four ethnic Romanians plus the former mayor of Cluj, Octavian Buracu. On 6 September, the Democratic Convention urged Tokes to give up his protest fast, Radio Bucharest reported. While expressing support for Tokes's aims, the convention cautioned that it is vital not to create "any pretext that could be used by the enemies of democracy to create diversion." Tokes celebrated Sunday services at a church in Timisoara attended by a crowd of some 1,000 people, Reuters reports. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) SEJM DEBATES DECOMMUNIZATION. In a close vote the Sejm opted on 5 September to continue work on six different draft bills that would govern lustration in Poland. The drafts, submitted by the Senate and five different parties, range in stringency. The harshest would ban former communist party activists from holding public office, while the most lenient would bar only former secret police collaborators. All of the drafts include provisions for appeal by those affected. The postcommunist Democratic Left protested that the bills were aimed at eliminating the left wing from politics rather than achieving justice, but the Sejm rejected a Democratic Left motion to throw out all the drafts. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) POLISH LABOR SCENE STILL UNSETTLED. The sit-down strike in the Rozbark coal mine ended early on 6 September, with the signing of an agreement with the industry ministry. The terms of the agreement were not disclosed. The strike by some 3,000 workers continued at the FSM auto plant in Tychy, where management has ruled out further talks with strikers as pointless. Announcements appeared in the local press informing strikers that their dismissal was imminent. The FSM strikers appealed to President Lech Walesa for help, but the president made any intervention conditional upon the ending of the strike. Meanwhile, the Network (comprising Solidarity locals at Poland's largest industrial plants) appealed to all Solidarity members to take part in a two-hour warning strike on 10 September. Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski distanced himself from Network's "autonomous" protest. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) ADVANCE VOTING BEGINS IN ESTONIA, RUSSIAN CITIZENS PROTEST. As advance voting for Estonia's parliamentary election got underway on 5 September, a group of noncitizens in Narva launched a campaign to protest the fact that they have been left without the vote, BNS reports. The group, calling itself the Union of Russian Citizens in Narva, has taken to wearing blue-on-blue badges until the 20 September election to protest the fact that Russian citizens will not be allowed to vote in Estonia's national elections. By the terms of the new Estonian constitution, noncitizens are allowed to vote in local elections, but only citizens may participate in national polling. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) LATVIAN PARLIAMENT FACTIONS TO REREGISTER. The Supreme Council Presidium has approved a resolution calling on all deputies who are members of a parliamentary faction to announce their affiliation by 20 September. The decision was prompted by changes in the membership of the Supreme Council and political realignments of the deputies. It is possible that the Ravnopravie faction, which supported the integrity of the USSR and opposed Latvia's independence, may lose its status as an official faction if its membership has dropped below 20, the minimum for a parliamentary faction, BNS reports. Other factions may come into existence, joining the People's Front and Satversme groupings. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) LITHUANIAN PARTY CONGRESSES FOR PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. On 5-6 September the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party and Liberal Union held congresses that approved programs and their lists of candidates for the parliamentary elections, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. The Social Democratic Party list includes eight current deputies headed by party chairman Aloyzas Sakalas and former chairman Kazimieras Antanavicius. The Liberal Union formed an election coalition with the Peasants' Union and approved a list of 46 candidates (31 from the Liberal Union and 15 from the Peasants' Union). The list includes four current deputies as well as the unions' chairmen Vytautas Radzvilas and Petras Becius. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) SLOVAK PREMIER ON RELATIONS WITH HUNGARY. Speaking on Slovak Radio on 4 September, Vladimir Meciar said that some of the recent actions by ethnic Hungarian deputies could adversely influence his talks with Hungarian leaders on 9 September. (Hungarian deputies have severely criticized the new Slovak constitution for what they see as its insufficient protection of minority rights. On 1 September they walked out before the vote on the constitution in the Slovak parliament.) Meciar argued that the Magyar deputies do not represent members of all ethnic minorities in Slovakia. He said that Hungary is currently trying to conclude bilateral agreements with various countries on the treatment of ethnic minorities, but that it usually is more concerned about the treatment of ethnic minorities in other countries than on its own territory. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK DEFENSE MINISTER VISITS HUNGARY. Lt. Gen. Imrich Andrejcak made a one-day visit to Hungary at the invitation of his Hungarian counterpart Lajos Fur, MTI announced on 4 September. The two ministers discussed the status of the military after the breakup of Czechoslovakia and future military cooperation among the members of the Visegrad Three--soon to be four--with Andrejcak stressing the need for good bilateral military cooperation with both Hungary and Poland. Fur announced that the Visegrad Three's defense ministers will meet in September on Czech territory. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN MILITARY DELEGATIONS IN HUNGARY, BULGARIA. A Romanian military delegation led by 4th Army commander Col. Gen. Paul Cheler arrived on 3 September at the Hungarian Army's ground forces headquarters in Szekesfehervar, MTI announced. During the visit, held within the framework of the two countries' bilateral military cooperation agreement, the Romanian delegation will look at a number of military installations and units in eastern Hungary and hold talks on 7 September with the commander of the Hungarian Army. On 6 September Romanian State Secretary and Chief of General Staff Lt. Gen. Dumitru Cioflina ended a three-day visit to Bulgaria, BTA reports. Cioflina had discussions on military reform with Deputy Premier Nikola Vasilev, Deputy Defense Minister Nikola Daskalov, and the Bulgarian Chief of General Staff Col. Gen. Lyuben Petrov. Before leaving on Sunday, Cioflina told reporters a planned agreement between the defense ministries would lay a solid basis for the further development of bilateral military relations. (Alfred Reisch & Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) TURKISH MINISTER IN SOFIA. In connection with a session of the Bulgarian-Turkish Committee on Economic, Scientific, and Technological Cooperation, Turkish Minister of State Orhan Kilercioglu spent 3-4 September in the Bulgarian capital, BTA reported. Kilercioglu met with Bulgarian Premier Filip Dimitrov to discuss the problems of returning Bulgarian Turks (forced to emigrate in 1989) and the crisis in ex-Yugoslavia. Together with Bulgarian Transport Minister Aleksandar Aleksandrov Kilercioglu signed a protocol on bilateral trade, transport and telecommunications. Other accords--on promoting investments and avoiding double taxation--are to be signed before 1993. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) BELGIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN HUNGARY. According to a 4 September MTI report, Willy Claes will start official talks on 7 September with Hungarian President Arpad Goncz, Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, International Economic Relations Minister Bela Kadar, and chairman of the Hungarian National Bank Akos Peter Bod. Bilateral relations and Hungary's international integration efforts are expected to dominate the discussions. Claes is considered to be among those Western politicians who believe that the Visegrad Three--Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia--should join the European Community as soon as possible. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) LANDSBERGIS IN SPAIN. On 5 September parliament chairman Vytautas Landsbergis flew to Seville to host the Lithuanian Day ceremonies at Expo 92 on the 6th, Radio Lithuania reports. He will return to Lithuania on the 7th and travel to Moscow for a meeting with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 8 September. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) GORBUNOVS: TROOP WITHDRAWAL SHOULD BE DISCUSSED SEPARATELY. In an interview aired by Ekho Moskvy on 4 September, Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs said that the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic States should be discussed separately from other issues of bilateral relations to avoid giving the impression that Russia is using the presence of its troops in the Baltic for resolving bilateral issues. Gorbunovs also expressed readiness to discuss the possibility of allowing Russia to maintain certain strategically important military facilities in Latvia for some time after the withdrawal of the main contingent of Russian troops, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) GUIDELINES FOR RETURNING MILITARY SITES TO LATVIA DISCUSSED. On 4 September Latvian officials met with the leaders of the Northwestern Group of Forces to discuss guidelines for turning over military facilities to Latvia. The NWGF agreed to transfer 9 military "villages" (gorodok in Russian) this year but said that military schools would be handed over next year, Radio Riga and BNS report. The NWGF also expressed readiness vacate its political administration building in the center of Riga so that the building could be offered for use as Russian embassy in Riga. The two sides also agreed that private businesses functioning in army territory will be banned unless their activities had been coordinated with the Latvian authorities. On 3 September Radio Riga reported that Russian recruits continue to be sent for military service in Latvia, contrary to Moscow's promises to stop replenishing its forces in Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) WILL RUSSIANS GET EX-SOVIET EMBASSY IN RIGA? According to Radio Riga of 3 and 4 September, the Latvian Foreign Ministry informed its Russian counterpart of the recommendation by the Supreme Council Presidium not to hand over the former USSR embassy in Riga to Russia. The building, which served as the Soviet embassy in the interwar period, was recently renovated and houses the Ministry of Culture. The embassy had planned to start its work in Riga on 1 October. Both Latvian Minister of State Janis Dinevics and Minister of Foreign Affairs Janis Jurkans said that the unresolved question of the Russian embassy could complicate Riga's relations with Moscow. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) IGNALINA ATOMIC POWER PLANT HALTED. On 5 September the second reactor at the atomic power plant at Ignalina was stopped when an impulse pipe in the feeding unit of the steam separator broke down, Radio Lithuania reports. There was no escape or leakage of radioactive substances and no danger to plant personnel. The accident stopped the plant, since the first reactor is also shut down for maintenance. The repair of the second reactor should be completed by 8 September. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) HUNGARIAN FOREIGN TRADE FIGURES. According to data released by the Ministry of International Economic Relations, Hungary's foreign trade for the first seven months of 1992 showed a deficit to $60 million, which is $1.3 billion less than the deficit for the same period last year, MTI reported on 6 September. Exports rose by 14.1% to a value of $5.9 billion and imports fell by 8.8% to a value of $5.9 billion. Some 70% of the exports went to advanced industrial countries (with the EC accounting for 50% and Germany alone for 27%), 25% to the former socialist countries, and 5% to developing countries. During the same period, imports from developing countries dropped by 60%. After deduction of nonpayment items such as leasing and wages, Hungary's foreign trade achieved a surplus of $152.5 million. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull
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