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No. 168, 02 September 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN DENIES RUSSIAN INVOLVEMENT IN SHELLING OF GEORGIAN TROOPS. Thirteen Georgian soldiers were killed by missile fire from a Russian military facility while crossing the river Gumista north of Sukhumi on 1 September, Western agencies reported. The commander of the Georgian troops in Abkhazia informed Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze that Russian troops were responsible for the attack; Russian President Boris Yeltsin has denied Russian involvement, according to Interfax. Shevardnadze hinted that the incident could jeopardize his planned meeting in Moscow with Yeltsin and Abkhaz and North Caucasian representatives on 3 September. In an interview with Izvestia, summarized by Interfax, Shevardnadze claimed to have a concrete peace plan for the region. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) HAS RUSSIA WRITTEN OFF SHEVARDNADZE? Two articles in the Russian press suggest that the Russian leadership may have resigned itself to Shevardnadze's imminent removal from the Georgian political scene. Golos (no. 35) claims that a secret protocol has been signed between Russia and Georgia on the frontiers between the two states, and that some Russian circles are now backing Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani, who has links with leading Russian security officials based in the Transcaucasus Military District. Rossiiskie vesti (No. 51) cites unnamed members of a Russian delegation recently in Tbilisi as claiming that Shevardnadze no longer retains any control over the situation in Abkhazia. Western press reports similarly suggest that Georgian troops under Kitovani are acting independently of instructions from Shevardnadze in Tbilisi. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) TENSE SITUATION IN DUSHANBE. The demonstrators who occupied part of the Presidential Palace in Dushanbe on 31 August and took several government officials hostage released the hostages the following day and promptly took some more, including the mayor of Dushanbe, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 September. The same day, Shodmon Yusupov, chairman of the opposition Democratic Party, denied that his organization had any involvement in the actions of the demonstrators who are reported to be members of a Dushanbe youth group. They are demanding the resignation of President Rakhmon Nabiev because he cannot stop the fighting in southern Tajikistan. According to the report, a demonstration was in the making in the square where an anti-government demonstration continued for two months in the spring. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINE TO GAIN IMF MEMBERSHIP. The International Monetary Fund will formally accept Ukrainian membership on Thursday, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 1 September. The official ceremony is to occur in Washington where Finance Minister Grigorii Pyatshenko will sign the relevant documents. This announcement of imminent membership came after reports that the IMF was threatening to cut off talks with the nation because of its failure to produce a coherent reform program. The Fund was evidently satisfied with subsequent reform plans announced by Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Valentyn Symonenko on Monday. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) GREEK BUSINESSMAN TO FINANCE PRAVDA. Greek businessman Yannis Yannikos, who took over a major interest in the former Communist Party daily Pravda last month, said that he was going to "repay old debts" by helping save the newspaper from financial ruin. In comments that appeared in Pravda on 1 September, Yannikos said the newspaper helped him survive in jail during Greece's civil war. He said he was sentenced to die in the 1940s for fighting against Greek fascists, but attributed his reprieve to a campaign launched by Pravda to spare the lives of himself and his comrades. Pravda's editor-in-chief Gennadii Seleznev said the paper would keep its editorial independence. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL Inc.) RUBLE CONTINUES TUMBLE. The ruble fell another 2.6% against the dollar on the Moscow Interbank Foreign Currency Exchange, Western and Russian news agencies reported on 1 September. The dollar now buys 210.5 rubles as compared to the 205 rubles set at last Thursday's market. Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko has called this rate "absolutely unrealistic," claiming in an interview with Kosomolskaya Pravda on 1 September that the purchasing power equivalent of the ruble was between 15-27 rubles to the dollar. Another central bank official, Deputy Chairman Aleksandr Khandruev told the news agency RIA that the ruble may in the future be tied to a one to two month moving average of market exchange rates, according to Novosti the same day. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) GRACHEV FIGHTS POLITIZATION OF ARMY. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has said that those officers who want to be active in politics should immediately resign from the army, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 September. He stated that harsh actions will be taken against officers who participate in political protests, and noted that he will de-politicize all military organizations, such as the Officers' Assemblies. He added that he will also fight the establishment of unofficial trade unions in the army. He denied that he is against democratization, saying that he is always ready to open a dialogue with organizations that are concerned about the military. He reiterated, however, that he will not tolerate political activity in the army. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) CHIEF COMMAND OF CIS JOINT ARMED FORCES SET UP. The chief command of the CIS Joint Armed Forces has been formed according to the agreement reached by the CIS leaders in July and will from now on coordinate efforts by CIS member states to ensure collective security, reforms in the armed forces, and the performance of peace keeping duties, Interfax reported on 31 August. Meanwhile the Belarus Defense Ministry has withdrawn its military personnel from Tajikistan, causing protests from the Tajik leadership, which now faces personnel shortages that may hamper border control. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) CIS DEFENSE MINISTERS TO MEET. The defense ministers of the CIS member states are scheduled to meet in Moscow on 3 September to discuss various aspects of collective security, a joint nuclear strategy, the composition of strategic forces, communications between the CIS armed forces' chief command and control bodies, the procedure for transfer of servicemen to their native countries, and air force activities over CIS territory, Interfax reported on 1 September. The defense ministers will also discuss a "military package," which will be addressed at the forthcoming CIS summit meeting of heads of state in Bishkek on September 25. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) ARBATOV CLAIMS REAGAN ARMS BUILDUP PROLONGED COLD WAR. Georgii Arbatov, a long-time Kremlin advisor, has claimed that the US. military buildup under President Ronald Reagan actually prolonged the Cold War. In remarks published on 31 August by UPI, Arbatov is quoted as saying that there had been a virtual conspiracy during the Cold War between the Soviet and American military-industrial complexes, with each indirectly helping the other. According to Arbatov, the US buildup under Reagan "helped sustain the perception by our hardliners of a besieged country." Arbatov, the director of the USA-Canada Institute added that Japan or Germany were the more likely victors in the Cold War, rather than the United States. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) US, RUSSIA INITIAL PACT ON URANIUM FROM WEAPONS. President Bush announced on 31 August that the United States and Russia had initialed an agreement to ensure that the highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear weapons would be used only for peaceful purposes. UPI reported that the two governments planned to sign a pact calling for the quick conversion of uranium from Russian atomic bombs into civilian reactor fuel. Within the next year, the US Department of Energy will sign a contract to purchase the weapons materiel from Russia, and will then dilute the uranium so that it can be used in commercial reactors. Russia will use part of the proceeds to increase the safety of nuclear reactors in the former Soviet Union. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) MOSCOW BANKER ACCUSSES CIA OF RECRUITING RUSSIAN BUSINESSMEN. A young Russian entrepreneur, German Sterligov, has made a formal complaint concerning CIA activities to the US Ambassador, Robert Strauss. Sterlogov alledged that CIA officers offered him business assistance in the United States on the condition that his firm provide them commercial information, according to TASS on 31 August. In his letter to Strauss, Sterligov wrote that he and his partners, Alexander Doronin and Malik Saidulaev, began experiencing difficulty obtaining US visas and conducting their business in the US as soon as they refused to provide information to the CIA. A spokesman at the US Embassy in Moscow said that Sterligov's charges were absolutely groundless, and that all elligible employees in Sterligov's firm had been granted visas, Reuters reported on 31 August. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) . . . AND MOSCOW NEWS REPORTS ON COMPUTER ESPIONAGE. Several years ago, the former USSR Aviation Ministry bought Wax computers from the American firm TEC, according to Moscow News (no. 34). The computers had been implanted with a time-delayed computer virus, which had been programmed to disable the computers one year after installation. The American plan, writes Moscow News, was to respond to a call by Moscow for assistance by sending an intelligence officer disguised as a TEC technician, who would then be able to obtain all the information that had passed through the computers during the previous year. The virus was discovered by Ministry of Security officers. The publication of this story in Moscow News seems to be part of a coordinated campaign to raise the morale and the image of the Russian secret service. It may also be a response to Western complaints about continued Russian espionage abroad. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN-BELARUSIAN DEAL ON FSU DEBT. Russia has agreed to assume the portion of the convertible currency debt of the former Soviet Union attributable to Belarus in return for the Belarusian share of the FSU assets abroad. This was set out in a Russian-Belarusian agreement that was published in Minsk on 31 August, Belinform-TASS reported. The Belarusian share is estimated at around $3.5 billion out of a total FSU debt that stood at roughly $74 billion at mid-1992. Spokesmen for the Russian Federation have repeatedly asserted that Russia is the only former Soviet republic that services--albeit only partially--the convertible currency debt of the FSU. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) ARDZINBA FLOATS IDEA OF PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN ABKHAZIA. Interfax quotes Abkhaz parliament Chairman Vladislav Ardzinba as stating that he wants a negotiated solution to the current conflict and "civilized relations" with Georgia, but that all Georgian troops must be withdrawn from Abkhaz territory. Ardzinba did not rule out the subsequent deployment of peacekeeping troops, possibly under the auspices of the UN or CSCE. UN Undersecretary General Vladimir Petrovsky is quoted by ITAR-TASS as proposing in Moscow on 1 September that the UN send observers to Abkhazia. Petrovsky expressed the hope that Georgia would agree to this suggestion. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) NAGORNO-KARABAKH CEASEFIRE FAILS TO TAKE EFFECT. The agreement on a 60-day ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh reached in Alma-Ata on 28 August failed to take effect as scheduled on 1 September. Interfax quoted the Azerbaijani Defense Ministry as claiming that Armenian forces had shelled several Azerbaijani towns and killed 24 refugees near the Lachin corridor, while the Armenian Foreign Ministry charged that Azerbaijani troops had launched an offensive along the Armenian-Azerbaijani border. Interfax quoted Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey as claiming that the ceasefire agreement applied only to the Armenian-Azerbaijani border and not to Nagorno-Karabakh, which was "Azerbaijan's internal affair." Kazakhstan's presidential envoy Gasan Kazhokov, in Erevan to monitor the ceasefire, declined to comment on the situation on 1 September, according to ITAR-TASS. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) MOLDOVA FEARS "YUGOSLAV" SCENARIO. Moldova's ambassador to Russia, Petru Lucinschi, told a news conference in Moscow on 26 August that Moldova fears "a situation on the Yugoslav model in which Moldova's eastern area would be cut off" from the rest of the country, Izvestiia reported. The forces of the "Dniester republic" are using the pacification process and the presence of Russia's peacemaking troops in order to consolidate their gains and strengthen their structures of state power, Lucinschi said. Alluding to a possible chain reaction leading to the unraveling of Moldova, Lucinschi expressed concern that a "victory for the 'Dniester republic' could have negative consequences in the [Gagauz-inhabited] south and other parts of the republic". (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) MOLDOVAN LEADERS ON LANGUAGE PROBLEMS. Addressing the people of Moldova on "Language Day," 31 August (the anniversary of the 1989 legislation elevating the native language to official status and reinstituting the Latin script in Moldova), President Mircea Snegur said that the implementation of the language laws has been hindered by the fact that "Moldova exists in an imperial space, which proves much more difficult to break away from than we could imagine a few years ago." In another address, Parliament Chairman Alexandru Mosanu said that the implementation of the language laws is difficult and uneven owing to "the weakness of state power at all levels...the continuing dominance of the Russian language in important social functions...the nonobservance of the language laws by parts of the Russian-language population hoping to revert to the linguistic situation of the Soviet period...and the damage done by the separatist forces on the left bank of the Dniester and their supporters," Moldovapres reported on 31 August and 1 September. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SIEGE OF GORAZDE ENDS. On 1 September Serbian forces pulled back 12 miles from the strategic hilltop positions they have held for four months around the mainly Muslim town. The 2 September Washington Post said that this was in keeping with a promise Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic made at the London Conference on 26-28 August. The paper added that, after making this gesture, Karadzic now probably hopes to consolidate his hold on the two-thirds of Bosnia's territory his followers still control. But the daily noted that "the Serb position seems to be unraveling rather than strengthening, in both military and political terms." Serbs make up only one-third of Bosnia's population. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) PANIC RESPONDS TO CRITICISM. During an interview on Belgrade TV on 1 September Milan Panic, prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia, rejected accusations that he betrayed Serbia's interests at the London Conference. He said that the conference achieved "more than expected" and, more important, there is now a "more realistic" assessment of blame for the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina." He added "I do not think that I deviated" from the federal assembly's instructions in connection with the conference. Panic also said he and Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic have never quarreled, but "If Mr. Milosevic does not keep his word, which he and I gave together as representatives of the Yugoslav and Serbian peoples, I will ask him to submit his resignation." Yugoslavs must understand that they have two choices, Panic concluded, "One is peace, international recognition, pride, international law, consideration, and respect. The other is tragedy." (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) DRASKOVIC SUPPORTS PANIC. Vuk Draskovic and his Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Serbia's largest opposition party, threw their support behind Panic on 1 September, Radio Serbia reports. The SPO is urging the public to rally in large numbers for Panic at the Federal Assembly when it takes its vote of confidence on Panic. The SPO terms the call for the vote by hard-line minority faction in the Socialist Party and the right-wing Radical Party "a desperate move by the Lord of War [Milosevic] to get rid of the Advocate of Peace." The SPO statement predicts the consequences of a possible replacement of Panic would be foreign military intervention and a civil war in Serbia. Politika TV predicted on 1 September that Panic will survive the vote. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) ATTEMPT ON PANIC? A curious incident on 30 August is being described by the SPO as an attempt "to physically remove Panic and a few generals" from the scene. Panic was aboard a federal navy patrol boat off Budva, Montenegro, when the vessel began taking on water. According to a report on Belgrade's independent radio Studio B on 1 September, the boat also lost the use of its radio and had no lifeboats aboard. The tour of the coast was cut short and the boat returned to Budva harbor, sinking just minutes after Panic debarked. Radio talk shows in Belgrade were inundated with calls supporting Panic. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) TURKISH PRESIDENT FEARS BALKAN CONFLICT. Turgut Ozal, in a speech before the Grand National Assembly on 1 September reported by Reuters, expressed fears that the war in Bosnia could spread across the Balkans. A Balkan conflagration would have serious implications for Turkey--also a Balkan state--both because of the potential for international conflict that could involve Turkey and because of Turkey's historic concern for ethnic Turks in the peninsula. Although he did not specify possible flash points, he no doubt was thinking of Kosovo, the Sandzak, and Macedonia. Ozal also called attention to the situation in the Transcaucasus, also bordered by Turkey, calling this volatile region a "powder keg." Interethnic conflict has already exploded in several regions there as well. Turkish policy currently seeks improved relations with Armenia, while Abkhazia has asked Ankara for help against Georgia. Extreme right-wing Turks earlier this year called for direct Turkish military intervention in Azerbaijan. (Duncan Perry & Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) SLOVAK PARLIAMENT ADOPTS CONSTITUTION. On 1 September, the Slovak parliament approved the constitution of the Slovak Republic. CSTK reports that in the 150-member parliament 114 deputies voted for the constitution, 16 voted against, 4 abstained, and 16 were not present. A three-fifths majority was needed to approve the constitution. Shortly before the vote, ethnic Hungarian deputies walked out. The parliament approved an amendment to the preamble to the Slovak Constitution whereby the original wording "We, the citizens of the Slovak Republic..." was replaced by "We, the Slovak nation..." Another amendment approved by the deputies stipulates that the Slovak language should be considered the "state" language of the republic, rather than the "official" language. Parliamentary chairman Gasparovic said that "by the adoption of this constitution, the Slovak Republic has become a sovereign state." Czechoslovakia is to split into two states on 1 January 1993. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) SLOVAK PREMIER CLASHES WITH HUNGARIAN DEPUTIES. Speaking at the end of the Slovak National Council's discussion of a draft Slovak constitution on 1 September, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar accused ethnic Hungarian deputies of trying to create political instability in Slovakia. CSTK reports Meciar as saying that amendments to the constitution proposed by Hungarian deputies were rejected not because they were proposed by ethnic Hungarians but because they were bad. Meciar also argued that there was no comparison between the treatment of ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia and ethnic Slovaks in Hungary. In Slovakia, "we do not want ethnic Hungarians to meet the same fate that ethnic Slovaks have met in Hungary," said Meciar. Hungarian deputy Erno Rozsa rejected Meciar's speech as dictatorial and arrogant. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) DUBCEK UPDATE. A physician at the Prague clinic where Alexander Dubcek, former chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly and leader of the 1968 Prague Spring, was transported following a car crash, confirmed that his condition is critical. Dubcek's spine, pelvis, and several ribs are broken. In early morning hours of 2 September Dubcek underwent three hours of surgery on his spine. Describing the accident, CSTK reports that Dubcek and his driver were catapulted from the doors of their BMW auto after it broke through a steel roadside barrier on the highway connecting Prague and Bratislava and plunged into a ravine. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) LATVIAN LEADERS WANT ALL TROOPS OUT BY 1993. During a joint meeting on 31 August, members of Latvia's Satversme and People's Front factions agreed that all Russian troops must leave Latvia unconditionally by the end of 1993. Regarding recent unofficial statements by Russian officials that the troop departure would be completed in 1993, Latvian officials expressed guarded optimism; some saw these a softening of Moscow's attitude toward the Baltic States, while others reacted more cautiously, noting the unofficial nature of the Russian statements and the fact that the Russian side also said that it wants to bring up several issues--not specified--at the next meeting on troop withdrawal issues, Diena and BNS report. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.). MAYOROV VISITS LITHUANIA. On 1 September a group of senior officers from the Northwest Group of Forces (NWGF, RFE/RL Inc.), headed by its commander Col. Gen. Leonid Mayorov, traveled to Vilnius to meet with the Russian army command in Lithuania and discuss issues of troop withdrawal, BNS reports. A military spokesman in Vilnius refused to comment on the purpose of the visit. The Lithuanian National Defense Ministry had not been informed about the visit. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) PREPARATORY TALKS FOR LANDSBERGIS-YELTSIN MEETING. On 31 August and 1 September a Lithuanian delegation, headed by Supreme Council deputy chairman Ceslovas Stankevicius, held talks at the Lithuanian delegation in Moscow with Russian officials preparing for the 8 September meeting between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Supreme Council chairman Vytautas Landsbergis, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuanian chargé d'affaires in Moscow, Egidijus Bickauskas, was positive, saying he has not seen such a constructive Russian approach before. Drafting of agreements on troop withdrawals was proceeding very slowly, he said, but he expected the principal positions to be settled that evening. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN POLL SHOWS OPPOSITION LEADS. A new public opinion survey conducted by the independent Institute of Marketing and Polling again shows the Democratic Convention as likely to win most seats in the parliamentary elections scheduled for 27 September, Rompres announced on 2 September. The poll was taken between 10 and 20 August. It shows the convention as winning 31.3% of the seats, as against 13.6% for the National Salvation Front, and 11.6% for the (pro-Iliescu) Democratic National Salvation Front. The poll confirms earlier trends. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.). HUNGARIAN INTERIOR MINISTER IN ROMANIA. According to MTI and Western media, Interior Minister Peter Boross arrived in Romania on 1 September for a 24-hour visit at the invitation of his Romanian counterpart Victor Babiuc. The two ministers signed agreements on the return of illegal refugees, cooperation between the interior ministries, and opening new border crossings. Discussions also touched on improving cooperation between the border guards, police, and refugee organizations of the two countries. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) STRIKES WANING IN POLAND. Strikers at the FSM car parts factory in Tychy lowered their pay demands after the management dismissed 400 of the striking workers. In a statement issued on 1 September they said they want a minimum pay guarantee of 75% of the average pay in Polish industry (about $150) instead of the previous demand of the salary equivalent of 10% of the market price for the compact FIAT Cinquecento produced by the FSM.(about $500). The management said in a statement reported by PAP on 1 September that the change may lead to new negotiations with the strikers and could eventually bring about the end of the conflict. In a related development, Gazeta wyborcza reports on 2 September that the management of the Silesian Rozbark coal mine is preparing to send dismissal notices to 301 striking miners; on 1 September notices were sent to 14 strikers. In the meantime, PAP reports that Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka has agreed to meet on 4 September with Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski and worker representatives of the Ursus tractor plant. (Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL Inc.). STRIKE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that schoolteachers began their first ever national strike on 1 September in the Republic of Macedonia, protesting low wages. In July the parliament passed a wage package that represented a 141% increase for teachers. As a result of continuing inflation, however, available funds are insufficient to meet the new salary levels. The strike is expected to last a week. Leaders met with President Kiro Gligorov in an effort to resolve differences. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) NO LATVIAN BANKRUPTCIES . . . YET. According to Deputy Minister of Energy and Industry Janis Melkis, Latvian industry faces a deep crisis. Output during the first half of 1992 dropped 31% as compared with the same period last year and companies have 11.2% fewer employees on their payrolls than in 1991. The production slump has created a 2.8-billion-ruble deficit in the state budget. Profits in January-June 1992 were 8 times those of the same period in 1991, but the rise resulted essentially from price hikes and inflation. Latvian industries are still owed 7.5 billion rubles, 4.2 billion from companies in the CIS. Despite the critical situation, no company has had to shut down, though closures and bankruptcies have been expected for some time. Industrial wages averaged 5,794 rubles in July, and a 28% wage increase is expected this fall, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) NEW ROUND OF SUBSIDY CUTS IN ROMANIA. A new round of subsidy cuts, the second in 1992, went into effect in Romania on 1 September. Western and local media report that the prices of many staples have doubled. Under the new measures, meat became fully unsubsidized. The prices for bread, sugar and cooking oil have all doubled, and electricity prices rose by 62%. The government has announced cash handouts and raised minimum wages in the state sector by 15%. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) ENERGY PRICE INCREASES IN LITHUANIA. Effective 1 September the government has raised the price of electricity fivefold--from 70 kopeks to 3.5 rubles per kilowatt/hour--Radio Lithuania reports. Gasoline prices have been raised as well--A-92 from 23 to 35 rubles per liter, A-76 from 19 to 30 rubles, and diesel from 14 to 25 rubles. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) KOZLODUY PLANT READIES FOR WINTER. On 1 September a three-day seminar on contingency planning with participation by French and Finnish experts opened at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant. BTA reports that in mid-September a team of the International Atomic Energy Agency is scheduled to inspect winter preparations at the problem-ridden facility, which will use only four of its six reactors during the coming season. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET]
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