We are all apt to believe what the world believes about us. - George Eliot
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 164, 27 August 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

MORE FIGHTING IN ABKHAZIA. There was further overnight fighting
near Gagra between Abkhaz and Georgian troops on 25-26 August;
each side claimed to have sustained minimal losses while killing
dozens of the enemy. Three North Caucasians were killed when
some 50 pro-Abkhaz forces attacked the Sukhumi railway station
on 26 August. Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba rejected
an ultimatum to resign which he said underscored that the Georgians
were intent on solving political problems by force, ITAR-TASS
reported. Georgian State Council chairman Eduard Shevardnadze
invited Ardzinba to Tbilisi for peace negotiations; the two men
are scheduled to meet in Moscow on September 3 for talks that
will also include Russian President Boris Eltsin and representatives
from the North Caucasus. (Liz Fuller)

"LIBERAL RADICALS" ATTACK YELTSIN. In Moscow on the evening of
26 August, a group of prominent intellectuals describing themselves
as "liberal radicals" held a press conference to launch a book
highly critical of the Yeltsin government and to call for a campaign
of radical change. Professor Yury Afanasiev, a deputy to the
Russian parliament, introduced a panel of fellow authors of A
Year Since August: the Bitterness and the Choice. Among those
who spoke were Elena Bonner, Dr. Leonid Batkin, founder of the
"Moscow Tribune" political club, philosopher Vladimir Biblin,
the journalist and editor Yury Burtin, and the writer Lev Timofeev.
Economists Larisa Piyasheva and Vasily Selyunin attacked the
Gaidar reforms as too slow and ineffective. Panelists had difficulty
in answering one question from the audience: when would the intellectuals
stop complaining and start their own businesses? (Iain Elliot,
Moscow)

IMF DELEGATION IN MOSCOW. At the end of his visit to Moscow on
26 August, IMF Deputy Managing Director Richard Erb gave what
Interfax called a "closed press conference for foreign journalists."
To judge from Western agency and newspaper coverage, Erb gave
a very tentative, limited, and conditional approval to the fiscal
performance of the Gaidar administration so far this year. He
welcomed the fall in the monthly inflation rate recorded in July
and during the first part of August, but cautioned about reading
too much into such short-term trends. Significantly, Erb implied
that the standby agreement needed for release of the second tranche
of credit may not be signed until late 1992 or early 1993. (Keith
Bush)

RUSSIA ASKS FOR FAIR TREATMENT FROM THE WEST. In an interview
with Handelsblatt on 26 August, Russian Economics Minister Aleksei
Nechayev complained that Western creditor nations discriminated
against Russia. Russia comes in for criticism when it is late
with its interest payments, Nechayev asserted, while other CIS
republics, which do not even try to meet their obligations, are
rewarded with new credits. He asked that the West apply more
pressure to other former Soviet republics to contribute their
share to servicing the debt of the FSU. Nechayev further claimed
that the IMF insisted on far more rigorous criteria for Russian
membership of the Fund than was asked of other former Soviet
republics. (Keith Bush)

KOZYREV ON RUSSIAN PATRIOTISM. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev has called attempts to islotate Russia from the world
community "national treason." In an article in Nezavisimaya gazeta
on 20 August, he said that a truly patriotic foreign policy should
seek to include Russia in the world community of democratic,
market-oriented nations. He compared the present situation to
that which existed in Germany in 1933, when, instead of leading
Germany into the League of Nations, Hitler chose an imperial
course that led to a national catastrophy. He said that Russia's
present Balkan policy is seeking a just solution for all the
Slavic nations involved, i.e., not only for the Serbs. (Alexander
Rahr)

ANOTHER RUSSIAN ATTEMPT TO CONTROL TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER. Russian
border troops stationed on the Tajik-Afghan border have given
their approval to a decree by Russian President Boris Yeltsin
placing them directly under Russian jurisdiction, Khovar-TASS
reported on 26 August. The border troops have engaged in frequent
armed clashes with Tajiks bringing weapons from Afghanistan into
Tajikistan to arm participants in the fighting in the southern
part of the country, and some border guard officers have complained
of the hostility of local villagers. The Tajik opposition has
objected to the presence of Russian troops guarding the Tajik
border; the government in Dushanbe and leaders of other CIS states
regard the border as the most important line of defense against
Islamic fundamentalism from Afghanistan. (Bess Brown)

MOSCOW CONFERENCE ON DISSIDENT MOVEMENT. The "Memorial" research
center ended its three day international conference on 26 August
with further revelations on KGB repression. Arseny Roginsky,
a consultant to the Russian parliament's Human Rights Committee,
was able to prove after researching in KGB files that even the
most realistic Western scholars had greatly underestimated the
numbers repressed for dissident activities. Speaking in the Russian
State Humanities University (formerly the CPSU Higher Party School)
on Moscow's Gottwald Street, Roginsky cited messages from KGB
leaders to the Politburo to show that at the height of detente
the numbers imprisoned each year for human rights activities
numbered thousands, not hundreds as formerly estimated. (Iain
Elliot, Moscow)

NOMENKLATURA REGAINING POWER. According to an internal report
by Vitalii Mashkov, the presidential representative for the Ekaterinburg
region, Russia is now undergoing a gradual constitutional coup,
in the course of which power is being gained by technocrats who
were part of the old nomenklatura and who had accumulated billions
under Brezhnev, but could not then effectively enjoy their fortunes
under the Marxist system. According to Mashkov's report, a copy
of which was obtained by the RFE-RL Research Institute, these
technocrats initiated perestroika in order to abandon Marxism
and to create a market system which only they could control.
He wrote that under these technocrats, Russia is turning into
something resembling a Latin American country. He noted that
Russian democrats are too weak to resist this process. (Alexander
Rahr)

"AFFAIR OF 140 BILLIONS" IS REVIVED. The scandal involving 140
billion roubles, which included the involvement of senior Russian
officials in 1990, was not a KGB fabrication, according to the
chief investigator of the Russian Procuracy, Vladimir Kalinichenko,
who was interviewed on Ostankino television on August 26. Rather,
asserted Kalinichenko, this was a genuine attempt to launder
"Criminal Capital." Gibbins, the British subject who made illegal
deals with former Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Gennadii Filshin,
as well as with businessmen from the firms ANT and Russian House,
is wanted by Scotland Yard and the Swiss police on various charges.
Although the KGB knew in advance about Gibbin's background, it
purposely did not inform responsible officials. Subsequently,
in December 1990, Vladimir Kryuchkov, Valentin Pavlov, and Mikhail
Gorbachev exploited this affair in their attacks on the Yeltsin
government. However, according to Alexander Mikhailov, a spokesman
for the Russian Ministry of Security, this does not reduce the
negligence of Filshin (who is now with the Russian Trade Mission
in Vienna) and his associates. (Victor Yasmann)

VOLKOGONOV ALLEGES KAL COVERUP. Yeltsin military adviser Col.
Gen. Dmitrii Volkogonov said in Seoul on 26 August that the Soviet
government had systematically covered up events surrounding the
downing of a Korean Air Lines jetliner over Sakhalin Island in
1983. He gave a South Korean news agency the minutes of an enlarged
emergency Politburo meeting held immediately after the incident.
According to Volkogonov, hardliners led by then Defense Minister
Dmitrii Ustinov overrode a proposal by Foreign Minister Andrei
Gromyko that Moscow express "regret" to the families of the victims.
All information on the incident was turned over to the KGB and
Defense Ministry and kept secret. Volkogonov, who said that the
intelligence agencies were still reluctant to release the information,
also said that Mikhail Gorbachev had attended the emergency meeting
as a Politburo member. Volkogonov's remarks were reported by
AFP. (Stephen Foye)

INDONESIA DENIES IT WILL BUY SCUDS. The Indonesian armed forces
information service on 26 August denied an earlier report that
the country planned to purchase Russian-made Scud missiles, Jakarta
Radio reported. On 24 August the newspaper Kompas had published
remarks by the chief of the Indonesian air force, Marshal Siboen,
that suggested that Indonesia was considering buying Scuds, according
to a UPI report. Scud surface-to-surface missiles were used extensively
by Iraq both in its war with Iran and during the more recent
Gulf War. (Doug Clarke, Stephen Foye)

UKRAINE AND UZBEKISTAN SIGN AGREEMENTS. On 25 August, during
the official visit to Kiev of Uzbek President Islam Karimov,
several Uzbek-Ukrainian agreements were signed, Holos Ukrainy
reported the following day. They included a treaty of friendship
and cooperation, an agreement on trade and economic cooperation
during 1993, and a protocol on the establishment of diplomatic
relations between the two states. Ukrainian president Leonid
Kravchuk said in an interview on Ukrainian TV on 25 August that
the issues of Ukrainians living in Uzbekistan and of deported
peoples would also figure in his discussions with Karimov. (Bohdan
Nahaylo).

NAGORNO-KARABAKH CEASEFIRE PROSPECTS BLEAK. CSCE negotiator Mario
Raffaelli told Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan in Erevan
on 26 August that failure to agree on his proposal for a 60-day
ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh would result in the CSCE declaring
its Karabakh peace conference closed, ITAR-TASS reported quoting
the Pro-Armenia information center. Ter-Petrossyan argued that
the ceasefire proposal should be agreed not between Armenia and
Azerbaijan, but between Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh, and
that Armenia would then work with Russia and Kazakhstan towards
a peaceful settlement. Azerbaijani presidential advisor Vafa
Guli-Zade likewise pointed out that the CSCE ceasefire proposal
was predicated entirely on the good will of the parties involved
and contained no mechanism for its implementation. The UN Security
Council on 26 August also called for an immediate ceasefire in
Nagorno-Karabakh. (Liz Fuller)

IRAN TO BUILD RAIL LINK TO NAKHICHEVAN? Nakhichevan Parliament
Chairman Geidar Aliev, currently on a three-day official visit
to Iran, told a news conference in Tabriz that Iran is considering
building a road and railway through Iranian territory to link
Azerbaijan with its exclave, Nakhichevan, AFP reported. Iran
has also agreed to supply Nakhichevan with unspecified quantities
of gas, electricity and fuel oil to counter problems of supplying
of the region through Armenian territory. (Liz Fuller)

BURYATS, TATARS DEMAND WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS. One of the
leaders of the Buryat-Mongolian People's Party, Khomutaev, has
demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Buryatia, CIS
TV reported on 28 August. He argues that, if the 250,000 troops
in the republic are withdrawn, the Buryat share of the population
will rise (Buryats accounted for only 24.0 percent of the population
of just over a million in 1989) and that the stationing of such
a large number of troops in the republic is a relic of the past.
A meeting of the milli-mejlis or alternative parliament created
by Tatar nationalist organizations in Tatarstan has also demanded
the immediate withdrawal of Russian troops from Tatarstan, "Vesti"
reported on 25 August. (Ann Sheehy)

DAGESTAN OPPOSITION DEMANDS DISSOLUTION OF PARLIAMENT. For three
days, meetings of the opposition parties of Dagestan have been
held in the center of Makhachkala demanding the resignation of
the government and the dissolution of parliament, DR-Press and
ITAR-TASS reported on 26 August. A tent city has been erected
where the protesters intend to remain until their demands, which
include the removal of monuments to Lenin and other Bolshevik
leaders, are met. Activists of the Confederation of Mountain
Peoples of the Caucasus are also on the square collecting funds
and enrolling volunteers to go to Abkhazia. DR-Press reported
that the authorities had invited leaders of the opposition to
a "round table," and that they might be prepared to sack some
members of the government. (Ann Sheehy)

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT ON RELATIONS WITH THE USA. On 26 August, Moldovan
President Mircea Snegur received letters of accreditation from
the new US ambassador, Mary Pendleton. During this meeting, Snegur
said that US support for Moldova "is being palpably experienced
each time a Moldovan official comes into contact with representatives
of this great state which is our friend. This support gives us
confidence that our young democracy has not been left alone to
face those who are trying to take independence and freedom away
from us before we have fully tasted either," according to a quote
by Moldovapres. (Vladimir Socor)

MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS POSTPONED. A preliminary round of
talks between Moldova and Russia on the status and terms for
withdrawal of Russia's troops in Moldova was held in Moscow on
12 to 14 August. The talks were due to resume a few days thereafter
but have not been continued. Moldovapres reported on 26 August
that the talks will continue in September. No precise date was
given for the resumption of the talks. (Vladimir Socor)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

LONDON CONFERENCE ON YUGOSLAV CRISIS OPENS. International media
on 26 and 27 August report at length on the first session on
26 August, at which delegates approved principles for a settlement.
These include a ceasefire; acceptance that borders can only be
changed by mutual consent; guarantees for human and minority
rights; and international access to detention camps. Most speakers
stressed the responsibility of the Serbs for the violence and
human rights abuses, and US acting Secretary of State Lawrence
Eagleburger said: "it is the Serbs, alas, who are the most guilty
today of crimes which mimic those of their former tormentors."
British Prime Minister John Major argued that pressure would
"inexorably increase" on any of the warring parties who stood
in the way of a settlement. (Patrick Moore)

POLITICAL MEASURES UNDER DISCUSSION . . . Other speakers called
for setting up a war crimes tribunal for those guilty of promoting
"ethnic cleansing" and other human rights abuses. Diplomats meanwhile
continued to discuss establishing a permanent crisis-management
body, which would consist of a steering committee and six topical
working groups. They are also considering appointing monitors
to check on the enforcement of sanctions and to prevent the spread
of the conflict to Kosovo, the Sandzak, and Vojvodina. (Patrick
Moore)

. . . AND MILITARY ONES, TOO. The BBC on 27 August said that
agreement was imminent to set up a 6,000-strong European force
to protect aid shipments, which would "stretch the rules" for
such operations by allowing the units to clear mines and remove
roadblocks. UN secretary-general Boutros Boutros-Ghali reportedly
feared the proposed force would confuse the UN's role by mixing
protection and combat, but reluctantly concurred because the
Europeans agreed to pay for the operation. At the conference
Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic called again for armed
intervention, saying "force can only be checked by force...Air
strikes [are] long overdue." (Patrick Moore)

SARAJEVO'S LIBRARY BURNS. International media reported on 26
August that Serb artillery had subjected Sarajevo to the heaviest
bombardment of the war. The Baltimore Sun on 27 August said that
17 were killed and 150 wounded, but the BBC put the totals higher.
The central library with its 3 million volumes went up in flames.
The Moorish-style building is the former town hall that had been
dedicated on 28 June 1914 by Habsburg Archduke Franz Ferdinand
minutes before his assassination, which then set off a chain
of events that began World War I. (Patrick Moore)

ROMANIA'S STANCE AT THE LONDON CONFERENCE ON YUGOSLAVIA. On 26
August acting US Secretary of State Lawrence Eagelburger informed
the London conference on Yugoslavia on Romania's decision to
accept international monitors on its territory to oversee compliance
with the embargo against Serbia and Montenegro. In another development,
Western agencies quoted Romanian foreign minster Adrian Nastase
as saying that the conference should not try to create new international
laws in seeking a solution to the Bosnian crisis. Nastase insisted
that any measures decided upon in London should be one-time solutions.
Romania delegates later said that Nastase was referring to the
principles on the status of the minorities. (Dan Ionescu).

BULGARIA AND THE UN SANCTIONS. On 26 August two representatives
of the EC observer mission in Zagreb, as well as a team of US
and EC experts assigned to coordinate UN sanctions against Serbia,
arrived in Sofia for talks with Bulgarian officials. BTA said
the two EC representatives will discuss a Bulgarian proposal
to station military observers on the border to ex-Yugoslavia.
Meanwhile, the British ambassador to Bulgaria, Richard Thomas,
told deputy foreign minister Valentin Dobrev that the EC considers
the UN resolution 757, imposing sanctions on Serbia, to have
priority over other international matters; consequently, Bulgaria
and other Danube states have the right and obligation to control
whatever cargo is being shipped to Serbia. (Kjell Engelbrekt)


MONTENEGRIN ALBANIANS PLAN REFERENDUM. Radio Serbia reported
on 26 August that the Democratic Forum of the Albanians in Montenegro
will seek autonomy. The forum says the plans for autonomy are
a fundamental condition to preserve the national identity of
Albanians in Montenegro. Meeting in the coastal-resort town Ulcinj
near the Albanian border, the forum emphasized a referendum should
be held as soon as possible. It is not clear whether the forum
is proposing cultural or political autonomy. The Democratic Forum
is made up of members of the main Albanian Democratic Alliance,
the third largest party represented in Montenegro's parliament.
Albanians account for 8.5% of Montenegro's population. (Milan
Andrejevich)

CZECHOSLOVAKIA TO BE DIVIDED BY 1 JANUARY . Meeting in Brno on
26 August, Czech premier Vaclav Klaus and Slovak premier Vladimir
Meciar agreed that the Czechoslovak federation should split into
two separate states by 1 January, domestic and international
media report. Speaking to reporters, Meciar stated that "it is
not possible to maintain the current situation." Klaus echoed
the statement, remarking that the breakup will allow for "better
and more lasting relations" between the two republics. The 1
January goal is set in hope of preparing separate budgets for
1993. Klaus, however, added that, "This will be a gradual transition.
There will be no earthquake on 1 January." (Paulina Bren)

TIMETABLE FOR CZECHOSLOVAKIA'S BREAKUP. According to the timetable
worked out between Meciar and Klaus and reported by CSTK on 26
August, the federal parliament should aim to adopt a law on the
dissolution of the federation, division of property and delineation
of successor rights by the end of September, domestic and international
media reported. If needed, the deadline could be extended into
October. Furthermore, by the end of November each republic should
pass legislation on areas of future co-existence, including civic
and economic ties. Both sides have also agreed to set up a customs
union. Initially, a monetary union would also be established,
with a long-term goal of creating two separate currencies. (Paulina
Bren)

CZECHOSLOVAK SECURITY SERVICES DIRECTOR DISMISSED. On 26 August,
the federal government agreed to dismiss the director of the
federal security and information service (FBIS), Stefan Bacinsky.
Bacinsky's resignation had been demanded by Vladimir Meciar's
Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. On 22 September, Pavel Slovak,
who currently serves as director of regional police in Cadca,
will be named as the new director. According to CSTK, the choice
of Slovak was a pragmatic solution. He will head the FBIS until
it is abolished later this year and its powers transferred to
the republican security agencies. Earlier this week, the Czech
government appointed Stanislav Devaty, a member of Vaclav Klaus'
Civic Democratic Party, as a deputy director of the FBIS. (Paulina
Bren)

ROMANIAN NATIONALIST MAYOR REGISTERS AS PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE.
On 26 August, the controversial Cluj mayor Gheorghe Funar registered
with the authorities as a candidate in the 27 September presidential
elections. Funar runs on the ticket of the extreme nationalist
Party of Romanian National Unity. In an interview with Radio
Bucharest, Funar said that he hoped to win the elections on the
first ballot, claiming that "at least ten million Romanians"
supported him. (Dan Ionescu)

FSM STRIKERS GET ULTIMATUM. The directors of the FSM auto plant
in Tychy announced on 26 August that they will fire all strikers
who do not return to work by 8:00 a.m. on 28 August, according
to PAP. Privatization minister Janusz Lewandowski explained that
the government could no longer tolerate a situation in which
one part of the labor force prevented the rest from working.
The strike committee responded with defiance. The illegal FSM
strike has lasted over a month, and the government worries that
it could jeopardize Fiat's purchase of the factory. Finance ministry
officials met with Fiat representatives on 26 August to discuss
the terms of the formal takeover, which is tentatively planned
for 1 September. (Louisa Vinton)

URSUS STRIKERS MARCH. Some 4,000 striking workers from the Ursus
tractor factory marched in Warsaw on 26 August, carrying banners
reading "End the Recession" and "We Won't Be Cheated." PAP said
that a delegation was received by president Lech Walesa's chief
of staff and press spokesman, and by industry minister Waclaw
Niewiarowski. Niewiarowski reminded the strikers that government
action in 1991 had saved Ursus from collapse and warned that
the strike could jeopardize the factory's debt rescheduling talks,
leading directly to bankruptcy. Ursus has more than 2 trillion
zloty (150 million US dollars) in debts. Government talks on
the situation at Ursus begin on 27 August. (Louisa Vinton)

WARSAW TALKS TO MINERS' UNIONS. The Polish government presented
its outline program for coal mining restructuring to the five
miners' unions on 26 August, Polish television reported. By the
year 2010, the government plans to cut employment in mining from
310,000 to 225,000, close 11 loss-making mines, and set up holding
firms that would link solvent mines with insolvent ones. Only
22 of 63 Polish coal mines now turn a profit, but the government
plans to keep 30 of the 41 loss makers open until they run out
of coal. Only the two moderate unions (Solidarity and Kadra)
signed the protocol summarizing the meeting; the others --two
postcommunist unions and Solidarity '80-- refused to sign. A
frustrated Niewiarowski wondered aloud afterward whether negotiations
with the three "frivolous" unions made any sense. (Louisa Vinton)


LANDSBERGIS, YELTSIN TO SIGN AGREEMENT ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. On
26 August Russian president's press spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov
reported that Boris Yeltsin and Lithuanian Supreme Council chairman
Vytautas Landsbergis had agreed in a telephone conversation to
meet in Moscow on 8 September, Radio Lithuania reports. The two
leaders are expected to sign an agreement and approve a timetable
for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Lithuania. Russian
defense minister Pavel Grachev and his Lithuanian counterpart
Audrius Butkevicius will also attend the meeting. (Saulius Girnius)


FEWER TROOPS IN THE BALTIC THAN ESTIMATED. According to new figures
released by the Russian general staff, there are far fewer troops
left in the Baltic states than was believed earlier. According
to the figures, which were passed to the Lithuanian ministry
of defense and were presented at a conference on Baltic security
last week in Latvia, there were just over 60,000 troops left
in the Baltic states as of 1 August. Of those, nearly 12,000
were in Estonia, 28,000 in Latvia and around 21,000 in Lithuania.
The lower numbers come from the fact that soldiers ending their
tours of duty apparently are not being replaced fully. If the
units remaining in the Baltic states were filled to capacity,
there would be about 22,000, 40,000 and 35,000 troops in Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania, respectively; these numbers are far closer
to earlier estimates. (Riina Kionka)

INVESTIGATION OF RUBIKS TO BE CONCLUDED BY 23 OCTOBER. On 26
August Latvian deputy prosecutor Jazeps Ancans told BNS that
23 October is the deadline for ending the investigation of former
Latvian Communist Party first secretary Alfreds Rubiks. Rubiks
had been arrested in August 1991 and was accused of playing a
role in anti-government activities in 1990 and 1991 and of supporting
the putsch against former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev
in August 1991. Ancans said the investigation had been slowed
by the large amount of evidence to be checked. If found guilty,
Rubiks could be imprisoned for up to 15 years. (Saulius Girnius)


ROMANIAN, MOLDOVAN PRESIDENTS TO MEET ON 28 AUGUST. The presidents
of Romania and Moldova, Ion Iliescu and Mircea Snegur, will meet
in the Romanian town of Husi on 28 August. Radio Bucharest said
that they would discuss mutual interests, without elaborating.
Moldovan Prime M§inister Andrei Sangheli visited Romania on 18
and 19 August, and signed several agreements, including one on
mutual economic cooperation. (Dan Ionescu)

FIVE COMPANIES SEEK PERMIT TO PUMP OIL IN LITHUANIA. By 17 August
five of the twelve foreign oil companies invited by Lithuania
in March to submit bids to search for and exploit oil in Lithuania
did so, BNS reported on 26 August. The five are from the Netherlands,
Sweden, Finland, Germany, and the US. The winner, to be announced
in late September or early October, will invest about 15-20 million
US dollars and establish a joint venture with the Gargzdai State
Oil Geology Enterprise, receiving in return about 25% of the
extracted oil. The oil reserves on land in western Lithuania
are estimated to be about 137 million tons, of which 47 million
tons can be extracted. A similar tender to exploit oil in the
Baltic Sea, estimated to be about 178 million tons, will be held
in 1994-1995. (Saulius Girnius)

ESTONIA APPROVES FIRST KROON BUDGET. The Estonian Supreme Council
on 26 August approved the country's first national budget in
the new currency, the kroon, BNS reports. The 1,508 million kroons
budget covers the second half of 1992. (Riina Kionka)


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


©1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole