If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 153, 12 August 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

YELTSIN REJECTS DRAFT DEFENSE LAW. On 10 August, Boris Yeltsin
refused to sign a draft law "On Defense" approved by the Russian
Supreme Soviet on 26 June of this year. According to a "Vesti"
report on 10 August, First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Filatov
suggested that Yeltsin's objections to the draft were only of
an "editorial" character. However, ITAR-TASS on 11 August said
that Yeltsin objected to an article stating that the head of
state needed the approval of the Supreme Soviet to appoint the
Russian defense minister. Currently, he does not need that approval.
The change appears to represent an effort by the Supreme Soviet
to increase its powers in the national security sphere. ITAR-TASS
reported that members of the Supreme Soviet Committee For Questions
of Defense and State Security believe that the parliament will
stand by its version of the law. (Stephen Foye)

DRAFT STATUTE ON OFFICERS ASSEMBLIES UNDER FIRE. "Novosti" reported
on 11 August that a draft statute regulating the activities of
officers assemblies in the Russian army has been criticized by
the Coordinating Council of the CIS Joint Forces Officers Assembly.
The draft apparently grants officers the right to form assemblies
only at the regiment level (or ship level in the navy). Therefore,
according to the coordinating council, the assemblies would be
unable to take up issues beyond the scope of those that would
be discussed at the regimental level. The report did not say
who had drafted the statute. Since its formation last year the
coordinating council has attempted to play a major role in political
negotiations between the former Soviet states, and clearly does
not want to see its role circumscribed by the new statute. (Stephen
Foye)

RUTSKOI, KOKOSHIN PUSH RUSSIAN MILITARY AIRCRAFT. During his
remarks at the opening of the "Mosaeroshow-92" aviation exhibition
on 11 August, Russian Vice-president Alexander Rutskoi said he
would urge Boris Yeltsin to support the country's aircraft design
bureaus. According to ITAR-TASS, he said that it would take 20
to 30 years to make up the losses if the development of aviation
stalls because of financial difficulties. At the same event,
Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin said that
the development of military aviation had the highest priority
and the Ministry of Defense would do everything possible to preserve
the design bureaus and aircraft production enterprises. (Doug
Clarke)

LOYAL AIR FORCE OFFICERS PLANNED TO BOMB KREMLIN DURING COUP.
The Germany news magazine Stern reported on 11 August that Soviet
air force officers loyal to Boris Yeltsin had a contingency plan
to bomb the Kremlin during the abortive coup one year ago. The
magazine quoted Russian General Prosecutor Valentin Stepankov
as claiming that the officers had decided to bomb the coup leaders
had the coup forces launched an attack on the Russian White House,
the seat of the Russian government. Stepankov also revealed that
the trials of the coup leaders were not expected until the summer
of 1993. (Doug Clarke)

POLITICAL ORGANS IN MILITARY CONTINUE FUNCTIONING. The independent
Institute of Foreign Policy issued a report on the state of affairs
in the former Soviet Army in which it stated that the leadership
of the CIS Armed Forces not only consists of former Soviet army
commanders, the majority of whom sided with the putschists, but
also still includes 50,000 political officers who continue to
perform similar propaganda functions. It also claims that only
60 out of 389 generals from the former Main Political Administration
have been retired. The report, which contradicts earlier official
statements on the status of the military political organs, also
noted that the CIS army leadership is resisting reform. The RFE/RL
Research Institute has obtained a copy of this report. (Alexander
Rahr, Moscow)

YELTSIN'S CONTROL OVER ARMY QUESTIONED. General Aleksandr Vladimirov,
a military expert of the Russian parliamentary faction of radical
democrats told Stolitsa (no. 31) that Russian President Boris
Yeltsin has lost control over the military. He asserted that
the 23rd division of the Russian Army entered the battle in Nagorno-Karabakh
at a time when Yeltsin and Defense Minister Pavel Grachev were
outside the country, and even State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis,
whom Yeltsin had left in charge, lacked the authority to stop
these military actions. Vladimirov seems to have been referring
to Russian military activity in NKAO in June when Yeltsin and
Grachev were in Washington and then Dagomys, Ukraine. (Alexander
Rahr, Moscow)

GEORGIAN INTERIOR MINISTER KIDNAPPED BY GAMSAKHURDIA SUPPORTERS.
Georgian Interior Minister Roman Gventsadze, together with a
group of officials including an aide to State Council Chairman
Eduard Shevardnadze, was taken hostage by supporters of ousted
Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia in the western Georgian
town of Zugdidi, Western agencies reported on 11 August. The
officials had traveled to Zugdidi to negotiate the release of
persons taken hostage earlier. (Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandre
Kavsadze was taken hostage a month ago.) Shevardnadze subsequently
warned in a TV address that the Georgian authorities were prepared
to take "extreme measures" in order to secure the release of
those kidnapped. (Liz Fuller)

ZHIRINOVSKY'S PARTY BANNED. ITAR-TASS reported on 11 August that
the Russian Justice Ministry has annulled the registration (carried
out in April 1991 by the USSR Ministry of Justice) of the Liberal-Democratic
Party of the Soviet Union. The misleadingly-titled party, which
is led by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, was only the second party (after
the CPSU) to be registered in the USSR. Now Russia's Justice
Ministry says it is rescinding the party's legal status because
irregularities occurred when the party was registered in 1991.
The party is believed to have overstated the size of its membership
in order to ensure registration, but the Russian Justice Ministry
also criticized the fact that the party still uses the designation
"of the Soviet Union" in its title. (Elizabeth Teague)

PLANNED AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS' STRIKE IN RUSSIA CALLED ILLEGAL.
The Russian general prosecutor has ruled illegal the general
strike by Russian air traffic controllers planned to commence
on 15 August, Izvestiya reported on 11 August. The air controllers
demand a doubling of their salaries (which have risen during
the past six months by a factor of 30) and the creation of an
independent state committee for air traffic control. The general
prosecutor has stated that the controllers' trade unions are
not legally entitled to interfere in the work of state enterprises,
and that strikes are banned at civil aviation enterprises. The
trade unions have been warned that they will be held "criminally
and materially" liable for the consequences of any strike. (Keith
Bush)

INDUSTRIAL UNION ECONOMIC PROPOSALS OUTLINED. Some of the draft
proposals to be discussed at the conference of the Industrial
Union that is scheduled to open on 13 August have been listed
by Interfax on 11 August. Although the language is less than
precise, many of these draft proposals envisage a sharp reversal
of current economic policies. They include: the reimposition
of state control over wholesale and retail prices; an "urgent"
increase in the minimum wage and the monthly indexation of wages
and pensions; and a "thoroughly balanced protectionist policy"
in foreign trade. (Keith Bush)

RUBLE HOLDS STEADY WITHOUT SUPPORT. The dollar rose by only 20
kopecks against the ruble at the last trading of the Moscow Interbank
Currency Exchange, Bizness-TASS reported on 11 August. This is
the third week running that ruble has maintained its 161-162
exchange value with virtually no interventions from the Central
Bank, according to "Novosti" on 10 August. The Bank spent some
$400 million on supporting the ruble in the first half of the
year. The news that $250 million of the $600-million World Bank
loan would be distributed through the exchange has led some observers
to predict a 155-166 ruble-dollar exchange rate in the near future.
(Erik Whitlock)

SALTYKOV ON BRAIN DRAIN. Russian Minister of Science and Higher
Education Boris Saltykov again raised the danger of a brain drain
from Russia, Western agencies reported on 11 August. Saltykov
speculated that several thousand top scientists had already left
Russia. He said that the creation of international institutes
was the best hope of keeping scientists in Russia. Saltykov spoke
after talks with the German science minister who presented Russia
with a DM 40 million aid program for 1992-93 in the fields of
space exploration and science. (Sarah Helmstadter)

RUSSIA INVITED TO JOIN SDI RESEARCH. An RFE/RL correspondent
reported on 11 August that Edward Teller, who directed the building
of the first US hydrogen bomb, urged Russian scientists at an
international conference on defense technology and the environment
in Dubna, to cooperate in Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
research. In the same speech, Teller claimed SDI elements could
be adapted for use in environmental protection; for example,
devices developed for missile detection could also detect pollution
or natural disasters. (Brenda Horrigan)

INCIDENTS ON UZBEK-AFGHAN BORDER. Izvestiya reported on 7 August
that Uzbekistan's border guards have lodged a number of complaints
with Afghan officials about people making unauthorized crossings
from Afghanistan to Uzbekistan. Most recently, there had been
a fire-fight between Uzbek border guards and armed persons from
Afghanistan found examining a structure in Surkhandarya Oblast.
The report did not give the date of the incident, nor did it
identify the Afghans or the structure that had interested them.
Uzbek President Islam Karimov has complained recently that he
fears Islamic fundamentalism will be exported from Afghanistan
and Tajikistan to Uzbekistan. The Izvestiya story gives some
substance to his worries. (Bess Brown)

SUPREME SOVIET SESSION OPENS IN DU-SHANBE. Tajikistan's Supreme
Soviet opened its session on 11 Augusta day late, because on
10 August a quorum of deputies was not present. Among the issues
facing the legislature is ending the virtual civil war in the
country, but, according to ITAR-TASS, part of the first day was
spent on mutual accusations and wrangling over the agenda. Later,
however, the deputies voted to strip President Rakhmon Nabiev
of the special powers granted to him in April, which had set
off fighting in the capital. Akbarsho Iskandarov, who has been
acting chairman of the Supreme Soviet Presidium and has taken
a major role in trying to end the strife in Tajikistan, was elected
chairman of the legislature. (Bess Brown)

OMSK COSSACKS COMPLAIN OF TREATMENT OF BRETHREN IN KAZAKHSTAN.
Radio Rossii reported on 10 August that the Omsk branch of the
Cossacks of Siberia has sent an appeal to the president and government
of Russia on behalf of the Cossack groups, and the Russian population
of northern Kazakhstan whom, the appeal claims, are being oppressed
by the government of Kazakhstan and Kazakh nationalist groups.
The activities of Cossack organizations in northern and western
Kazakhstan have caused great unease among Kazakh government officials
and the Kazakh intelligentsia, who fear that these groups may
trigger demands, either on the part of the Russian population
of the northern oblasts or the Russian government, for revision
of the Russian-Kazakhstan border. (Bess Brown)

NAZARBAEV MEETS IRANIAN DELEGATION. Kaztag-TASS reported on 11
August that Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev met with a delegation
from Iran, led by Minister for Petroleum Resources Goliam Aga-Zade.
The Iranians expressed their willingness to aid Kazakhstan in
the transport of oil across the Caspian and in the construction
of refineries and production of machine oil. While no concrete
agreements were mentioned in the press release, President Nazarbaev
was quoted as thanking the Iranians, and noting that any agreements
reached would be mutually beneficial. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)

ESTONIA OPENS CONSULATE IN ST. PETERSBURG. The Estonian ambassador
to Russia, Juri Kahn has visited St. Petersburg to clear the
way for the opening of a consulate there, the news agency Ezhednevnaya
glasnost reported on 10 August. A temporary office for issuing
visas to Estonia was set up. All applicants will have to show
an invitation and submit a valid passport. (Alexander Rahr, Moscow)


MOLDOVAN PRIME MINISTER IN WASHINGTON. In his first visit to
the West, Moldova's new prime minister, Andrei Sangheli, left
for Washington at the head of a government delegation on 11 August,
Moldovapres reported. The Moldovan officials will sign documents
related to Moldova's admission to the International Monetary
Fund and the World Bank, will negotiate credits of up to $50
million from the Commodity Credit Corporation for Moldovan imports
of feed grain, and will seek US private investments in Moldova's
agricultural and food-processing sectors. (Vladimir Socor)

MYSTERY BEHIND DEADLY MUSHROOMS. Specialists have suggested 2
reasons for the mass poisonings from mushrooms which have occurred
over the past few weeks in parts of Russia and Ukraine, ITAR-TASS
reported on 11 August. The first theory is that poor ecological
conditions caused the poisonous toadstool mushroom to take on
the appearance of an edible mushroom. The second and more prevalent
theory is that under unfavorable weather and ecological conditionsnamely,
heat and droughtedible mushrooms began to produce parasites.
Because of the lack of moisture the mushrooms actively soaked
up toxic substances from the ground. In Ukraine there have been
over 500 poisonings and 60 deaths from the mushrooms. In Russia
close to 200 people have fallen ill, and at least 24 have died.
(Sarah Helmstadter)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

UN WARNS OF NEW WAVE OF "ETHNIC CLEANSING." The 12 August New
York Times and Los Angeles Times quote various UN officials as
saying that Serbian forces are trying to expel 20-28,000 Muslims
and Croats from around Bihac in northwest Bosnia. The apparent
goal is to complete the linkup between Belgrade and the Serbian-controlled
enclaves in Bosnia and Croatia. UN officials said that they face
a paradox: if they do not accept the deportees, the UN thereby
leaves them to a miserable existence; if the UN takes them, it
is in fact helping the process of "ethnic cleansing." The BBC
said that a similar dilemma confronts those sponsoring the evacuation
of 200 shell-shocked children from Sarajevo by bus today. The
sponsors are also worried lest any of the warring factions go
back on their agreements to let the children pass. Ten days ago
Serbian gunmen killed one Serbian and one Muslim child in another
evacuation effort. (Patrick Moore)

IZETBEGOVIC PRAISES ARMED SUPPORT FOR RELIEF CONVOYS. The 12
August New York Times and news agencies quote the Bosnian president
as calling the willingness of the US and its allies to protect
humanitarian missions a "first step" in what he hopes will be
a greater military involvement on Bosnia's behalf. He said: "The
Americans can use their sophisticated technology to silence Serb
artillery, and we can do the rest," adding that his experts feel
that only 10,000 foreign ground troops with helicopter support
will be needed. On 11 August, the US Senate passed a resolution
74-22 backing the use of force to protect relief missions, but
also calling for armed support for inspection teams wanting to
visit detention camps. The measure asked the UN to reconsider
lifting its arms embargo on Bosnia-Herzegovina so that Izetbegovic's
government might better defend itself, and urged the setting
up of a tribunal to investigate war crimes. (Patrick Moore)

ROMANIANS SUGGEST CIS STATES BREAKING EMBARGO. Traian Basescu,
Romania's transport minister, said on 11 August that dozens of
ships flying the flag of the former Soviet Union are sailing
up the Danube to Serbia each week. These ships could originate
in either Russia or Ukraine. Basescu added that Romania, which
itself has vigorously denied allegations that it is breaking
the trade embargo against the rump Yugoslav state, cannot interfere
with traffic on the Danube in international waters. A spokesman
for the Russian Foreign Ministry admitted that enforcing the
embargo is a "difficult and complicated matter" and that it is
"not easy to control the situation." But the spokesman insisted
that "to the best of [his] knowledge," Russia is strictly observing
the sanctions. (Dan Ionescu)

PANIC UNDER FIRE OVER KOSOVO. Milan Panic, prime minister of
the rump Yugoslavia, is under sharp criticism from Serbia's ruling
Socialist Party and the nationalist opposition Serbian Radical
Party. Radio Serbia reports on 11 August that the two parties
take exception to the statement Panic made after meeting with
Albanian Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi on 10 August. Panic
said he would lift the state of emergency in Kosovo next week
to coincide with a Greek-Yugoslav plan for an international conference
on Kosovo. The two Serbian parties accuse Panic of not consulting
with the Serbian and federal parliaments on matters relating
to the Serbian province. They also reject the idea of an international
conference. Radio Croatia reports on 11 August that the main
Albanian party in Kosovo, the Democratic Alliance, issued a statement
saying that its leader Ibrahim Rugova will only negotiate on
neutral territory and criticized the Greek-Yugoslav plan as an
attempt to "create confusion in Kosovo and the international
community." (Milan Andrejevich)

UNREST IN MONTENEGRO. On 9 and 10 August Belgrade media reported
on signs of unrest in Montenegro. Borba says that on 8-9 August
Montenegrin paramilitary groups surrounded municipal buildings
and Muslim-owned businesses in Pljevlja protesting a Montenegrin
government order to transfer 20 local police officers. In recent
weeks several shops have been destroyed and Muslims harassed.
The Montenegrin government responded by dismissing local police
officers, accusing them of "complicity" with illegal paramilitary
groups and failing to protect Pljevlja's Muslims from extremists.
Order has reportedly been restored in Pljevlja, but Mirko Jovic,
leader of the extremist Serbian Radical Party told a Belgrade
daily that this incident is a warning to the authorities of what
will happen when trying "to score points . . . by protecting
a Muslim minority which is in no way threatened." (Milan Andrejevich)


MACEDONIA ON THE MOVE. Kiro Gligorov, president of the Republic
of Macedonia, gave an interview, published in the 31 July edition
of NIN, in which he rejected Greek attempts to have the republic
change its name, saying that "if the name Macedonia is erased,
then we become a people without a name . . . and they can again
start saying that we are Serbs, Greeks, or Bulgarians." Concerning
the UN sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro, Gligorov said
that they are hurting Macedonia more than the other two states.
Gligorov also played down potential problems between the Macedonians
and the large Albanian population in the republic, noting "borders
do not have to be barriers which create homogeneous national
states. In the Balkans, that is simply impossible." Bulgarian
president Zhelyu Zhelev will receive Gligorov on 12 August in
Burgas for discussion of these and other issues, an RFE/RL correspondent
reports. The Republic of Macedonia, which borders Bulgaria, has
been recognized diplomatically by only a handful of countries,
including Bulgaria, Turkey and Russiabut not by the EC or the
USand the former Yugoslav republic remains ineligible for assistance
from major international financial agencies. Bulgaria has warned
that the strife in Bosnia could spread to the Macedonian Republic
and Kosovo, possibly leading to a Balkan war. (Gordon Bardos
& Duncan M. Perry)

BELGIAN CHIEF OF GENERAL STAFF VISITS BULGARIA. Joseph Charlier,
chief of the Belgian General Staff, arrived in Sofia on 9 August
for a brief visit. He was met by his Bulgarian counterpart, Col.
Gen. Liuben Petrov. The two discussed military reform in Bulgaria,
including such matters as training, professionalism in the armed
forces, and armsissues with which Belgium has significant experience.
Petrov noted to reporters that Bulgaria wishes to develop excellent
bilateral relations with Belgium. Charlier was also scheduled
to visit President Zhelyu Zhelev and other top officials, BTA
reported. (Duncan M. Perry)

DIMITROV'S SPANISH VISIT. BTA reports that Bulgarian prime minister
Filip Dimitrov returned from Spain on 10 August, where he met
King Juan Carlos and Foreign Minister Javier Solani. A return
visit of Spanish officials is expected in October. Dimitrov also
held talks with deposed Bulgarian King Simeon II, who lives in
Madrid. Various topics were discussed, notably economics and
foreign policy matters. The current conditions in the Balkans
were of special concern. Bulgaria's former ruler also recently
met with president Zhelyu Zhelev. (Duncan M. Perry)

ROMANIAN OFFICIAL TO MEET EXILED KING. Rompres announced on 11
August that Teodor Melescanu, state secretary at the Romanian
foreign ministry, had left for Geneva to meet exiled King Michael
on behalf of Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan. No purpose of the
envoy's meeting with the king was given, but it comes three days
after the king announced that he will visit Timisoara and Brasov
in mid-August. Radio Bucharest reported on 11 August that the
mayor of Iasi also invited Michael. King Michael, who is 70,
was forced out of Romania by the Communists in 1947. He was cheered
by big crowds when he visited Romania in April. (Dan Ionescu)


NEW CZECHOSLOVAK PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE. Jiri Kotas, leader of
the small Conservative Party, is the first official candidate
for the fifth round of the Czechoslovak presidential elections,
scheduled for 24 September. CSTK reports that Kotas was nominated
on 11 August by Ales Mucha, the leader of the Green Party who
is a Federal Assembly deputy for the Liberal and Social Union.
Born in 1952, Kotas emigrated to Canada in 1979 and returned
to Czechoslovakia in 1990 to become a politician. His party has
so far failed to win any seats in the parliament. In the parliamentary
elections in June 1992, Kotas sought a place on the ticket of
the Movement of Pensioners but was eventually disavowed by the
movement. (Jiri Pehe)

AUSTRIAN PRESIDENT IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Austrian president Thomas
Klestil, who arrived in Czechoslovakia on 11 August to attend
the funeral of Cardinal Frantisek Tomasek on the 12th, met with
Czech prime minister Vaclav Klaus, CSTK reports. The two discussed
plans to split Czechoslovakia into two states. Klaus assured
his guest that the country's division will not cause instability
and that Austrian investments in both new states will be safe.
On 12 August Klestil is to meet in Prague with federal prime
minister Pavel Strasky and Polish president Lech Walesa. (Jiri
Pehe)

LATVIA JOINS WORLD BANK. On 11 August in Washington Latvia's
Minister for Economic Reforms Arnis Kalnins signed the World
Bank's articles of agreement, thus formalizing Latvia's membership
in the World Bank. That same day Kalnins also signed documents
for Latvia to join the International Development Corporation,
a World Bank affiliate that lends money to poor nations and charges
virtually no interest, according to RFE/RL correspondent in Washington.
(Dzintra Bungs)

POLISH STRIKE UPDATE. Striking workers in the Polska Miedz copper
combine received a letter on 11 August from Privatization Minister
Janusz Lewandowski suggesting suspension of their strike pending
agreement on "a protocol of agreement," followed by negotiations
on wage demands. The strike committee accused the minister of
"lack of good will to seek a genuine compromise" and submitted
its own draft. In the meantime, the strike continues. The strike
committee is threatening to take over the running of the combine.
The six radical and postcommunist unions that have tried to take
national control over the strikes attempted on August 11 to initiate
a "collective labor conflict" with the government. Labor Minister
Jacek Kuron said there are no legal grounds for such a state
of affairs. (Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

WALESA TRIES TO PREEMPT FURTHER LABOR UNREST. In the Gdansk Shipyard
the Solidarity local has transformed itself into a strike committee
in anticipation of a national protest action by the radical Solidarity
cells from large industrial enterprises known as "the Network."
In an attempt to preempt the protest, President Lech Walesa has
arranged for a meeting between Network representatives and a
government delegation headed by Deputy Prime Minister Henryk
Goryszewski. The only good news from the labor front is that
the two-hour warning strike due to be held by Silesian railway
workers on 12 August was called off after the Polish State Railways
management offered talks "with the prospect of meeting the employees'
demands." (Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka)

LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS STARTED. A new round of talks opened
behind closed doors on 11 August in Vilnius. An official communique
is expected only after their completion on 12 August. Viktor
Isakov, the head of the Russian delegation, told reporters during
a break in the meeting that he had presented specific timetables
for the Russian troop withdrawal in 1994 and concrete proposals
on other issues, such as initializing the text of a consular
convention, BNS reports. Parliament deputy chairman Ceslovas
Stankevicius, the head of the Lithuanian delegation, said that
Lithuania stands by its position that the troops leave this year.
He also noted that Lithuania would not drop its claims for damages
caused by the army. (Saulius Girnius)

TWO AWOL ESTONIANS RETURN. Two soldiers from the Estonian Defense
Forces who deserted to Moscow have been returned to Estonia,
BNS reports. The two left the Kuperjanov unit in southern Estonia
on 8 August after complaining of harassment. They rode a freight
train to Moscow, where they gave themselves up at the Estonian
Embassy. After telling embassy officials they had actually "had
no problems at all" and that they had gone AWOL "because of nerves,"
the two were sent back to Estonia. Both soldiers are ethnic Estonians
who had served for two months. (Riina Kionka)

ONE DEAD IN TALLINN OLYMPIC ACCIDENT. The collapse of a four-story
high construction scaffolding that dozens of teenagers were using
as a viewing stand during a welcome back rally for Estonia's
Olympic team on 10 August has left one dead and ten seriously
injured. Sixteen year-old Aivar Kevask died on 11 August after
emergency surgery for severe chest and head injuries sustained
when the scaffolding he was standing on collapsed. Among those
still hospitalized is a 23-year-old Italian citizen, BNS reports.
(Riina Kionka)



CORRECTION: The Daily Report of 11 August incorrectly identified
Viktor Antonov as Ukrainian Minister of Industry. In fact, Antonov
is Ukrainian Minister of Machine Building, the Military Industrial
Complex, and Conversion.


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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