Absence makes the heart grow fonder. -
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 144, 30 July 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

YELTSIN PROPOSES CONSTITUTIONAL REVISIONS. On 29 July, Russian
President Boris Yeltsin proposed significant amendments to the
draft Russian Constitution at the plenary session of the Supreme
Soviet Constitutional Drafting Commission, Russian and Western
agencies reported. While reassuring deputies that he did not
seek a dictatorship, Yeltsin asked for broader presidential powers.
He requested the authority to issue decrees on certain issues
for a limited period, and to initiate national referendums. He
called for the new constitution to be adopted next year by referendum,
and for all future constitutional amendments to be put to a national
vote. Yeltsin also proposed the dissolution of the Congress of
People's Deputies, calling it an "artificial super-parliament."
The draft constitution had been adopted "in principle" at the
last congress session in April, but the drafting commission is
now expected to make revisions and present a new version by October.
(Carla Thorson)

WORK ON DRAFT CIS CHARTER. Experts from the nine states that
ratified the CIS treaty have started work in Minsk on drawing
up a revised draft charter for the CIS that will finally define
the rights and obligations of member-states, ITAR-TASS reported
on 28 July. A draft charter was put on the agenda of the 30 December
1991 meeting of CIS heads of states but had to be withdrawn because
of Ukrainian objections. A new draft was submitted for discussion
at the 6 July summit in Moscow, but was not approved. Instructions
were given that a revised draft should be prepared in time for
the next summit in Bishkek on 25 September. (Ann Sheehy)

DRAFT CIS AGREEMENT ON DEPORTED INDIVIDUALS AND PEOPLES READY.
Work on a draft agreement on restoring the rights of deported
individuals, national minorities and peoples was completed by
a working group in the CIS headquarters in Minsk on 29 July,
BelInform-TASS reported. The draft, which was signed by the nine
full CIS members, will be submitted to the next CIS summit in
Bishkek. It provides for joint efforts to deal with the social
problems of deportees including ensuring guarantees for pensioners
and assistance and tax breaks for those resettling in the areas
from which they were deported. Since Georgia is not a CIS member
and did not sign the agreement, the Meskhetian Turks will presumably
not be covered by it. (Ann Sheehy)

SHAKHRAI ASKS GORBACHEV TO TESTIFY AT CPSU HEARINGS. The Constitutional
Court hearings on the banning of the CPSU continued on 29July
with more testimony on the Communist Party Central Committee's
support for the August 1991 coup attempt, and on alleged illegal
funding activities, "Vesti" reported. Meanwhile, according to
Interfax, Yeltsin's legal representative at the court hearings,
Sergei Shakhrai, met with Mikhail Gorbachev, and requested that
the former Soviet president and CPSU general secretary address
the court. (Carla Thorson)

STANKEVICH ON TURN IN RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY. Presidential advisor,
Sergei Stankevich, has praised the foreign policy of President
Boris Yeltsin and Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi for stabilizing
the situation in the Trans-Dniester region and in South Ossetia.
He wrote in Rossiiskaya gazeta on 28 July that previously Russian
foreign policy had failed to establish peace in these areas because
it lacked decisiveness and initiative. He described the change
in Russia's foreign policy toward Moldova and Georgia as a sign
that Russia is again seeing itself as a great power. He, however,
rejected the use of any kind of military actions in Russian diplomacy.
(Alexander Rahr)

PEACEMAKING FORCES DEPLOYED IN MOLDOVA. Under the Yeltsin-Snegur
agreement of 21July, "peacemaking" forces consisting of Russian,
Moldovan, and "Dniester" units began on 29July to take up positions
in the conflict zone in eastern Moldova. According to Russian
and Moldovan media, Russia contributed a "limited troop contingent"
of six battalions drawn from the Tula and Pskov paratroop divisions;
while Moldova and the "Dniester" forces provided three battalions
each. The "peacemaking" troops are mandated to enforce the cease-fire
and the separation of forces, and are authorized to use force.
The Russian and "Dniester" battalions are being deployed in areas
hitherto held by "Dniester" insurgents and the Moldovan battalions
in the Moldovan bridgeheads on the left-bank. Three of the Russian
battalions are due to arrive in the right-bank city of Bendery.
The peacemaking forces will operate under the authority of a
"Joint Control Commission," a military body comprised of Russian,
Moldovan, and "Dniester" representatives. (Vladimir Socor)

RUSSIAN TROOPS TO STAY IN BELARUS FOR SEVEN YEARS. The chairman
of the Belarusian parliament, Stanislav Shushkevich, was quoted
by the Belarusian paper Zvyazda on 28 July as saying that Russian
troops would withdraw from the republic in seven years. According
to the ITAR-TASS account of the interview he said that the Belarusian
military would grow to 100,000 people during the same period.
On 15 July a Belarusian parliamentary official had indicated
that a treaty was in the offing that would allow for a force
of 30,000 Russian military in the republic. (Doug Clarke)

OFFICERS ASSEMBLY IN ODESSA. The first Ukrainian officers assembly
took place on 28 July in Odessa, the headquarters of the Odessa
Military District, Radio Mayak reported. The gathering of more
than 500 officers elected a presidium and working organs, then
heard a speech by district commander Lt. Gen. Vitalii Radetsky.
The meeting was held in the same hall where, according to the
report, a half-year ago, then Ukrainian presidential candidate,
Leonid Kravchuk made a number of promises to the officers concerning
conditions of service in Ukraine. Officers living standards remain
low, however, and there were reportedly sharp exchanges between
the officers and Defense Minister Konstantyn Morozov on this
count. Morozov also addressed the Black Sea Fleet controversy,
saying that Kiev was prepared to make compromises on a number
of issues, including that of temporary basing rights, but would
not do so until Moscow recognized Ukraine's sovereign status.
(Stephen Foye)

UKRAINE LAUNCHES FLAGSHIP IN NIKOLAEV. On 28 July, in a festive
ceremony attended by thousands, Ukraine launched a 6,000 ton
vessel, called the "Slavutich," which is to become the flagship
of an independent Ukrainian navy, Reuters reported. In accordance
with the Dagomys agreement, which prohibits unilateral changes
in the status of the fleet, the ship will reportedly not fly
the Ukrainian ensign. (Stephen Foye)

NO DECISION ON NOVAYA ZEMLYA. Members of a special commission
drawn from the Council of Ministers of the Komi Republic failed
to reach a consensus on the issue of holding nuclear tests at
the Novaya Zemlya test site, ITAR-TASS reported on 29July. The
question of testing arose from a decree issued by Boris Yeltsin
on 27 February of this year that made Novaya Zemlya the main
Russian atomic testing site. Last year the Komi Supreme Soviet
objected to proposals for further nuclear testing on the island.
(Stephen Foye)

AGREEMENT ON JOINT BORDER GUARDS. ASSA-IRADA reported on 29 July
that Azerbaijan and Russia had signed a two-year cooperation
agreement on guarding Azerbaijan's southern borders (with Iran
and Turkey). Azerbaijan will reportedly send its border personnel
to Russia for training. The joint border forces will have absolute
authority on the border. (Stephen Foye)

UPDATE: RUSSIAN ARMS EXPORTS. By order of a Russian government
ruling on 24 July, Russian defense firms will henceforth be issued
licenses by the Ministry for Economic Relations for the export
of arms' components to other countries, including those in the
CIS The order is reportedly aimed at prohibiting such exports
to CIS "hot spots" and at complying with international restrictions
on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Meanwhile,
a document signed by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Georgii Khizha
gave the state-owned defense company, BAZALT, the right to export
technology and licenses for the production of ammunition. It
also gave the company the right to pursue research on new types
of ammunition for foreign clients, keeping in mind the interests
of the Russian Defense Ministry. These sales are also to be conducted
through the Ministry for Economic Relations. Both reports were
carried by Interfax on 29 July. (Stephen Foye)

RUSSIAN MINIMUM WAGE TO BE RAISED. Russian Labor Minister Gennadii
Melikyan told a news conference in Moscow on 29 July that the
minimum wage in the Russian Federation will be raised in late
August from the current 900 rubles to 1,350 rubles a month, ITAR-TASS
and Interfax reported. He said that the average monthly wage
in June was 4,400 rubles: it had increased by a factor of four
during the first half of 1992. Melikyan announced that the pay
scales for state-financed enterprises would be adjusted to eliminate
the present huge discrepancies that provoke labor unrest. He
ruled out full indexation of wages, as this would inevitably
lead to hyperinflation, but he promised the introduction of partial
indexation on a quarterly basis and one-off compensation payments
for the socially underprivileged. (Keith Bush)

REDUCED FORECAST OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN RUSSIA. Melikyan gave a different
figure for the current number of unemployed in Russia than did
Vladimir Goncharov, a deputy chairman of the Russian Employment
Committee, who was interviewed by ITAR-TASS. Melikyan put the
number of registered unemployed by 1 July at 108,000, while Goncharov
gave a figure of 202,879. But both agreed that the projected
number of unemployed by the end of the year is now two million.
Neither official explained the discrepancy between these figures
and earlier forecasts of at least 6 million by the end of 1992.
Possible reasons are the failure to enact and implement bankruptcy
legislation, the continuing inaction over interenterprise debts,
and the general softening of monetary policies. (Keith Bush)


UKRAINIAN-HUNGARIAN COMMISSION ON MINORITIES. The first meeting
of the Ukrainian- Hungarian commission on questions of national
minorities met in Budapest, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 July. The
main result of the session was an agreement to open more border
control points. The commission was created as a result of last
year's agreement between the two countries on the protection
of national minorities in each other's countries. The meeting
in Budapest also resolved to coordinate the preparation of materials
for textbooks on history and geography. (Roman Solchanyk)

MORE ANTI-CAUCASIAN DISTURBANCES IN RUSSIA. On the night of 28/29
July kiosks with goods belonging to Azerbaijanis were burnt in
Ulyanovsk, ITAR-TASS reported. Previously, a crowd had destroyed
stalls and beat up the tradesmen in the central market where
Central Asians and Caucasians trade. According to Izvestiya of
29 July, there have recently been anti-Caucasian incidents in
Norilsk and Sayanogorsk in Siberia, resulting in mass disorders
and demands for the expulsion of all southerners. Izvestiya noted
that the conflicts with the Caucasians, chiefly Azerbaijanis
often take place under the influence of alcohol. (Ann Sheehy)


AZERBAIJANI PARLIAMENT REJECTS DEFENSE MINISTER'S RESIGNATION.
On 29 July the Azerbaijani parliament refused to accept the resignation
of Defense Minister Rahim Kaziev, reportedly the most popular
political figure in Azerbaijan, Russian TV reported. Kaziev's
resignation was apparently offered to protest the appointment
as military procurator of former Baku Deputy Procurator R. Alyev,
and "the atmosphere inside President Abulfaz Elchibei's team."
(Liz Fuller)

UZBEKISTAN MOVES TOWARD LATIN ALPHABET. Uzbekistan is conducting
studies in preparation for the adoption of the Latin alphabet,
the Uzbek deputy minister of education, Gadritdim Gulametdinov,
told the Turkish news agency Anatolia on 29 July. Gulametdinov
was in Ankara accompanying the first group of 2,000 Uzbek students
invited to study in Turkey. Since Uzbekistan decided to re-introduce
Uzbek as the official language of that republic in 1989, controversy
has raged on the question of abandoning the Cyrillic script,
mandated in 1939, in favor of Arabic or Latin. Turkey has been
actively promoting use of Latin script.(Cassandra Cavanaugh)


NEW RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR IN ASHGABAT. Vadim Cherepov was confirmed
by Turkmenistan President Saparmurad Niyazov as Russia's ambassador
on 29 July, Radio Rossii reported. After the ceremony President
Niyazov announced that a Turkmen embassy would open in the Russian
capital shortly. Ambassador Cherepov took the occasion to remark
that Russian-Turkmen relations were good, and that the situation
of the Russian minority in Turkmenistan is much better than that
in other former Soviet republics. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)

RUSSIAN CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS DEFEND YAKUNIN AND PONOMAREV. "Vesti"
reported on 26 July that the Russian Christian-Democratic Union
sent a letter to President Yeltsin protesting the legal action
being brought by the Russian Prosecutor's Office against the
leader of the Union, Gleb Yakunin, and people's deputy Lev Ponomarev.
Both have been accused of disclosing information from the CPSU
Central Committee Archives about KGB agents within the Russian
Orthodox Church. (Oxana Antic)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN FIGHTING UPDATE. Radio Croatia reported on 29 July that
officials of the Yugoslav army and the Croatian military, meeting
aboard the HMS Avenger in the Adriatic, reached an agreement
for the Yugoslav Army to withdraw from positions it holds around
Dubrovnik within eight days. Meanwhile, a UN convoy carrying
200 tons of supplies from Split to Sarajevo safely reached its
destination on the 30th. The same day the Turkish Foreign Ministry
announced that Bosnian vice president Ejup Ganic has requested
Turkey's support for a lifting of the international arms embargo
on the former republics of Yugoslaviaor that a special exemption
be made for Bosnia-Herzegovinaand that Turkey is prepared to
back "Bosnia's right to defend itself." International media carried
the story. (Gordon Bardos)

UN CONFERENCE ON REFUGEES. On 29 July the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees' conference on aid for refugees from
the former Yugoslavia convened in Geneva. Officials from 61 countries
pledged $114,500,000 to help deal with the exodus of refugees
from the region, but had difficulty agreeing on proposals to
shelter the refugees or to assist their return home. Officials
say the main problem is the destruction of towns and villages
in conflict areas. According to Sadako Ogata, UN High Commissioner
for Refugees, "ethnic cleansing lies at the heart of this conflict."
Though she did not mention which group was responsible, most
countries have laid most of the blame on Serbia. International
media carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich)

PANIC ON THE MOVE. Yugoslav prime minister Milan Panic addressed
the Geneva meeting, telling the delegates that Yugoslavia would
do everything in its power to establish a cease-fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina,
the most logical and comprehensive solution to the refugee problem.
He repeated his call for a gradual opening of communications
among all former Yugoslav republics. German delegates walked
out in protest during Panic's speech. Panic stated that "he was
astonished by the level of politicization" at the conference.
Later in the day, Radio Serbia reports, Panic held talks with
British Prime Minister Major in London. Panic said that if need
be he would go to Sarajevo to stop the fighting; in an interview
he told CNN that he has already reached agreement in principle
to begin disarming the warring factions at Gorazde. MTI and Radio
Budapest report that Panic will fly directly from Geneva to Budapest
for talks with Hungarian prime minister Jozsef Antall on 30July
and will continue on to Germany and Austria to press his peace
efforts. (Milan Andrejevich & Edith Oltay)

SLOVAKIA TO ESTABLISH HOME GUARD. Speaking on Slovak TV on 29
July, Slovak interior minister Gen. Jozef Tuchyna said that Slovakia
plans to establish two brigades and five regiments of the so-called
home guard before the end of the year. This special army will
operate in Slovakia's interior, protecting "interests of the
population, special objects, water sources, etc." According to
Tuchyna, the regular army, "with its current composition," could
not fulfill such tasks. Tuchyna claimed that the official Czechoslovak
military doctrine makes the creation of home guard units possible.
The home guard units could be seen as the nucleus of a Slovak
army. (Jiri Pehe)

HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK RELATIONS. Tamas Katona, Hungarian state secretary
in the prime minister's office, and Slovak prime minister Vladimir
Meciar agreed in talks in Bratislava on 28 July to set up a hot-line
between the two prime ministers' offices, Radio Budapest and
Western news agencies report. Radio Budapest said Meciar proposed
the hot-line because "the Hungarian media falsifies what I say,
which has almost led to a deterioration of relations." The two
officials also discussed opening military barracks to mutual
inspections. Meciar recently accused Hungary of conducting large-scale
military exercises on it border with Slovakia. Hungary denied
making any threatening military moves, and Katona sought to assure
Meciar that Hungary is ready to cooperate with an independent
Slovakia. (Edith Oltay)

ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT ON TRANSYLVANIAN PROTESTS. In a briefing
of the press on 29 July, government spokeswoman Virginia Gheorghiu
said the executive had examined a report by Premier Theodor Stolojan
on his discussions with representatives of the Hungarian Democratic
Federation of Romania (HDFR) and the Democratic Convention. According
to Radio Bucharest, members of the government proposed several
solutions based on the principle that the executive is entitled
to nominate the prefects. It was also emphasized that local governments
are not subordinated to the prefects. The government decided
to "continue the dialogue with delegations representing the HDFR
and the Democratic Convention from the counties of Harghita and
Covasna." (Michael Shafir)

ESTONIA PROTESTS MONDAY ACTION. On 29July the Estonian Foreign
Ministry presented an official note of protest to Russia's representative
in Tallinn over the 27 July incident between Estonian and Russian
forces. According to BNS, the note protested what it called Russia's
"attempt at destabilizing" Estonia. The implications of the incident
remain unclear. Although the Estonian government has now twice
defended the actions of its Defense Forces, it has also, in seeming
contradiction, suspended from duty all general staff officers
and set up a special commission to investigate the affair. On
29July the conservative election coalition Pro Patria called
for removal of Defense Minster Ulo Uluots because of the incidents,
while another coalition, The Reasonable Ones, criticized the
action as poorly organized and incompetently run. (Riina Kionka)


MORE ESTONIAN ELECTION NEWS. Preparations for Estonia's 20 September
general election are in high gear. On 29 July Pro Patria announced
its list of candidates for the 101 seats in the State Assembly,
and another election coalition, the Independent Nationalists'
Union, was formed, bringing the total number of registered coalitions
to five. The 101 can-didates of the Estonian National Independence
Party met in Tallinn on 29 July to discuss strategy. (Riina Kionka)


LITHUANIA FORMS ELECTION COMMISSION. The first meeting of the
newly formed Chief Elections Commission of Lithuania will be
held on 31 July, BNS reports. Its main task will be the formation
of 71electoral districts to replace the current 141 for the October
parliamentary elections. Seventeen political parties and movements,
ranging from the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party on the left
to the Lithuanian Freedom League on the right, will sent representatives
to the commission. Chairman Vaclovas Litvinas was appointed by
parliament on 23 July. (Saulius Girnius)

BULGARIAN COURT ON DECOMMUNIZATION. On 29 July the Bulgarian
Constitutional Court announced a series of decisions that go
against UDF policy toward former high-ranking members of communist
and communist-affiliated organizations. According to a statement
carried by BTA, the Constitutional Court declared two articles
of recent legislation unconstitutionala 15-year ban on employment
in the banking sector and a provision depriving ex-officials
of such organizations from claiming pensions. The court also
rejected a claim by UDF deputies declaring a previous law safeguarding
the property rights of such organizations unconstitutional. (Kjell
Engelbrekt)

POLISH-GERMAN TALKS. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel and
his Polish counterpart, Krzysztof Skubiszewski, signed border
and customs cooperation agreements in Warsaw on 29 July. The
two agreed that the period of dramatic breakthroughs in bilateral
relations had passed; now practical measures were central. Kinkel
met with President Walesa and Prime Minister Suchocka, and thanked
the Polish government for its treatment of the German minority.
Kinkel pledged Germany's support for Polish membership in the
EC but said that Poland's economy must first become more compatible
with the economies of EC countries. (Louisa Vinton)

PROSPECTS FOR CZECH, SLOVAK EC MEMBERSHIP. In an interview with
the Prague Post on 28July, Leopold Guinti, the EC Ambassador
to Czechoslovakia, said that in case Czechoslovakia splits, the
EC will not support the idea of a joint Czech-Slovak representation.
He also said that after a split, the current association treaty
between Czechoslovakia and EC will not be applicable to the two
new states; they will have to negotiate their own treaties. Guinti
also said that there are many reasons why foreign investors prefer
the Czech Republic to Slovakia, including the negative image
of Slovak leaders. He also said that Slovakia is not seen as
a stable region and that its economic policies are unclear. However,
"for security reasons," the EC will have equal interest in both
new states. (Jiri Pehe)

ROMANIA AND THE EC. Mechtild von Alemann, first vice-president
of the European Parliament, said that the agreement for Romania's
association with the European Community will be signed in October.
Von Alemann's delegation visiting Romania conducted talks with
parliamentary deputies and other personalities. Her statement
was carried by Rompres on 28July. (Michael Shafir)

POLISH AUTO WORKERS REJECT SETTLEMENT. Striking workers at the
FSM auto plant in Tychy on 29 July rejected a wage offer from
management that was negotiated by Solidarity and the plant's
trade union representation. Privatization minister Janusz Lewandowski
warned that the government "will not tolerate" wage increases
granted under pressure from wildcat strikes. The Tychy strike
is technically illegal because mandated collective bargaining
has been neglected. Negotiations also collapsed on 29July at
the Polska Miedz copper combine; two strikers there began hunger
strikes. Workers at the Krasnik ball-bearing factory staged a
two-hour warning strike on 29 July. (Louisa Vinton)

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK FOR POLAND: RECESSION ENDING. Central planning
chief Jerzy Kropiwnicki predicted at a press conference on 29July
that the decline in industrial production would be halted and
minimal growth recorded by the end of 1992. His "optimistic scenario"
for the year puts GDP at 2% below the 1991 level; unemployment
at 2.9 million; and yearly inflation below 45%. Exports are to
rise by 9.7% and imports to drop by 5.6%. The drought is expected
to lead to an 11% overall decline in agricultural production.
The Polish statistical office listed the positive economic trends
noted in the first half of 1992: industrial production was 8.7%
below 1991 levels after three months, but after six months the
gap was only 3%; labor productivity rose for the first time in
two years; exports rose 12.5% while imports dropped 8%; and the
private sector accounted for 27% of industrial production and
75% of construction. Real wages dropped by 4.4%. (Louisa Vinton)


BULGARIA'S LAND RESTITUTION. Although so far only 10% of the
land confiscated by the communist regime in the 1940s and 1950s
has been restored to its lawful owners, that figure is estimated
to reach 25% by the end of the year, Deputy Agriculture Minister
Ventseslav Stoyanov told Reuters on 28 July. The major problem
is that some land has been used for industrial purposes and can
no longer be returned. Therefore, Stoyanov explained, some of
the 1.6 million former landowners will have to settle for compensation,
either in the form of an equivalent piece of property or in securities
or cash. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

LATVIA PLANS MORE CUSTOMS CHECKS, VISAS. On 1 September Latvia
plans to start customs inspections of trains crossing its borders,
Diena reported on 27 July. This will mean a change in train schedules,
adding 30-45 minutes to travel time. Passengers and their luggage
will be checked at random. A visa system is also planned for
travel to and from the CIS states, Diena reported on 24July.
Contrary to rumors, visas will not be required on 1 August but
at some future time that has not yet been decided. (Dzintra Bungs)


RUSSIANS OFFER TO SELL WEAPONS TO LITHUANIA. On 29 July Lithuanian
parliament press spokesman Audrius Azubalis confirmed the existence
of a Russian government decree dated 9July, published in the
Moscow newspaper, Den, Radio Lithuania reports. The decree authorizes
the sale to Lithuania of small arms and ammunition for $52.4million
to be paid in rubles or in exchange for food and consumer goods
from Lithuania. Azubalis noted that the sale of weapons was agreed
at the January meeting between Boris Yeltsin and Vytautas Landsbergis
although specific quantities and prices were not mentioned and
Lithuania reserved the right to accept or reject the offer of
"large amounts at high prices." (Saulius Girnius)

RUSSIAN, BALTIC FOREIGN MINISTERS TO MEET. Russian foreign minister
Andrei Kozyrev is set to meet his three Baltic counterparts in
Moscow on 6August, BNS reports. According to a Russian Foreign
Ministry press spokesman, the four will discuss timetables for
troop withdrawals and "discrimination against Russians and Russian-speakers
living in the Baltic States." (Riina Kionka)

QUEEN OF DENMARK VISITS BALTIC STATES. Denmark's Queen Margarethe
II and Prince Frederic arrive in Riga on 30 July after a two-day
stay in Estonia. While in Latvia the queen is to meet with government
officials, members of the Supreme Council, and artists; open
an exhibition of Danish design; visit historic sites; and host
a lunch. She will depart for Vilnius during the afternoon of
31July. The visit to the three Baltic States is intended to cement
friendly relations and cooperation, BNS reported on 29 July.
(Dzintra Bungs)


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