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RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 126, 06 July 1992


the Russian president at the Constitutional Court hearings on
the Communist Party, scheduled to begin on 7 July, intend to
cite a 1932 decree by Joseph Stalin as justification for Yeltsin's
banning of the Party by decree, according to Izvestiya of 3 July.
Lawyers Mikhail Fedotov, Andrei Makarov, and Sergei Shakhrai
will argue that, when Yeltsin issued his decrees, the activities
of political parties in Russia could only be administered under
the "Order on Public Associations" adopted on 10 July, 1932.
Stalin's order allowed public organizations to be banned by administrative
decree without court approval. In presenting this argument, the
president's lawyers assert that Russia's October 1990 "Declaration
of State Sovereignty" overrides all other USSR legislation not
adopted by the Russian Supreme Soviet and dismiss the 1990 "USSR
Law on Public Associations" which only permitted the courts to
ban a political party. They will further argue that the Communist
Party was not a political party in the traditional sense of the
term. (Carla Thorson)

deputy general secretary and former first secretary of the CPSU
Central Committee, Vladimir Ivashko and Valentin Kuptsov respectively,
held a press conference on the Constitutional Court hearings,
"Novosti" and ITAR-TASS reported. In their opinion, "if the court
is not diverted by the political process, but follows the letter
of the law, as it should be in a law-based state, then the court
will overturn the president's decrees." Representatives of the
Communist Party have challenged Yeltsin's decrees, arguing that
the Russian president infringed on the jurisdiction of the courts.
(Carla Thorson)

YELTSIN COMMENTS ON CPSU HEARINGS. President Yeltsin, who will
not be present during the hearings, said he would follow the
Constitutional Court proceedings on the Communist Party with
great interest. He argued that any support for communists could
"activate their destructive activities, which could plunge [the
country] into civil war." The Russian president made these remarks
during a telephone call-in program broadcast on "Ostankino" TV
and published in Komsomolskaya pravda of 3 July. (Carla Thorson)

"29TH CONGRESS OF THE CONGRESS." On 5 July, members of the pro-Communist
opposition to the Russian government held the "29th Congress
of the CPSU" in the town of Pushkino near Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported.
The agency did not say how many people attended the gathering.
The "congress" was organized by the "All-Union Committee of Communists"
headed by Sergei Skvortsov. The "congress" expelled Mikhail Gorbachev
from the CPSU and also ruled that Gorbachev, former deputy general
secretary Vladimir Ivashko, and former first secretary of the
Russian Communist Party Valentin Kuptsov should not represent
the CPSU at the Constitutional Court hearings. The "congress"
also elected the Central Committee of the CPSU and its secretariat.
(Vera Tolz)

Defense Ministers held in Moscow on 2-3 July ended in discord
when Ukraine and the command of the CIS Joint Forces were unable
to agree on a formula for control over strategic forces located
in Ukraine. Kiev has attempted to establish control over these
forces, while the CIS command and Russian defense leaders have
insisted that previous CIS agreements, signed by Ukraine, dictate
that they remain fully subordinated to Moscow. CIS Commander
Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov and others in the CIS command criticized
Kiev's actions, arguing that Ukraine should either give up its
demands or admit that it intends to become a nuclear power. Officials
from Kazakhstan and Belarus, where nuclear weapons are also deployed,
echoed Shaposhnikov's criticisms. The results of the meeting
were widely reported by Western and CIS agencies. (Stephen Foye)

did manage to conclude various types of agreements on anti-missile
defense and control over space projects, air defense, and on
a council of collective security (which would include the presidents
of the CIS member states and CIS commander Shaposhnikov). A provision
was also adopted after heated debate on the structure, functions,
and order of financing the CIS joint command, ITAR-TASS reported
on 4 July. However, Ukraine failed to sign the agreement on joint
air defense and also did not endorse provisions on the structure
and financing of the joint command, Radio Ukraine reported on
5 July. AFP reported on 5 July that Ukrainian Defense Minister
Konstantin Morozov did not attend the meeting.(Stephen Foye)

SECURITY AGENDA FOR CIS SUMMIT. A number of the issues debated
at the meeting of defense ministers are also scheduled to be
discussed at the CIS Summit Conference scheduled to open on 6
July. According to Interfax on 3 July, security issues on the
agenda are: missile defense and control of space; air defense;
legal provisions for the collective security council; specification
of the composition of strategic forces, structure of the CIS
joint command; appointment of a deputy commander of the joint
CIS forces; and provisions on the CIS border forces. (Stephen

RUSSIAN-MOLDOVAN MEETING. Yeltsin held talks with Moldovan President
Mircea Snegur in the Kremlin on 3 July. As reported by Russian
and Moldovan media, the two presidents agreed in principle on
the following sequence of steps toward settling the conflict
in Moldova: a cease-fire, creation of a demarcation corridor
between the forces, the introduction of "neutral" peacekeeping
forces, the granting of a "political status" to the left bank
of the Dniester by the Moldovan parliament, and, ultimately,
bilateral negotiations on withdrawing Russia's 14th Army from
Moldova. Yeltsin additionally agreed to take steps for the resumption
of deliveries of Russian goods to Moldova under existing agreements.
Most deliveries were suspended, coinciding with Russian State
Secretary Gennadii Burbulis' remarks (on 25 June) that Russia
would use "economic pressure" to persuade Moldova to grant autonomy
to the "Dniester republic." (Vladimir Socor)

NO AGREEMENT ON SPECIFICS. These general understandings fail
to address the long-standing and wide differences between Moscow
and Chisinau concerning the identity of peacekeeping forces,
the nature of the political status to be granted to eastern Moldova
and the extent of the territory affected, the presence and role
of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, and the military and political
support received by the "Dniester" insurgents from Russia. The
one practical result of the Yeltsin-Snegur meeting is the establishment
of a telephone "hot line" between the two, which Chisinau considers
of particular importance given Yeltsin's unavailability to Snegur
by telephone in moments of crisis in recent months. (Vladimir

BELARUS FAILS TO RATIFY CFE TREATY. Western agencies reported
on 3 July that the Belarusian parliament had adjourned until
November without ratifying the Conventional Forces in Europe
Treaty. However, the parliament's presidium reportedly did adopt
a resolution endorsing the treaty and parliamentary chairman
Stanislav Shushkevich sent a letter to the other treaty signatories
that stated that Belarus would abide by the treaty's provisions.
(Stephen Foye)

UKRAINIAN CABINET CRISIS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitold Fokin
on 3 July accused the parliament of interfering in the work of
the cabinet of ministers, saying that his government would resign
if it could not work under normal conditions, ITAR-TASS and "Novosti"
reported. After Fokin's statement, all but two of the ministers
walked out of parliament. Staying behind were the ministers of
defense and economics, Konstantin Morozov and Oleksandr Lanovy,
respectively. The vote of confidence in the government is scheduled
to take place on 7 July. (Roman Solchanyk)

40 of Russia's political groups, including the Democratic Russia
movement and the Russian Democratic Reform Movement, met in Moscow
on 4 July to set up a strong political bloc in support of Boris
Yeltsin and his reform program, ITAR-TASS reported. Participants
in the gathering said the bloc should neutralize the activities
of a joint ultra-nationalist and communist opposition. The participants
stressed that the creation of this bloc is also a reaction to
the establishment of the "Civic Union"--an organization which
unites three major centrist groups (Nikolai Travkin's Democratic
Party of Russia, Aleksandr Rutskoi's People's Party of Free Russia,
and Arkadii Volsky's union "Renewal.") The organizers of the
new bloc of democratic parties accused the Civic Union of attempting
to take full control over the Russian government. (Vera Tolz)

Yeltsin began a news conference in Moscow on 4 July with a progress
report on the stabilization program that was unveiled in March,
Russian TV reported. He claimed that, "We completed the first
stage in accordance with the approved program. We did not permit
any deviations or digressions in any direction. We moved exactly
in accordance with the program." Most observers would argue that
none of the main provisions of the stabilization program, i.e.,
reducing the budgetary deficit, further liberalization of prices,
and holding down inflation, has been attained. (Keith Bush)

. . .ON DEBT REPAYMENT AND ENERGY PRICES. Evidently aiming his
remarks at his domestic audience, the Russian president used
the IMF as a straw man to assert that Russia would not submit
to foreign dictates. He accused the IMF and its managing director,
Michel Camdessus, of insisting on a wage freeze, on the rapid
freeing of energy prices, and on the prompt repayment of the
debts of the former Soviet Union. None of these has been featured
in the IMF's published recommendations. (Keith Bush)

IMF AND RUSSIA REACH ACCORD. Russian Acting Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar and IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus published a
joint communique on 5 July, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported.
The formal announcement referred vaguely to "new measures" that
"will strengthen the economic reforms and the stabilization program
of the Russian Federation government." On the basis of the accord,
Camdessus is to ask the IMF's board of directors to open up a
first line of credit for Russia--amounting to $1 billion--before
the IMF's summer recess on 10 August. According to The New York
Times of 6 July, the IMF eased up only slightly on its standard
requirements, accepting, for example, a monthly inflation rate
of 7-9% instead of 3%. (Keith Bush)

RUSSIA'S FOREIGN TRADE PERFORMANCE. During the first five months
of 1992, Russia's exports fell by 30% and imports by 18% when
compared with the same period of 1991, according to Rossiiskaya
gazeta of 3 July, as quoted by Reuters. With exports and imports
roughly at the same level, a small trade surplus was registered.
Exports of oil and natural gas were down by 21% and 5% respectively.
(Keith Bush)

After several days of intense fighting that resulted in heavy
casualties, Azerbaijani forces captured the strategic town of
Mardakert in the north of Nagorno-Karabakh on 5 July, Western
agencies reported. The Armenian government delegation to the
Rome peace talks on Karabakh walked out to protest the failure
of other nations participating to condemn "recent Azerbaijani
aggression," or to permit the Armenian delegation from Karabakh
to issue a statement on the capture of Mardakert. The Italian
chairman of the peace talks, Mario Rafaelli, had called on 4
July for a 30-day ceasefire beginning 9 July. (Liz Fuller)

PROGRESS ON OSSETIAN SETTLEMENT. Negotiators from Georgia, Russia,
and North and South Ossetia agreed, at a meeting in the North
Ossetian capital of Vladikavkaz on 4 July, to withdraw all armed
forces from South Ossetia and to create a peacekeeping force
consisting of 500 troops each from Georgia, Russia and Ossetia,
which will be deployed in the area by 14 July, ITAR-TASS reported.
Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze visited Tskhinvali
on 5 July for talks with the South Ossetian leadership. (Liz

KYRGYZSTAN ADOPTS SHOCK THERAPY. The Kyrgyz parliament passed
a plan of strict economic measures proposed by President Askar
Akaev and developed in conjunction with the IMF, Kyrgyztag-TASS
reported on 4 July. The measures, which include strict control
of industry, banking, and state finances, should stabilize the
economy by the end of the year. The $400 million it will take
to implement them will be provided, in part, by the IMF if the
plan is approved at a meeting scheduled for October. Kyrgyzstan
also hopes to receive help from Russia in implementing its economic
reforms. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)

IMF CONCLUDES WORK IN KAZAKHSTAN. The seven-month mission of
IMF representatives to Kazakhstan has come to a close, Kaztag-TASS
reported on 3 July. The mission studied the economic situation
in the republic, and helped Kazakh authorities to develop market
institutions. The head of the mission, Ishan Kapur warned Kazakhstan
not to expect "golden rain" to fall from the treasury of the
"gigantic cooperative." He noted some progress in Kazakhstan's
economy, but said that the process of reform was just beginning.
Kazakhstan's own dues to join the organization amount to $220
million. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)

UZBEK PARLIAMENT SESSION CLOSES. Having adopted laws on citizenship,
education, and having approved the President's decision to apply
for membership in the non-aligned movement, the three-day session
of the Uzbek Supreme Soviet was closed on 4 July, Radio Mayak
reported. President Islam Karimov addressed the session on 3
July, and reaffirmed his belief in the viability of the CIS,
ITAR-TASS reported. A draft constitution was on the table during
the session along with over 20 other draft laws. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)


media report on 6 July that Croats in that troubled state on
3 July agreed to set up their own autonomous "Community of Herceg-Bosna,"
a name Croatian nationalists use for Bosnia-Herzegovina. It will
be headed by Mate Boban, whom the New York Times reports as being
close to Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, who has long favored
the partition of the neighboring republic between Croats and
Serbs. The mainly Croat areas included in the new "community"
have largely been functioning as a separate entity for some time,
with Croatian money in circulation. Croatian troops have recently
been on the offensive and apparently control Mostar, capital
of "Herceg-Bosna." The key question now is whether the Croats'
declaration will constitute a final break in the de facto alliance
between Croats in Muslims, or whether the Croats have simply
increased the stakes. (Patrick Moore)

OTHER BOSNIAN DEVELOPMENTS. Aircraft continued to land food,
medical, and other vital materials in the besieged capital, Sarajevo.
Plans are to feed 50,000 people per day on army rations and other
supplies, but the BBC said on 6 July that many people are too
afraid of sniper fire to come out and collect food from distribution
points run by local charities. Finally, news agencies report
that the mayor of Sarajevo is trying to obtain protection for
the remaining animals in the city zoo. Ten of them were killed
by mortar fire in a Serbian assault on the park the previous
week. (Patrick Moore)

On the seventh consecutive day of demonstrations against Serbian
President Slobodan Milosevic, opposition leaders on 5 July declared
victory and called for an end to the protests. Although the demonstrations
failed to bring Milosevic down, opposition leaders said that
the daily gathering of tens of thousands of Belgrade citizens
had been successful. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the Serbian Renewal
Movement, told 40,000 people assembled on Sunday that "the capital
has been liberated." The protests have gone on with only minor
reports of violence and little police interference. (Gordon Bardos)

NASTASE, JOVANOVIC MEET. Romanian Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase
held talks on 5 July in Timisoara with his counterpart from the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the rump Yugoslavia), Vladislav
Jovanovic. Radio Bucharest quoted Nastase as saying after the
meeting that the UN economic sanctions against Belgrade had sent
a "political message" to the FRY. Talks also touched on the fighting
in Bosnia and the economic situation in Serbia, which was one
of Romania's main trading partners before sanctions were imposed
last month. (Dan Ionescu)

3 July the general assembly of the Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe held a founding meeting in Budapest attended
by representatives of 52 European, Asian, and North American
countries. According to Radio Budapest, the meeting was addressed
by Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, who talked about the
fate of some 1,500 Bosnian refugees who were sent back to Hungary
by Austria after the latter country reintroduced visa requirements
at the beginning of July. Because of the critical situation regarding
refugees from the former Yugoslavia, the Hungarian delegation
at the CSCE meeting is pressing for a written CSCE document on
the refugee problem. (Judith Pataki)

stood behind the FRY during a dispute over that country's right
to be seated at the CSCE parliamentary assembly in Budapest.
Romania argued that it was more useful to hear the views of the
Belgrade government than to exclude it from the session, as the
Netherlands had proposed. According to an RFE correspondent,
the Romanian delegate also argued that the FRY should be entitled
to keep its seat until the main CSCE meeting in Helsinki makes
a final decision on the issue. The president of the assembly
eventually agreed that there is no legal basis for depriving
Yugoslavia of its seat at this time. (Dan Ionescu)

CZECHOSLOVAKIA ABSENT. Although it is the current chairman of
the CSCE and former foreign minister Jiri Dienstbier had been
expected to deliver a report on CSCE activities, Czechoslovakia
did not send a delegation to the Budapest meeting, an RFE/RL
correspondent reports. Czechoslovakia offered no official explanation.
Western diplomats said Czechoslovakia's failure to attend the
meeting might put in doubt a German proposal to make Prague the
permanent headquarters of the parliamentary assembly's secretariat.
(Jan Obrman)

CSCE ON TROOPS IN BALTICS. On 5 July in its final document the
CSCE parliamentary assembly took note of the "legitimate desire
of the Baltic nations to live in sovereign states and the incompatibility
existing between this desire and the presence of foreign armed
forces on their national territory," a RFE/RL correspondent in
Budapest reports. It recommended that the Russian government
complete as soon as possible the arrangements for the withdrawal
of the around 130,000 former USSR troops still stationed there.
The document also invited the governments of the CSCE states
to grant financial aid "for the return home of these armed forces,
and to negotiate the conditions with all the concerned parties."
(Saulius Girnius)

HAVEL FAILS TO WIN REELECTION. Vaclav Havel has failed in his
bid to be to be reelected as Czechoslovak president in two consecutive
rounds of voting in the Federal Assembly. While he clearly failed
in the first round--in which he needed a three-fifths majority
in all three chambers of the parliament--he received the necessary
simple majority in the House of the People and the Czech chamber
of the House of Nations. In the Slovak chamber of the House of
Nations, however, only 18 of 75 deputies supported him. Havel
cannot run in the third round of voting scheduled for 16 July,
but he could try again in the fourth round if the federal parliament
is unable to select a president before then. (Jan Obrman)

MECIAR CALLS FOR REFERENDUM. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar
was quoted by CSTK on 5 July that the future constitutional setup
of Czechoslovakia should be decided in a referendum. He added
that the Slovak government will respect the will of the people.
In the preelection period Slovak deputies have several times
prevented a referendum. At the same time, addressing a rally
in Bratislava, Meciar stressed his view that the Czech and Slovak
republics are individual entities and that they should "enter
Europe" as two states. He warned that "trivial disputes" among
Slovaks might weaken the "struggle for emancipation." (Jan Obrman)

HAVEL WARNS AGAINST INTOLERANCE. In his regular radio address,
on Radio Czechoslovakia on 5 July Havel warned Czechs and Slovaks
about growing signs of intolerance with each other. Havel said
that he was disturbed by the "mocking and aggressive calls" between
the two nations, adding that current developments might well
become a source of future intolerance. The president stressed
that Czechs and Slovaks had never been enemies in the past and
would have to live next to each other in the future. (Jan Obrman)

ultimatum, the tripartite "little coalition" and five Christian-democratic
and peasant parties settled on the candidacy of Democratic Union
deputy Hanna Suchocka for prime minister. In talks held virtually
nonstop from late on 3 July to 6:00 a.m. on 5 July, the eight
parties, representing the full ideological breadth of the Solidarity
movement, also agreed on a division of ministerial posts. The
little coalition, with 112 Sejm seats, is to get eleven posts,
including foreign affairs, finance, privatization, and defense;
the "group of five," with some 115 seats, is to get fifteen posts,
including two deputy prime ministers. The Center Alliance, one
of the "five," walked out in protest at the last minute, temporarily
reducing the coalition to seven parties. A legal specialist from
Poznan, Suchocka voted against the martial law decree and Solidarity's
delegalization in 1982, as a Sejm deputy for the official Democratic
Party (SD). She left the SD in 1984 and was elected to the round-table
Sejm in 1989 on the Solidarity list. She announced on 5 July
that her task now was to select specific candidates from the
eight parties to which ministerial posts had been allocated.
(Louisa Vinton)

WALESA IMPATIENT. This seven-party Solidarity solution did not
seem to satisfy President Lech Walesa, who had threatened on
3 July to take "necessary measures" should parliamentary forces
fail to form a workable governing coalition by the end of the
day. Despite progress over the weekend toward a coalition agreement,
Walesa issued a statement on 5 July suggesting that the deadline
for presenting a cabinet list supported by a secure majority
had passed. Walesa also requested that Prime Minister Waldemar
Pawlak consider appointing new chiefs to ministries vital to
the state's functioning. Although these moves suggest that the
president is still banking on Pawlak and doubts that the seven
parties can work together, Walesa may simply be turning up the
heat. (Louisa Vinton)

ESTONIAN ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER? A spokesman for Arnold Ruutel,
Chairman of the Estonian Supreme Council, told the press on 3
July that parliamentary and presidential elections in Estonia
can be expected in September, probably before the 27th. The new
constitution, which came into effect on 3 July, provides for
the next president to be elected by popular vote, and his successors
by the parliament, ETA and Western agencies report. (Dzintra

Yeltsin told the press in Moscow on 4 July that "the political
decision has been made to completely withdraw the troops" from
the Baltic States, Moscow TV reports. He implied that the troop
withdrawal is proceeding more slowly than the Balts might wish,
essentially because the Balts are not building housing for those
troops in Russia. Claiming that it was impossible withdraw some
100,000 troops in two years, he offered to draw up a withdrawal
schedule for this year and 1993; he added: "We will keep to this
schedule and fulfill it." Apart from one training division for
middle-level personnel "which we are sending," Yeltsin said,
"all other military formations will not be reinforced [or replenished]
with new recruits." (Dzintra Bungs)

city council decided that as of 10 July the Russian military
will have to apply for movement permits from the city authorities.
Even with the special permits, military movements in the Estonian
capital will be restricted to the hours of 9:0016:00, ETA reported
on 3 July. As of 1 July Russian military transports are banned
from using or crossing Brivibas Street, one of the main thoroughfares
in Riga, in line with a decision by the Vidzeme district council
on 30 June, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs)

Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis and National Defense
Minister Audrius Butkevicius participated in ceremonies in Klaipeda
formally inaugurating the activities of the Lithuanian Coastal
Defense, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuanian Army Chaplain Rev.
Alfonsas Svarinskas blessed the service's first three vessels,
the rescue ship Vetra and two cutters that will patrol the Lithuanian
coast. The new service was enabled by the Law on the Defense
of State Borders passed by parliament on 25 June and entering
into force on 1 July. (Saulius Girnius)

visit to Warsaw en route to the Munich economic summit, US President
George Bush attended the final burial of Polish statesman and
pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski on 5 July. Bush proposed that Poland
be allowed to use the $1-billion currency stabilization fund
set up in 1989 to support the private sector. "The path chosen
by Poland is the right one," Bush added. Thanking Bush for US
support, Walesa said that Europe without an American presence
was unthinkable. Police prevented protesting farmers from the
radical Self-Defense union from reaching the capital, where they
had threatened to occupy government buildings during Bush's visit.
The farmers' union began its march on Warsaw on 3 July. (Louisa

POLAND ENDORSES EC AGREEMENT. The Sejm voted on 4 July, by a
margin of 238 to 78, to approve ratification of the EC association
agreement. The only opposition came from the Confederation for
an Independent Poland and the Christian National Union, whose
members argued that joining the EC would limit Polish sovereignty.
(Louisa Vinton)

Demokratsiya reported that the National Council for Social Partnership
had reached a tentative agreement on a 26% average wage increase
for state employees. Quoting Deputy Prime Minister Nikola Vasilev,
who represents the government in the negotiations, Demokratsiya
wrote that employees in previously neglected sectors--such as
health care and education--could receive an even bigger raise.
According to recent statistics the current average monthly wage
is 1,728 leva--about $75. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

[As of 1200 CET]

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Updated: 1998-11-

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