|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 119, 25 June 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN, SHEVARDNADZE SIGN OSSETIA PEACE AGREEMENT. Talks in Sochi on 24 June between Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, and members of the leadership of North and South Ossetia resulted in the signing of an agreement on a ceasefire and the deployment of peacekeeping troops on the border between South Ossetia and Russia, Russian and Western media reported. Shevardnadze subsequently announced that Russia and Georgia will establish full diplomatic relations by the end of this month. (Liz Fuller) RUSSIA DEMANDS END OF BLOODSHED IN GEORGIA, MOLDOVA. Yeltsin said before his meeting with Shevardnadze, in Dagomys that Russia cannot remain indifferent to the bloodshed in South Ossetia, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 June. In his talks, Yeltsin was joined by Russian Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi, Interfax reported. Meanwhile, the Moscow City Council has denounced the Georgian and Moldovan use of force in South Ossetia and the Trans-Dniester region and demanded an immediate halt to any bloodshed, Radio Rossii reported on 24 June. The first deputy chairman of the Moscow City Council, Sergei Stankevich, who spoke at the council's session, said that 260 people have been killed in the fighting in Bendery. (Alexander Rahr) MORE EVIDENCE OF 14TH ARMY INVOLVEMENT IN BENDERY FIGHTING. In Bendery on 22 June, special correspondent Chrystia Freeland of the Financial Times (as cited by The Washington Post the next day), reported that "tanks and soldiers of the 14th Army were continuing to participate in fighting." In the Financial Times of 24 June, the same reporter described how officers of the 59th Division in Tiraspol issued new armored-personnel carriers to soldiers of the "Dniester Guard" fighting in Bendery. Yeltsin's nationalities adviser, Galina Starovoitova, was also cited by The Los Angeles Times of 24 June as telling correspondents in Moscow that Russian soldiers did participate in fighting against Moldova. (Vladimir Socor) RUSSIAN MILITARY OFFICIALS ADMIT TO SOME INVOLVEMENT. Colonel Aleksandr Baranov, an assistant commander of the 14th Army and the most senior Russian officer stationed in Bendery, was cited by Western agencies on 22 June as saying that "some of the 5,000 Russian soldiers" stationed in the area had participated in the fighting, but "the Army as a whole has not intervened yet," he added. Meanwhile, The Independent of 24 June reported that a Russian Defense Ministry spokesman, Colonel Nikolai Medvedev, had admitted that 14th Army tank units crossed the Dniester on 20/21 June from Tiraspol to Bendery to fight the Moldovans. Another Russian Defense Ministry spokesman, Colonel Ivan Skrylnik, was cited by The Guardian on 23 June as saying that a Russian battalion in Parcani near Bendery which also participated in the fighting had just transferred from the 14th Army to the "Dniester Guard." (Vladimir Socor) WHO GAVE THE ORDERS? A Russian "government source" told The Independent of 24 June that "the order for the 14th Army to engage was given by the high command in Moscow, though the aim was to make a show of force rather than to wage war." Baranov, Skrylnik, and Medvedev for their part maintained that the units which participated in the fighting had acted on their own initiative without orders from above, but they portrayed the units' actions as justified by the circumstances. US State Department spokeswoman Margaret Tutwiler told reporters in Washington, as cited by The Baltimore Sun and by an RFE/RL correspondent on 23 June, that "elements of the 14th Army" did participate in the fighting, but it remained unclear whether the orders had come from Moscow or from local commanders. (Vladimir Socor) MOST CASUALTIES IN BENDERY SAID TO BE MOLDOVANS. "Dniester republic state secretary" Valerii Litskay dismissed the count of over 1,000 killed, given by the "Dniester republic" press center and widely quoted by the media, as "far from reality" and estimated the number at 400, Interfax and Reuters reported on 23 June. Grigore Marakutsa, the ethnic Moldovan figurehead chairman of the "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet," told a news conference in Moscow that the casualties were around 500, adding that some 60% of them were Moldovans, Radio Rossii reported on 23 June. (Vladimir Socor) MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT ON RUSSIAN PRESSURES. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur has rejected Yeltsin's and Rutskoi's denunciations of Moldova's attempt to relieve the besieged Bendery police after 4 policemen had been killed and 11 injured, and to restore the legal order there. "Under their logic, they might as well reproach President Bush for restoring order in Los Angeles," Snegur told the Moldovan Parliament, as cited by Moldovapres on 23 June. "With the 14th Army occupying the left bank of the Dniester, Russia has begun an undeclared war against Moldova," Snegur said; "our state is being destroyed by the Russian military, Cossacks, and mercenaries." But "I will not be frightened and will not bow my head to the Russian leadership's threats," Snegur said. (Vladimir Socor) KRAVCHUK ASSESSES DAGOMYS SUMMIT. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told reporters upon his arrival in Kiev that his meeting with Boris Yeltsin marked a "turning point" in relations between Ukraine and Russia, Radio Ukraine reported on 24 June. Above all, said Kravchuk, he and the Russian president finally succeeded in placing relations between the two countries on an "interstate" level. In a subsequent press conference, Kravchuk stressed the friendly atmosphere at the meeting and emphasized that a new approach had been found to the contentious Black Sea Fleet issue, Radio Mayak reported on 24 June. Some observers, however, are suggesting that the glowing atmospherics emanating from the Dagomys summit obscure the seriousness of existing problems that continue to plague relations between the two CIS giants. (Roman Solchanyk) PRAVDA SAVAGES ARMS AGREEMENT. A commentary by Viktor Nikolaev published in the 23 June Pravda called the strategic arms agreement reached in Washington on 16 June an outright "capitulation" to the United States by Moscow and charged that the Russian delegation had willfully allowed itself to be "duped" by the Americans. Nikolaev bemoaned in particular the future loss of Russian SS-18 missiles, and charged that in general the accord destroyed the "system of equal security" built up over many decades. On the same day CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov offered half-hearted support for the agreement, affirming that there was no alternative to disarmament but also arguing that it was important to maintain parity and to guard against what the report called "all-out reckless disarmament." He also waffled on a question concerning the extent to which the military leadership participated in the decision to approve the agreement. His comments contrasted sharply with those of Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. (see Daily Report of 23 June). (Stephen Foye) CIS SPOKESMAN ON UKRAINIAN STRATEGIC FORCES. Lt. Gen. Leonid Ivashov, identified as secretary of the Council of CIS Defense Ministers, told ITAR-TASS on 24 June that control over CIS strategic forces in Ukraine was one of the key issues discussed in Dagomys on 23 June. Ivashov admitted that no accord was reached, but said that progress on the issue was nevertheless made and that talks will resume on 2 July in Moscow, prior to a meeting of CIS defense ministers. The disagreement has grown out of Ukrainian attempts to establish "administrative" control over strategic forces located in the republic, a development that has angered CIS and Russian defense chiefs. (Stephen Foye) RUSSIAN-BELARUSIAN DEAL ON DEFENSE? Radio Rossii reported on 24 June that, according to the "Nega" news agency, there are plans for Russia to finance a series of defense enterprises in Belarus and to restore several state orders for military goods first established during the Soviet period. The report also made vague reference to a bilateral military agreement that will allegedly be signed by the two sides. The agreement is reportedly being crafted to avoid contradicting elements in the Belarusian legal code that prohibit the country from joining any sort of military bloc. (Stephen Foye) GAMSAKHURDIA COMEBACK ATTEMPT FOILED. Four people were killed and 26 injured when Georgian National Guard detachments retook the Tbilisi TV tower, which had been occupied for six hours by supporters of ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, in the early afternoon of 24 June. Georgian militia leader Dzhaba Ioseliani condemned the comeback attempt as "insane," according to Interfax; Georgian Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua said that Georgia would demand Gamsakhurdia's extradition from Chechnya, Western agencies reported. State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze was quoted by ITAR-TASS as stating that the coup attempt was intended to prevent his planned talks with Yeltsin in Sochi on South Ossetia; Shevardnadze was forced to delay his departure for Sochi because of the incident. (Liz Fuller) ABKHAZ MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS ATTACKED. On 24 June armed formations subordinate to the Abkhaz-dominated parliament of the Abkhaz ASSR together with two ethnic Abkhaz senior government officials stormed the Ministry of Internal Affairs headquarters in Sukhumi and beat up the minister, Givi Lominadze (an ethnic Georgian) and two of his deputies, ITAR-TASS reported. Lominadze had refused to give up his post despite parliament's decision to fire him last month. The "Democratic Abkhazia" faction in the Abkhaz parliament, which represents the autonomous republic's majority Georgian population, blamed Abkhaz separatist circles for exacerbating tensions in the region. (Liz Fuller) VOLSKY CRITICIZES GOVERNMENT. The leader of the "industrialists union," Arkadii Volsky, told Rossiya (no. 26) that he does not intend to join the present government which, according to him, is torn by battles for power and positions. He criticized the government for the lack of leadership and program as well as its failure to fight growing corruption. He stated that the newly appointed deputy prime ministers, Vladimir Shumeiko, Georgii Khizha and Viktor Chernomyrdin will defend the interests of the production managers in the government. He favored a referendum on ownership of land but spoke against the law suit against the CPSU. He called upon the president to announce a general amnesty. (Alexander Rahr) RUSSIA TO ANNOUNCE "REFORM-DEEPENING STAGE." Vladimir Mau, an economic adviser to the Yeltsin government, told ITAR-TASS on 24 June that the second stage of the Gaidar reform program will be presented to a cabinet collegium meeting on 25 June. Mau described this as "the reform-deepening stage." He claimed that the first stage, the stabilization of the economy is already "nearing completion." (Many Russian and Western observers would take issue with this assertion). Among the second stage's aims are a reduction of the budget deficit to 3-5% (of the GDP) and lowering inflation to below 5% a month. The second stage is to be implemented in 1992-95. (Keith Bush) IMF CONCESSIONS TO RUSSIA? There were widespread reports in the Western press on 24 June that the IMF is preparing to advance roughly $1 billion as a first credit tranche to Russia before the G-7 summit in July. the Financial Times of 24 June stated that the IMF has accepted a two-year timetable for Russian energy prices to rise to world levels. It has softened its insistence that the Russian budget be balanced in 1992 without external aid and dropped its demands that all former Soviet republics remain within the ruble zone. However, the IMF is reported to be firm on withholding any stabilization fund until conditions are such that it will not need to be drawn upon. (Keith Bush) SOVIET DEBT REPAYMENT. Ahead of the meeting of the steering committee representing 600 Western creditor banks scheduled for 25 June, the Western press have disclosed details of the repayment to date of the debt of the former USSR. According to The Wall Street Journal of 24 June, Soviet principal debt repayments due in 1992 amount to $10-11 billion, while repayments of interest and supplier credits due this year total $4 billion. No principal has been repaid this year, and only one-sixth of the interest due to banks and official creditors during the first five months of 1992 has been repaid. The total convertible currency debt of the former Soviet Union at the end of 1991 is estimated at $65 billion. (Keith Bush) CASUALTIES IN MOSCOW DEMONSTRATION. Seventy six persons have been injured during the demonstrations in front of the "Ostankino" television center, among them--twenty eight policemen, Krimpres-TASS reported on 24 June. In the absence of the head of the Moscow police, Arkadii Murashov, who is on vacation in the Philippines, the acting chief of the Main Administration of Interior Affairs of Moscow, Anatolii Egorov, stated that the militia forces were acting strictly in accordance with the law when they broke up the authorized hardliners' demonstration in front of the television center on 22-23 June. The Moscow City Council has reportedly set up a special commission to investigate the events. (Alexander Rahr) TURKMENISTAN'S COMMUNISTS CARRY ON. Radio Mayak reported on 24 June that the chairman of the Organizational Committee to Restore the Communist Party of Turkmenistan had told Interfax that his group approved a decision to take part in the 29th Congress of the CPSU to be held in Moscow in July, though they have not yet decided if they will attend as observers or as foreign guests. Turkmenistan's Communist Party changed its name to Democratic Party last year and became more strongly oriented toward Turkmen national interests. According to the organizational committee chairman, some 800 people, mostly pensioners, have formed a group to restore the former CP. (Cassandra Cavanaugh) KAZAKHSTAN'S COMMUNIST'S TO BE REGISTERED. Hard-liners who have already "restored" Kazakhstan's Communist Party won a victory on 24 June when Kazakhstan's Supreme Court ruled that the Ministry of Justice's refusal to register the Communist Party of Kazakhstan is illegal, and ordered the ministry to register the party within 10 days, "Vesti" reported. The ministry had refused to register the party on the grounds that it was likely to cause interethnic tension. (Cassandra Cavanaugh) KAZAKH OPPOSITION PERSEVERES. Members of some of Kazakhstan's opposition parties are continuing their protest action in front of the Supreme Soviet in Alma-Ata despite the removal of their tent city by MVD troops, Radio Rossii reported on 24 June. The demonstrators, who began their action on 16 June, are demanding the resignation of members of parliament representing communist organizations, and the formation of a coalition government including members of the opposition. President Nursultan Nazarbaev has refused to accede to any of their demands or to meet with them. (Cassandra Cavanaugh) MILITARY DEVELOPMENTS IN TAJIKISTAN. The Tajik opposition has demanded that the country assume jurisdiction over the CIS troops stationed on its territory, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 June. State Defense Committee Chairman Bakhrom Rakhmanov, counted as one of the opposition ministers, has complained that the government is very slow in forming its own military, although the newly-appointed commander of the Dushanbe garrison has pointed out that money is lacking. As long as the situation of the military remains unresolved, it is unlikely that effective action can be taken against armed bands who continue fighting in various parts of the country. (Bess Brown) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NEW SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. The Slovak parliament named the Slovak cabinet in Bratislava on 24 June, foreign agencies report. Twelve out of the 14 members come from the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS). Jozef Tuchyna, former communist general, now the new Interior Minister, is without party affiliation. Ludovit Cernak whose portfolio combines economy, industry, trade and tourism, was selected from the secessionist Slovak National Party. Vladimir Meciar, the new Slovak premier. later said that the HZDS does not want to split Czechoslovakia and that the Civic Democratic Party's leader Vaclav Klaus and other Czech officials are forcing them in that direction by presenting an "either-or" situation. Meanwhile, Klaus said he has chosen five candidates for the new transitional federal government. Meciar has yet to announce the five Slovak candidates. (Barbara Kroulik) NEW SLOVAK MINISTER ON HUNGARIAN MINORITY. According to Milan Knazko, Slovakia's new foreign minister, there is no Hungarian minority problem in Slovakia, Radio Budapest reported on 24 June. For Knazko, autonomy for national minorities is out of the question. He said Slovakia is determined to complete the construction of the Gabcikovo dam and power plant on the Danube (Hungary unilaterally denounced last month the relevant 1977 state agreement with Czechoslovakia). Also, the new Slovak National Council (parliament) failed for the first time to elect an ethnic Magyar as one of its vice chairmen --a post that usually went to the Magyar deputies' group. (Alfred Reisch) SERB POLICE ARREST ALBANIAN LEGISLATORS. Western news agencies said on 24 June that Serbian police had arrested five ethnic Albanian legislators in Kosovo, where the population is over 90% Albanian. The parliamentarians were elected in a 24 May vote declared illegal by Serb authorities, who keep Kosovo under tight repression. On 23 June police blocked the legislature's opening session in an Islamic college, and now have jailed the five for 60 days for "an anti-constitutional act endangering the territorial integrity and constitutional order of Serbia." Western and Croatian media have speculated recently that the beleaguered Serbian regime might try to provoke some sort of conflict in Kosovo to rally Serbs behind it in a fight with the Albanians and possibly other peoples of Islamic heritage in the neighboring Sandzak region. (Patrick Moore) OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV AREA. Croatian Radio said on 24 June that legislative and presidential elections will take place on 2 August. President Franjo Tudjman currently tops polls in the republic and seems likely to be reelected. Meanwhile in Strasbourg, talks are slated for 25 June between the presidents of Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, together with EC peace negotiator Lord Carrington. The Bosnian leader may not be able to leave besieged Sarajevo, however, and his foreign minister is likely to take his place. The Serbian foreign minister said on 24 June that he did not see much chance of the talks making progress, anyway. Finally, the 25 June Washington Post reports on a growing mood in Europe for military intervention in the crisis. (Patrick Moore) PAWLAK'S SUPPORTERS HESITATE. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's largest parliamentary ally, the tripartite "little coalition," debated late into the evening on 24 June whether to join the new cabinet or merely support it from the sidelines. Citing "unofficial" sources, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 25 June that the coalition had opted in the end to delegate its representatives to the cabinet, a decision the newspaper predicted would lead to defections from the coalition's senior partner, the Democratic Union. Pawlak told an earlier press conference that, in the event of a rebuff from the "little coalition," he planned to draw up a cabinet list in consultation with President Lech Walesa. In either case, the cabinet would include experienced figures from parties opposed to him as well as supporters. The prime minister also discussed fiscal policy with former Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz, whose book 800 Days--Controlled Shock went on sale on 24 June. Some 1,500 people waited in line for hours to have their copies autographed. "The economy's biggest problem is politics," Balcerowicz told reporters. (Louisa Vinton) ILIESCU ON MOLDOVA. Before leaving to attend the Istanbul meeting of heads of state to discuss cooperation in the Black Sea region, Romania's President Ion Iliescu told reporters on 24 June that the key to lasting peace in Moldova was the withdrawal of the former Soviet 14th army. A Foreign Ministry spokesman refuted statements by an official of the self-proclaimed breakaway Dniestr republic who said that Romanian troops participated in the fighting in Moldova. Meanwhile, students staged a protest outside the Russian embassy in Bucharest demanding a political solution to the conflict. Local media carried the stories. (Mihai Sturdza) APPEAL TO PROTECT BULGARIANS IN DNIESTR REGION. On 23 June the Bulgarian foreign ministry appealed to the Moldovan government to "guarantee the security" of the estimated 100,000 ethnic Bulgarians living there, BTA reports. Foreign ministry officials told Reuters that a Bulgarian family of five had been killed in clashes between Moldovan government forces and Dniestr separatists on the previous day, and that the safety of 15,000 Bulgarians in the towns of Parkany and Bendery was endangered. Already last month Sofia expressed concern that Moldova's Bulgarians could become involved in ethnic fighting. (Kjell Engelbrekt) HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT TO MODIFY ECONOMIC PROGRAM. A draft law prepared by the government to revise the annual budget indicates that the government's economic program will have to be substantially modified because the pace of economic recovery is slower than expected, MTI reported on 24 June. Government forecasts that economic growth would begin and personal consumption increase this year are not likely to be fulfilled. Industrial production increased only marginally since the all-time low last December, and personal consumption continued to decline. The government now expects an annual budget deficit of over 178 billion forint instead of the 70 billion originally calculated. The Ministry of Finance predicted that slow domestic demand, high interest rates, and the slow pace of privatization would keep the gross domestic product around the 1991 levels. (Edith Oltay) POLAND'S RADICAL FARMERS REMOVE ROADBLOCKS. The leader of the radical farmers' union Self-Defense, Andrzej Lepper, announced late on 23 June that all the roadblocks erected to force the government to assist indebted farmers would be dismantled. After meeting with Prime Minister Pawlak on 23 June, Lepper said that his organization had decided to suspend its protest to give the "peasant prime minister" time to form a government. Rzeczpospolita reported on 24 June that only 23,000 of Poland's 2.1 million farms have difficulty meeting interest payments; and only 4,500 of these are faced with foreclosure. (Louisa Vinton) SLUGGISH PRIVATIZATION IN ROMANIA. Curierul national wrote on 23 June that out of 1,600 companies singled out by the government for privatization in 1991, only 190 had been earmarked for sale thus far. The remaining firms should reportedly be dealt with during this summer. At the end of 1991, only 95 joint companies with a total capital of 10.4 billion lei had been created out of former state enterprises. (Mihai Sturdza) BULGARIAN ARMY REORGANIZATION. On 23 June, the government adopted a general concept for a new national security policy, and outlined the basic features of the envisaged reorganization of the armed forces, BTA reported. The reforms are to take place in three stages: by 1993 an extensive restructuring of the military organization, including the establishment of a more flexible brigade structure (with 3,000 to 3,500 men in each unit) will be completed; by 1995 troops will be retasked; and before the year 2000 the weaponry is to be replaced or updated. (Kjell Engelbrekt) MORE BORDER VIOLATIONS IN HUNGARY. The national commander of the Hungarian border guards, Balazs Novak, told MTI on 24 June that over 13,000 border violators were caught by border guards in the first five months of the year, an increase of 20% over the same period last year. Most border violators, some 12,000, were caught along the Romanian and Austrian border. An increasing number of foreigners are smuggled through the border by groups specializing in the smuggling of people. In the same period, some 400,000 foreigners, mostly Romanian citizens, were turned back at the border because they lacked travel documents and money. (Edith Oltay) ROMANIAN POLICE REPORTS. The General Inspectorate of the Police communicated on 24 June that from January 1991 to end of April 1992 it had uncovered 22 cases of drug trafficking involving 25 foreign citizens. The seizures included 14.2 kg of heroin, 13.2 kg of cocaine, and 11 kg of opium. During the same period, the police confiscated 792 kg of mercury illegally acquired by 259 Romanians, 245 kg of dynamite and astralite, and more than 25,000 electric and pyrotechnic devices which were also on offer on the black market. Three groups illegally in possession of 224,530 kg of nuclear fuel have been arrested as well. Local media carried the stories. (Mihai Sturdza) BILDT URGES TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM THE BALTICS. Writing in Die Welt, Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt said that the continued presence of Russian troops in the Baltic States is "an anomaly in today's Europe" and a source of unrest. Concerning Russian statements that the troops cannot leave the Baltics unless other countries finance the construction of housing for them in Russia, Bildt said he finds it hard to accept that "Great Russia" is not able to handle this matter alone. Bildt noted that Russia's attitude toward the Baltic States is a test "of the depth and earnestness of the policy of the new Russia as it concerns respect for its neighbors," AFP reported on 24 June. (Dzintra Bungs) SORSA PROPOSES ROUNDTABLE ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. Former Finnish Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa, in his capacity as chairman of the disarmament council of the Socialist International, expressed concern over the tendency of Russia to withdraw troops from the European continent, and move them "into our vicinity," Reuters reported on 24 June. Considering such troop deployments as a temporary measure, Sorsa emphasized that this "interim stage must be as brief as possible." Also concerned about the lack of a timetable for the pullout of the ex-USSR troops from the Baltic States, Sorsa said that Finland would like roundtable talks on the nearby Russian troops--some are deployed along the Russian-Finnish border--under the auspices of the CSCE meeting in Helsinki in July. (Dzintra Bungs) BUT RUSSIA WANTS TO CALM "HYSTERIA" OVER TROOP WITHDRAWAL. Requesting that his name be withheld, a Russian Foreign Ministry official told Baltfax on 24 June that Russia intends to take measures to neutralize "the hysteria surrounding the issue of Russian troop withdrawal from the Baltic States." He was referring to proposals by Lithuanian officials that a resolution on the ex-USSR troops withdrawal be included in the final document of the upcoming CSCE meeting. He reitereted the Russian view that the withdrawal issues, including the schedule, should be resolved in bilateral talks between Russia and each of the Baltic States. (Dzintra Bungs) [as of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET' computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. 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