|Praise yourself daringly, something always sticks. - Francis Bacon|
No. 113, 16 June 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN IN THE UNITED STATES. Russian President Boris Yeltsin arrived in Washington on 15 June for his first full-scale summit meeting with US President George Bush, Western news agencies reported. On his arrival, he stated that the political gap between the US and Russia has been closed. Yeltsin will receive the full state honors that were denied to ex-Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. On the same day, Yeltsin called his compatriot, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in Vermont and discussed the writer's possible return to Russia. Yeltsin has stated that he is prepared for more radical arms cuts in negotiations with the US. He is also expected to sign several business agreements with US companies. Yeltsin is accompanied by the new Russian premier, Egor Gaidar. (Alexander Rahr) KHASBULATOV THREATENS RUSSIAN MILITARY INTERVENTION IN SOUTH OSSETIA. In a statement carried by Radio Mayak on 15 June Russian parliament chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov warned that Russia may take immediate measures to neutralize Georgian military units engaged in what he termed a policy of genocide and expulsion against the Ossetian people. He also claimed that the Russian parliament might consider the South Ossetian oblast soviet's request for the region to secede to Russia in order to unite with North Ossetia. Georgian State Council chairman Eduard Shevardnadze attacked Khasbulatov's statement as insulting to the Georgian people and likely to exacerbate the already unstable internal political situation on Georgia, Radio Rossii reported. (Liz Fuller) CONFLICTING REPORTS OF FIGHTING IN NAGORNO-KARABAKH. On 15 June Azerbaijani forces expelled Armenians from Shaumyan raion on the north-west border of Nagorno-Karabakh, but an Armenian spokesman later claimed that the Azerbaijani offensive within Karabakh had been halted, Russian and Western agencies reported. Meanwhile the Azerbaijani Popular Front issued an appeal to all democratic states to condemn Armenian aggression, ITAR-TASS reported. Preparatory talks for the CSCE sponsored Karabakh peace conference resumed in Rome on 15 June, but the Armenian delegation from the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic was prevented by the fighting from attending. (Liz Fuller) STANKEVICH ON NEED FOR ORDER; TRANS-DNIESTR, BALTIC. Presidential Counsellor Sergei Stankevich called for the promotion of law and order in an interview with Trud on 12 June, stating that if the Russian leadership can not feed its people, it should at least defend them from crime. He also suggested that the armed forces and the security forces should be strengthened and criticized the absence of a strategic planning staff for reform, adding that the newly created Security Council may take over this function. Finally, Stankevich denounced Moldova for conducting what he called "genocide" against the Slavic population in the Trans-Dniestr region and called for economic sanctions against the Baltic states if they continue to engage in what he called discrimination against the Russian population. (Alexander Rahr) KOZYREV'S TERRITORIAL CLAIMS PROTESTED BY MOLDOVA. Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu protested in Le Monde of 15 June against the implicit territorial claims on Moldova and other republics raised by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev in Le Monde of 7-8 June. Asked in that interview whether Moldova's Dniester area "would some day become part of Russia," Kozyrev answered that "he would not rule that out". He urged Moldova to grant its eastern regions a federal status "for the time being within Moldova, as there is no other solution for the time being. There may be various solutions afterward." Kozyrev also recommended that Ukraine, Moldova, and the Baltic states accept on their territories the creation of certain "regions" with a special status and "very close links, privileged links with Russia". Kozyrev further suggested that referendums in such areas would form a "democratic" basis for negotiating border changes with those republics. (Vladimir Socor) KOZYREV WARNS OF REVENGE BY HARDLINERS. Andrei Kozyrev has warned of a "very real danger" of revenge being taken by members of the former Communist apparatus. Although he dismissed the possibility of a coup today, he told Le Monde on 8 June that conservatives were seeking to take over control over the army, the Interior Ministry and the former KGB. He added that opposition to democratization is also felt in the Foreign Ministry, asserting that "for men who for 30 years have been accustomed to regarding the US, the West, and NATO as enemies, it is very difficult to admit that what was black has become white."(Alexander Rahr) CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT. Commenting on reports of Egor Gaidar's promotion to the post of acting prime minister, Yeltsin spokesman Gennadii Shipitko said on 15 June that the appointment was not a temporary measure. Yeltsin has also decreed the creation of a federal migration agency and a federal employment agency, headed by Tatyana Regent and Fedor Prokopov, respectively. (Alexander Rahr) NEW LABOR MINISTRY. Yeltsin's 15 June decree transformed the Ministry of Labor and Employment into the Ministry of Labor, and appointed Gennady Melikyan head of the new ministry. According to ITAR-TASS, the reorganization was made in connection with the formation of the Russian Federal Employment Service and Federal Migration Service. Melikyan was former first deputy director of the State Committee on Economic Reform under the USSR Council of Ministers, and was involved in earlier attempts to convert enterprises into shareholder companies. (Sarah Helmstadter) OPPOSITION DEMANDS BROADCASTING TIME ON RUSSIAN TV. Ongoing mass protests organized by the so-called Russian Party in front of the "Ostankino" TV center in Moscow intensified on 15 June, the Russian media reported. The protesters alleged that programs broadcast by the first channel of Russian TV were anti-Russian; they also demanded the recreation of the USSR and the dismissal of Boris Yeltsin and his government. On 15 June, the leadership of the "Ostankino" TV channel and Russia's information minister, Mikhail Poltoranin, met with a group of protesters. The latter demanded that the Russian government allocated an hour each day for broadcasts of the pro-Communist opposition organization, called Labor Russia. ITAR-TASS reported that no decision on the issue was adopted on 15 June and that the negotiations would continue. (Vera Tolz) SHOKHIN SAYS GOVERNMENT MUST SOFTEN REFORMS. Russian deputy prime minister Aleksandr Shokhin told The Independent on Sunday on 14 June that the government must "soften" its reforms to avoid "a social catastrophe." Shokhin, whose remarks were summarized by ITAR-TASS on 13 June, said that the government had altered its policy in April when it decided to provide softer credits to keep cash-strapped enterprises afloat. Otherwise, "tens of millions of people would have lost their jobs," Shokhin said, adding that the government does not have enough money to pay unemployment benefit to more than 3-4 million people (about 5% of the workforce). (Elizabeth Teague) RUSSIAN MINISTER ON INFLATION. Russian Minister of Foreign Economic Relations Petr Aven told an economic conference in Washington on 15 June that Russia cannot control inflation unless it is allowed to take full control of the CIS ruble zone with a single central bank. Otherwise, he said, the other republics will quickly establish their own currencies, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reported. Aven said inflation was increasing at more than 20% a month and that it was caused by other CIS states printing rubles at will. (Ann Sheehy) YELTSIN DECREE PAVES WAY FOR BANKRUPTCIES. A June 15 presidential decree states that enterprises that fail to pay their debts to the state budget and creditors in the next three months will be considered bankrupt and will be auctioned to private investors. A New York Times report on 16 June claims that the auctions will be open to foreign investors. Upon acquisition of the property, the new owners must present a rescue plan to the state committee in charge of state property. If the plan fails, the state will hire an independent manager to design an alternate rescue plan. The closing of unprofitable enterprises raises the specter of massive unemployment. The Supreme Soviet earlier this month rejected a similar measure drawn up by the Russian government. (Sarah Helmstadter) DECREASE IN INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT IN MOSCOW SUBURBS. The Russian Information Agency reported that industrial output in outlying regions of Moscow decreased in the first 5 months of this year, compared with the same period in 1991. The production of everyday household items decreased by 7.4%, the production of foodstuffs decreased by 28.7%, and non-foodstuff goods by 2.5%. (Sarah Helmstadter) FIRST MEDICAL INSURANCE COMPANY CREATED IN RUSSIA. "MEDSTRAKH," the first company working in social insurance in Russia has been created, Radio Rossii reported on 11 June. The share holders include leading Russian scientific and medical centers. (Sarah Helmstadter) OVER TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND REFUGEES IN RUSSIA. Currently 222,000 refugees are officially registered in Russia, "Novosti" reported on 15 June. Thirty-seven percent are Ossetians, 20 percent Armenians, 20 percent Meskhetian Turks, and 23 percent Russians. (Ann Sheehy) NEW DRAFT LAW ON REPRESSED PEOPLES. The presidium of the Russian Supreme Soviet decided on 15 June to submit to the parliament a draft law "On establishing a transitional period for implementing the territorial rehabilitation of repressed peoples," ITAR-TASS reported on 15 June. "In connection with the changed legal bases of the state administration in Russia after the signing of the federal treaty" it is proposed to establish a transitional period of five years. The 1991 law on repressed peoples rashly promised the latter that they would get back lost territories, and its implementation has inevitably encountered serious difficulties. (Ann Sheehy) AZERBAIJAN'S KURDS DEMAND AUTONOMY, LEZGHIANS WANT TO SECEDE. Sixty Kurdish delegates from the former Soviet Union met last week in Lachin on the Azerbaijan and Armenia border and resolved to create an independent Kurdish state on the territory of the former Kurdish autonomous formation, and called upon Kurds to return there. A president of the new Kurdish state is to be elected on 19 June, Western agencies reported on 12 June. "Vesti" reported on 14 June that the 400,000 Lezghians living on the Azerbaijan-Daghestan border have organized a series of demonstrations and addressed an appeal to the Russian parliament to unite the territory inhabited by the Lezghians both north and south of the border within the Russian Federation. (Liz Fuller) NABIEV TRYING TO HOLD TAJIKISTAN TOGETHER. Tajik President Rakhmon Nabiev's latest scheme to prevent the disintegration of the country is the appointment of personal representatives tasked with explaining the decisions of the new Government of National Reconciliation to the inhabitants of Kulyab, Kurgan-Tyube and Leninabad Oblasts. Kulyab and Leninabad Oblasts flatly refused to recognize the new government and armed bands in the former are refusing to surrender their weapons. Nabiev's representatives, according to the ITAR-TASS report of 15 June, are also supposed to report back to him about the situation in the rebellious oblasts. (Bess Brown) "DNIESTER" RUSSIAN FORCES AGAIN BLAMED FOR CEASEFIRE VIOLATIONS. In its second weekly report, the quadripartite Joint Group of Military Observers again concluded that "practically all" violations of the ceasefire in eastern Moldova were caused by the "Dniester" forces, Moldovapres reported on 12 June. The Joint Group's first weekly report had also blamed all the violations on the "Dniester" forces. Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania are each represented by 25 officers on the Joint Group, with Ukraine currently holding the rotating chairmanship. The group has been mandated to monitor the ceasefire by the joint commission of the Foreign Ministries of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania which was set up in April to seek a political settlement of the conflict. (Vladimir Socor) KRAVCHUK TO MEET YELTSIN 23 JUNE. The meeting between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk to discuss outstanding problems between Russia and Ukraine, initially planned for the beginning of June, is to take place in Dagomys in Krasnodar krai on 23 June, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 June. On 16 June Kravchuk starts a two-day visit to France, during which he will sign the Paris Charter and a friendship and cooperation treaty with France. (Ann Sheehy) ANOTHER AMMO DUMP EXPLOSION. One CIS naval officer was killed on 15 June and two others injured in an explosion at a Baltic Fleet ammunition dump in the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad Oblast. ITAR-TASS reported that military officials said the mishap was caused when gunpowder "ignited accidentally" during a routine inspection of shells. However the agency also quoted a local newspaper, Yantarny Krai, which claimed the men were smoking while taking apart some shells in order to recover and sell the metal cartridges. In May, a Pacific Fleet ammunition dump in Vladivstok exploded, injuring several people and forcing the evacuation of thousands. (Doug Clarke) F..................................................................M...........M CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HAVEL MEETS MECIAR. Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel, after meeting with Vladimir Meciar and other leaders of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS) on 15 June, said that the talks confirmed their fundamental differences on the future of the federation. CSTK quotes Havel as saying that the HZDS, the second largest party in Czechoslovakia, insists on Slovakia seeking international recognition as a sovereign state. Havel said he told the Slovak leaders that the transfomation of Czechoslvakia into two states should be peaceful and suggested a referendum be held as soon as possible in both republics. Meciar said he repeated to Havel that the HZDS will not support his candidacy for federal president. Havel will meet with a delegation of Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party on 16 June. (Barbara Kroulik) MORE ON CZECHOSLOVAK CRISIS. Earlier the same day presidential spokesman Michael Zantovsky said Havel wants the country's political crisis solved quickly. He noted that the uncertain political future has caused economic damage. Czechoslovak Central Bank Chairman Josef Tosovsky echoed these sentiments. Also at its last meeting on 15 June, the presidium of the outgoing federal parliament recommended that presidential elections be held on 3 July. In Bratislava the Slovak parliament's presidium agreed to ask a representative of HZDS to form a new republican government. Zantovsky also discussed the HZDS proposal for separate Czech and Slovak presidents who would alternate as federal president. Zantovsky called this a purely confederative element, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. (Barbara Kroulik) CONTINUED DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST MILOSEVIC. For the third straight day some 10,000 young people called for the Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to resign. The 16 June Washington Post reports that Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic has again asked for NATO air power to relieve Sarajevo, adding that "those waiting for weeksnow 10 weeksfor the outside world to help them . . . can't wait any more." Meanwhile, Western media report that the latest cease-fire in the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina is generally holding, although Serbian sniper and artillery fire killed three people. Finally, in Belgrade the rump "Yugoslav" parliament, consisting only of Serb and Montenegrin delegates, elected Serbian nationalist writer Dobrica Cosic president of the new state. It is unclear exactly what the power relationships between him and Serbian and Montenegrin republican leaders, including Milosevic, will be. (Patrick Moore) BULGARIAN-GREEK EXCHANGES OVER MACEDONIA. On 15 June Bulgaria reacted officially to Greek criticism of statements by Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev on Macedonia and Greece. Ganev told Sueddeutsche Zeitung that Greece is endangering regional stability and could widen the Yugoslav conflict by its continued refusal to recognize the Republic of Macedonia. BTA has now released a foreign ministry statement expressing "great regret" over the Greek criticism, saying "nonexistent" statements are ascribed to Ganev and suggesting that the Greeks' emotional reaction was probably due to imperfect information. Deputy Minister Valentin Dobrev later called in the Greek ambassador to express the same view; the ambassador said he hoped there would be no chain reaction that might damage bilateral relations. (Rada Nikolaev) ALBANIAN WARNS OF BALKAN WAR. The 16 June New York Times quotes President Sali Berisha as calling for "any effort to prevent the shift of the [ongoing Yugoslav] conflict to Kosovo, which means at the same time the involvement of Macedonia and Albania and the precipitation of a Balkan War." Berisha blamed Milosevic as being the one mainly responsible for the fighting, Western news agencies report. The Albanian leader is on a visit to the US and met on 15 June with President George Bush, when the two signed a trade treaty. Elsewhere, the 15 June issue of the Vienna weekly Profil carries an article on Serbian repression of Kosovo's over-90% Albanian majority and on Albanian underground schools and hospitals set up in response. Finally, European media report that EC officials on 15 June again postponed a decision on whether to recognize Macedonia over Greek objections. (Patrick Moore) NEW ESTONIAN MINISTERS, DIPLOMATS. The Estonian Supreme Council on 15 June confirmed two new cabinet ministers, BNS reports. Former Minister of Construction Olari Taal became Minister of the Economy, replacing Heido Vitsur, who resigned last week. Estonian-Canadian Arvi Niitenberg of Toronto was confirmed as Minister of Energy Resources. Niitenberg, formerly a top official at Ontario Hydro, follows Foreign Minister Jaan Manitski as the second emigre Estonian in government. The same day Leili Utno, a biologist by training, and Valvi Strikaitiene, former adviser to the Lithuanian representation in Estonia, were appoiunted ambassadors to Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. (Riina Kionka) PAWLAK'S APPOINTMENTS UNLAWFUL? Controversy continues to rage about the legality of Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's decision to turn two key ministries over to newly-appointed officials. The Sejm's vote on 5 June to remove the Olszewski government simultaneously instructed the cabinet to remain on the job in an "acting" capacity. Pawlak promptly relieved Internal Affairs Minister Antoni Macierewicz and council of ministers office head Wojciech Wlodarczyk of their duties. Although Olszewski's supporters have called these moves unconstitutional, Pawlak has protested that he cannot work with uncooperative ministers. Macierewicz made a well-publicized attempt to enter the internal affairs ministry on 15 June, but was barred from doing so. Pawlak then ordered him to await instructions at home, a move Macierewicz condemned as "house arrest," according to PAP. In the meantime, Polish politics veered further toward burlesque as President Lech Walesa announced plans to expose an agent with the code name "[cigarette] lighter," whom he charged with attempting to compromise high officials by accusing them of collaboration with the secret police. (Louisa Vinton) POPIELUSZKO TRIAL OPENS IN POLAND. After nearly two years of preparation, the trial of Gen. Wladyslaw Ciaston, a former deputy internal affairs minister and security police chief, and Gen. Zenon Platek, former head of church surveillance in the internal affairs ministry, got underway in Warsaw on 15 June. Ciaston and Platek are charged with being the "higher-ups" responsible for organizing the murder of Father Jerzy Popieluszko in 1984. Four lower-ranking police officials were convicted of the crime in 1985. PAP reported that deliberations were postponed until 22 June after Edward Wende, the Popieluszko family's attorney, requested consideration of additional secret internal affairs documents. Wende argued that these could show that figures still higher in the communist power structure instigated the murder. "We must see to it," Wende said, "that this time all those who share guilt in the murder find themselves accused." (Louisa Vinton) ROMANIAN SENATE APPROVES SEPTEMBER ELECTIONS. On 15 June the Senate set 27 September as the date for both presidential and parliamentary elections, Romanian and foreign media report. The bill must be passed by the Chamber of Deputies (lower house) before it becomes final, and it is likely to provoke disputes. President Ion Iliescu's supporters, especially the Democratic National Salvation Front, want simultaneous polls, while opposition parties and the pro-Petre Roman National Salvation Front hoping to unseat Iliescu favor separate presidential and parliamentary polls. (Crisula Stefanescu) CONTINUED TURMOIL SURROUNDS HUNGARIAN SMALLHOLDERS. The Hungarian ministers of interior and defense initiated legal proceedings at the chief prosecutor's office against suspended Smallholders' chairman Jozsef Torgyan, MTI reported on 15 June. The ministers said that Torgyan's allegations that units from their ministries participated in an attempt on 11 June to take control of the his party headquarters "undermines public confidence" in those ministries. On 11 June some Smallholders' party officials tried to oust Torgyan and he was suspended from his post as party chairman by the party's general secretary. Torgyan plans to present evidence to the media on 19 June that the attempted takeover was a "military action" backed by the government. (Edith Oltay) BULGARIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATS HOLD CONGRESS. The 39th congress of the BSDP on 12-14 June was marked by lively discussions of an alternative program presented by executive bureau member Anton Antonov calling for expanding the party's contacts, even to include the UDF, which the BSDP left last year. A further split was avoided, however, and BSDP leader Petar Dertliev was reelected chairman with 395 votes to Antonov's 118. Dertliev rejected contacts with Kurtev's rump social democratic party and with the Union for Social Democracy in the BSP. He expressed support for the Bulgarian Democratic Center but will not join it under its present leadership. (Rada Nikolaev) LOAN TO ROMANIA TO HELP SMALL FARMS, ENTERPRISES. The World Bank has approved a $100 million loan to Romania to help support private farmers and enterprises in rural areas, an RFE/RL correspondent reports on 15 June. Romanian banks and others will provide an additional $64.7 million to this project, the main objective of which is to strengthen rural business. The money will be channeled through local financial institutions. (Crisula Stefanescu) IMF GREEN LIGHT FOR ESTONIA. A delegation from the International Monetary Fund visiting Tallinn told Prime Minister Tiit Vahi on 15 June that it has revised its recommendation to wait on introduction of Estonia's new currency, the kroon, until fall. Now, seeing the advanced state of technical preparations for the reform plus the government's new stabilization program, the visitors agree that reform is possible within the next week. Vahi told the press that the IMF will help underwrite the kroon starting in September. The RFE/RL Estonian Service carried Vahi's remarks. (Riina Kionka) LATVIA EXTENDS DEADLINE FOR LAND COMPENSATION CLAIMS. The Supreme Council extended the deadline for submitting applications for compensation for land confiscated by the Soviet regime in Latvia from 20 June 1992 to 31 December 1992, BNS reported on 11 June. (Dzintra Bungs) SHOULD WORLD COURT CONSIDER MILITARY PRESENCE? Ole Esperson of the Political Commission of the European Parliament, visited Latvia to evaluate its readiness to become a full-fledged member of the Council of Europe. According to BNS on 11 June, he told Valdis Birkavs, deputy Supreme Council chairman, that the Baltic States should ask the World Court to examine their common complaint of the continued presence of ex-Soviet troops on their territory. Birkavs said that Latvia had tried to do this last August but its efforts were unsuccessful because it was not a UN member at that time. (Dzintra Bungs) RUSSIA SEEKS "PERMANENT BALTIC PRESENCE." Baltic leaders believe that the Russian military wants to keep its troops on their territory indefinitely because they are vital to Russian security, according to an article in the Financial Times. Col. Gen. Ilya Kalinichenko, commander of the CIS border guards, told Lithuanian National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius on 10 June: "The Polish-Lithuanian border is seen as our [Russian] border and our soldiers are there to defend the interests of Russia." Similarly, in a draft Russian position paper released to the press by Endel Lippmaa, head of Estonia's delegation to the troop withdrawal talks, the Russians placed the Baltic States in the category of countries described as "ours." The paper suggests that Russian troops should remain in place and be paid for by the Baltic States in return for security. (Saulius Girnius) RUSSIAN SOLDIERS DON'T WANT TO SERVE IN LATVIA. Radio Riga reported on 15 June that the Latvian Defense Ministry is looking into the request of four Russian conscripts stationed at a base in eastern Latvia to be returned to their home towns in Siberia. Deputy Defense Minister Valdis Pavlovskis said that, despite the base commander's request for the return of the four, Latvia would provide them with temporary asylum until their situation is investigated and their options under international laws are examined. (Dzintra Bungs) NAVAL DELEGATIONS IN LATVIA. On 15 June a French navy vessel arrived at the Riga passenger harbor to make an official visit to Latvia's fledgling navy and to bring humanitarian aid. Earlier, on 10 June, four German warships with some 400 commanding officers and sailors arrived in Riga. The German delegation proposed educational programs and invited Latvian naval specialists for a return visit, Radio Riga reports. (Dzintra Bungs) ESTONIAN: NOT THE LANGUAGE OF LOVE. A recent opinion poll suggests that Russians living in Estonia are not fond of the Estonian language. According to an EMOR poll published in Eesti Ekspress on 12 June, every tenth Russian considers the sound of Estonian unpleasant. One quarter of all Russians polled said they felt insulted if two Estonians within earshot spoke Estonian and one third of all Russians said they regarded themselves the ethnic majority in Estonia. The poll was commissioned by the Estonian Language Authority, whose mandate is to enforce a 1989 law making Estonian the state language. Estonia currently requires applicants for citizenship to demonstrate competence in the state language, set at the very low level of 1500 words. (Toomas Ilves & Riina Kionka) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
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