He who knows nothing is nearer the truth than he whose mind is filled with falsehoods and errors. - Thomas Jefferson
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 112, 15 June 1992


been appointed acting Russian premier, Radio Rosii reported on
15 June. Yelstin may have made the appointment only a temporary
one because he wants the Russian parliament to confirm it. The
appointment was announced at the beginning of Russian President
Boris Yeltsin"s visit to the US. Gaidar"s appointment strengthens
the reformist faction in the government. Russian first deputy
premier Vladimir Shumeiko, who represents the more conservative
section in the government, told ITAR-TASS on 14 June that he
intended to support the Gaidar team. He also emphasized his belief
that Gaidar would replace Yeltsin if Yeltsin stepped down as
premier. (Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN, KRAVCHUK ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Speaking to the crowd following
a special church service on 14 June Russian President Boris Yeltsin
said that he and President George Bush would sign a treaty eliminating
nuclear weapons altogether when they meet in Washington. Radio
Moscow quoted Yeltsin as saying that he and Bush would sign "a
cooperation accord the likes of which has never been signed by
two superpowers." Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk on 11 June,
according to Postfactum of 13 June, had told reporters that Ukraine
intended to control the nuclear weapons located on its territory,
and that Yeltsin was not empowered to discuss these weapons in
his talks with Bush. (Doug Clarke)

backed by tanks and helicopter gunships, launched a new offensive
on Armenian villages in eastern Nagorno-Karabakh on 12 June and
reportedly recaptured 15 villages in three days" heavy fighting
that left hundreds dead, Western agencies report. A statement
issued by the Azerbaijani Presidential press service and quoted
by AzerINFORM-TASS claimed that since 9 June Armenian forces
had repeatedly attacked Azerbaijani villages outside the borders
of Nagorno-Karabakh and were preparing to occupy more Azerbaijani
territory. On 13 June "Novosti" quoted Azerbaijani Defense Minister
Rahim Gaziev as stating that he would shoot himself in front
of the parliament building in Baku if his forces fail to retake
Karabakh. (Liz Fuller)

DIPLOMATIC REPERCUSSIONS. Mario Raffaelli, chairman of the CSCE
preparatory peace conference on Karabakh due to open in Rome
on 15 June expressed concern and disappointment at the renewed
fighting, according to ITAR-TASS. At a meeting in Rio de Janiero
with Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, Turkish Prime Minister
Suleyman Demirel said future Armenian-Turkish relations depend
on Armenia "adopting a peaceful stand" in Azerbaijan, Turkish
radio reported on 14 June. Turkey has rejected Armenia"s request
to establish diplomatic relations. Ter-Petrossyan called for
the deployment of UN forces and for international pressure on
Azerbaijan. ( Liz Fuller)

OSSETIAN CONFLICT DETERIORATES. Despite the agreement reportedly
reached on 11 June between Georgian State Council chairman Eduard
Shevardnadze and Boris Yeltsin on a settlement of the Ossetian
conflict, the ceasefire that went into effect on 12 June was
almost immediately violated when Georgian guerrillas not subordinate
to the Georgian government began a new artillery bombardment
of the South Ossetian capital of Tskhinvali, killing 13 people,
ITAR-TASS reported. Additional Russian troops have been sent
to the North Ossetian capital, Vladikavkaz, to enforce the state
of emergency imposed there on 11 June. Russian Television reported
on 13 June that South Ossetian parliament chairman Oleg Teziev
and Ossetian Popular Front leader Alan Chochiev had been detained
in Vladikavkaz for their involvement in an attack on a military
depot in which three people were killed. (Liz Fuller)

CHAIRMAN. Two people were killed outright and five died later
from injuries received when a car bomb exploded on the morning
of 13 June outside the home of State Council Deputy Chairman
and leader of the Mkhedrioni military group Dzhaba Ioseliani,
Western agencies reported. Ioseliani himself was unhurt. State
Council chairman Eduard Shevardnadze condemned the attack as
directed against the democratic process in Georgia rather than
at a specific individual. There are, however, serious tensions
within the State Council leadership between Shevardnadze and
Ioseliani, on the one hand , and Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua
and rival militia leader Tengiz Kitovani on the other. (Liz Fuller)

RUSSIA"S INDEPENDENCE COMMEMORATED. A new Russian holiday, celebrated
on 12 June and commemorating the 1990 declaration of Russian
sovereignty, met with strong opposition. The "Union of Russia"s
Revival", which consists of nationalistic forces, condemned the
present leadership for having destroyed the state in its fight
against Communism, "Novosti" reported on 12 June. In an interview
with Trud, Sergei Stankevich, counsellor of the Russian President,
also criticized the holiday, arguing that Russia should not emphasize
its independence but seek to keep firm ties with other CIS states.
Nezavisimaya gazeta commented that the holiday is controversial
since for many people, 12 June signifies the end of the Soviet
Union. (Alexander Rahr)

MOSCOW TV STUDIOS PICKETED. The new holiday was also greeted
in Moscow on 12 June by a pro-communist rally calling for the
restoration of the USSR. The demonstration continued on 13 June
as some 500 demonstrators struck camp outside the central television
studies in Moscow and slept out over night, Western agencies
reported. The rally was called by "Working Moscow" and the "Patriotic
Movement" and demonstrators, some of whom reportedly carried
antisemitic banners and demanded that state television be purged
of "Jews and infidels." (Elizabeth Teague)

main anti-Yeltsin faction in the Russian parliament, "Russian
Unity," has distributed to representatives of the Western media
a statement critical of the Russian political leadership. Radio
Rossii said on 14 June that the statement, signed by Sergei Baburin,
Vladimir Isakov and others, said that the USA and other Western
countries were making a serious mistake by supporting Boris Yeltsin.
In fact, they said, Yeltsin was trying to impose a totalitarian
rule in Russia. Radio Rossii said that the appeal was pegged
to Yeltsin"s trip to the United States and was aimed at undermining
the position of the Russian president at the US-Russian negotiations.
(Vera Tolz)

a decree on 14 June releasing Alexander Shokhin from head of
the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Shokhin apparently remains
deputy chairman of the Russian government in charge of social
policy. According to The New York Times on 14 June, Shokhin was
shifted to duties dealing with foreign economic relations. No
reason was given for the change. (Sarah Helmstadter)

trade union organization, the FNPR, is calling on the Russian
government to provide enough cash to pay overdue wages to workers
in all regions of the country by 1 July, Interfax reported on
12 June. Priority is to go to workers in the Far North. If the
government fails to provide the funds by that date, the official
unions say, they may call a nationwide strike. (Elizabeth Teague)

staged a warning strike on 10 June. Hospitals were not accepting
patients, were not writing prescriptions, and ambulances were
sent out only in extreme cases. "Vesti" also reported that medical
workers were demanding reduced taxes and higher wages. Doctors
who have worked for 15 years receive little more than 1500 rubles
per month. The head of the strike committee said that if demands
were not met, Lipetsk medical workers would carry on an indefinite
strike. (Sarah Helmstadter)

a decree on 14June limiting cash circulation, western agencies
reported. The decree instructed companies to keep their cash
in banks, and to carry out transactions by bank transfer. Company
directors must negotiate the amount of cash they are allowed
to keep on hand directly with the banks. The ministries of justice
and finance will impose fines and punitive measures on companies
that exceed the limits. However, companies will be allowed to
hold enough cash to cover three days worth of wages, social allocations,
student grants and pensions, even if that amount exceeds the
agreed cash limit. (Sarah Helmstadter)

RUBLE TRANSFER TO KYRGYZSTAN. In accordance with the agreement
signed last week by Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Askar Akaev,
a freight car full of rubles was dispatched to Kyrgyzstan, Radio
Rossii reported on 14 June. All of the former Soviet republics
using the ruble as currency have been suffering from shortages
of cash in recent weeks, as Russia still controls the printing
presses. Kyrgyzstan is one of the few CIS states to declare it
has no intention of issuing its own currency in the near future,
a stand taken last month following the recommendation of International
Monetary Fund observers at a meeting of the Central Bank chairmen
of the CIS states in Tashkent. (Cassandra Cavanaugh)

MILITARY DISTRICT TO BE ABOLISHED. Interfax on 13 June carried
an announcement that the Turkestan Military District was to be
disbanded as of 30 June. This district encompasses the Central
Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan,
and Kyrgyzstan. The agency said that the district would be dissolved
by order of its present commander, Colonel General Georgii Kondratyev.
Kondratyev was recently appointed a deputy defense minister by
President Yeltsin. (Doug Clarke)

NEW NATIONAL GUARD IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajik President Rakhmon Nabiev
is making another attempt to create a National Guard in Tajikistan,
ITAR-TASS reported on 13 June. At the end of April, he set up
and armed a "National Guard" that was to put an end to the months-long
confrontation between opposition and government supporters. This
group was dissolved under the agreement that finally ended the
confrontation, but its members have been unwilling to give up
their weapons. The new formation, according to sources close
to Nabiev, is supposed to help disarm groups that have refused
to hand in their weapons. The opposition may have reservations
about the new group, because it, like its predecessor, is to
be directly subordinate to the president. (Bess Brown)

11 June reported that China was negotiating with Ukraine to buy
what would be that Asian country"s first aircraft carrier. While
not named, the ship in question is the Varyag, the sister-ship
to the CIS Navy"s first true aircraft carrier, the Kuznetsov.
The Varyag was launched in December 1988 at the Black Sea Shipyard
in Mykolaiv, Ukraine. It was being fitted out when the USSR disintegrated,
and was taken over by Ukraine. Previously, it had been reported
that Ukraine had hired a Norwegian shipbroker to find a buyer
for the uncompleted carrier. India is also believed to be interested
in the ship. (Doug Clarke)

study in Belarus has shown that roughly 70% of the population
think that both Belarusian and Russian should be state languages,
rather than just Belarusian as at present, the Belarusian "Radyofakt"
program reported on 9 June. The study showed that 56.6% of the
population use only Russian, whereas only 2.4% of the population
use only Belarusian, and only about a third of the population
are truly bilingual. The sociologists suggested that either the
law on the state language should be amended or a referendum held.
(Ann Sheehy)

was deprived of the "Zil" limousine allocated to the former USSR
president by the leaders of the CIS members states in December
1991. According to Izvestiya on 6 June, Yeltsin himself ordered
the replacement of the limo with a "Volga" sedan. The Russian
media have interpreted this move as an effort to punish Gorbachev
for his recent outspoken criticism of Yeltsin"s economic reforms.
Meanwhile, on 10 June Radio Rossii (quoting Moskovskii komsomolets)
reported that Aleksandr Yakovlev, former Politburo member and
now vice president of the Gorbachev Foundation, was deprived
of his state car altogether. Yakovlev is entitled to a free vehicle
by law as a disabled World War II veteran. (Julia Wishnevsky)

METROPOLITAN FILARET DEFROCKED. The ousted head of the Ukrainian
Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Filaret, has been defrocked by
a synod of the Russian Orthodox Church, Russian and Western media
reported on 12 June. Filaret was accused of breaking church rules,
dictatorial and unworthy behavior, and schismatic activity. Filaret
said that his removal was an act of revenge for his attempts
to break away from the Russian Orthodox Church. The synod maintained,
however, that his defrocking would not affect any decision about
autocephalous status for the Ukrainian church, which should be
decided by canon law. Many Ukrainian believers still recognize
Filaret as head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, and the latest
action against him could raise tensions between Russia and Ukraine.
(Ann Sheehy)


reported on 15 June that two groups of about 6,000 each staged
separate demonstrations in Belgrade the previous day. One consisted
mainly of young people ringing cow bells and setting off alarm
clocks to tell the regime of President Slobodan Milosevic that
its time is up. The BBC said that Orthodox Church leaders told
the other group that the Milosevic leadership bears the chief
responsibility for the breakup of Yugoslavia. The Church added
that it condemns the regime's practice of "killing neighbors
and taking their property" as being un-Serbian. Pressure has
been building against Milosevic in recent weeks as Serbia's international
isolation has become more evident, but it is not clear who or
what might follow him should he eventually resign. (Patrick Moore)

OTHER AREA DEVELOPMENTS. International media report on 15 June
that yet another cease-fire is slated to begin in Sarajevo at
6:00 local time. Seven previous agreements were stillborn, but
UN spokesmen feel that local Serbian forces will be cooperative
this time, the Washington Post says. The Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung, also on 15 June, quotes Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov
as saying that Greece is being obstinate in holding up EC recognition
of his republic, but he also admits that in the past Macedonia
had said and done "stupid things" against Greece. Gligorov went
on to praise Albania's cooperation in exercising a moderating
influence upon Macedonia's large Albanian minority. He has established
good working relations with new Albanian President Sali Berisha,
who is now in Washington for a visit. Finally, the 13 June Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung and other Western media have begun to report
on the session of the Organization of the Islamic Conference
opening 17 June in Istanbul to discuss the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
(Patrick Moore)

CZECHOSLOVAK UPDATE. Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel is to
meet on 15 June in Prague with Vladimir Meciar, head of the Movement
for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS). Meciar said earlier he will
postpone talks with Vaclav Klaus on the formation of a Czechoslovak
government until Wednesday. Klaus said on 14 June that there
was no reason why talks on the future of Czechoslovakia should
be delayed. Klaus' Civic Democratic Party (ODS) wants to maintain
the Czechoslovak federation, the HZDS wants a sovereign Slovak
state. Earlier Meciar rejected the federal status quo and called
for a dual presidency, suggesting also that if talks continue
to be deadlocked the current government should remain in office.
Havel said on 14 June that he will not seek reelection if it
becomes clear that the country will split in two. Meanwhile,
leaders of political parties expected to be in opposition in
Slovakia called on the HZDS and ODS to take no steps leading
to the country's break-up. Some 1,000 people gathered in Bratislava
on 14 June to voice support for a common state and for President
Havel, CSTK and foreign agencies report. (Barbara Kroulik)

13 June the fourth national congress of the Solidarity Trade
Union passed a resolution expressing outrage at recent events
in Poland and the role played by President Lech Walesa, Western
and Polish media report. The resolution demands "immediate statutory
decommunization" in Poland and opposes handing over power to
"post-communist forces." Questioned by the delegates earlier,
Walesa told the congress that when he dismissed Prime Minister
Jan Olszewski last week he had to act quickly: "the irresponsibility
was so great that if he did not act, Poland would have been ruined."
In sharp contrast, the delegates gave a standing ovation to Olszewski
when he addressed the congress. He defended the record of his
government and also spoke about the list of alleged secret police
informers, emphasizing "on this matter there can be no compromise."
On June 12, voting 214-136, the congress re-elected its chairman
Marian Krzaklewski to a second term. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz)

Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski told newsmen that documents
show an order was given to put the special Interior Ministry's
Vistula area troops on alert last week as the Sejm was about
to oust former government of Jan Olszewski. According to Western
and Polish media, the order was given by former head of State
Protection Office (UOP) Piotr Naimski, but Naimski denied giving
such orders, saying he only called for more guards around the
Interior Ministry. The former government repeatedly denied speculations
that it was ready to use force to stay in power. President Walesa
said, however, that the former government's actions had the indications
of a coup d'etat. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz)

Lt. Gen. Leonid Kovalev has been named commander of Russian forces
in Poland. Kovalev served until recently as chief of staff in
the Odessa Military District in Ukraine and was one of only a
handful of staff officers who refused to take the oath of loyalty
to Ukraine. (Stephen Foye)

STOLOJAN WON'T RUN. Romanian Premier Theodor Stolojan said in
an interview with daily Romania libera on 13 June that he will
not run in coming legislative or presidential elections, but
hopes, after his term as prime minister, to work in an international
body which could benefit from his knowledge and experience. Stolojan
replaced Petre Roman last September after miners rampaged in
Bucharest. Parliamentary elections are to be held on 27 September
but no date has been set for a presidential election.(Crisula

gathered in central Bucharest on 13 and 14 June to mark the second
anniversary of a bloody crackdown by the Jiu Valley miners against
antigovernment protesters. The demonstrators shouted slogans
against President Ion Iliescu and for ex-King Michael. In June
1990 miners and police used violence to disperse demonstrators
occupying University Square to demand Iliescu's resignation.
At least six people were killed, but an official inquiry failed
to establish who was to blame. In a related development, a report
of a parliamentary commission looking into last September's clashesthe
fourth time the miners rampaged through Bucharestconcluded that
Miners' Union leader Miron Cosma "bears principal responsibility"
for the three days of unrest because he organized the miners
and persuaded them to come to Bucharest, Romanian and foreign
media report. The September disturbances led to the resignation
of Prime Minister Petre Roman and left three people dead and
hundreds injured. (Crisula Stefanescu)

BULGARIAN PENSION LAW AMENDED. On 12 June the National Assembly
approved an amended law on pensions. A particularly tense situation
occurred on 9 June when a proposal was made not to count toward
pensions the time persons worked as paid party functionaries.
It was passed, however, despite heated objections by the BSP
opposition. As summed up by Demokratsiya on 12 June and Bulgarian
TV on 13 June, the amendment raises pensions by an average of
170 leva with an upper monthly limit of 1,165 leva and a lower
limit of 570 leva. The law also includes provisions allowing
pensioners to engage in paid work. (Rada Nikolaev)

a compromise reached in the late afternoon on 12 June, the strike
which was to have begun a few hours later was called off. BTA
says that demands for better delimitation of air space for military
and civil flights and for funding air control work were met,
while the controllers gave up their demand for wage increases
by 2,000 leva. Instead the government pledged to guarantee present
average pay of 3,700 leva (more than double the average monthly
wage in Bulgaria1,728 leva in April). (Rada Nikolaev)

HUNGARY TO CUT DOWN MONOPOLIES. Ferenc Vissi, the head of Hungary's
Competition Office, told reporters on 12 June that the government
has decided to take measures to prevent the creation of monopolies
and to broaden competition during the process of privatization
of state property, Western news agencies and Radio Budapest report.
Vissi said that the decision was prompted by the fact that certain
branches, including the sugar, cement, road construction, paper,
and gas industries, were bought up by one or only few foreign
owners during the privatization process. The main problem is,
according to Vissi, that there is no unified government policy
aimed at preventing the creation of monopolies. (Edith Oltay)

Lithuania announced the preliminary results of the previous day's
plebiscite demanding the unconditional withdrawal of the former
Soviet army in 1992 with suitable compensations for damages.
Some 1,924,328 of the 2,450,023 eligible voters participated
with 91% voting "yes", 7%"no", with 2% spoiled ballots. The 68.7%
affirmation should strengthen the position of the Lithuanian
authorities in its talks with Russia. (Saulius Girnius)

13 June in Rio de Janeiro, the chairmen of the Baltic Supreme
CouncilsArnold Ruutel of Estonia, Anatolijs Gorbunovs of Latvia,
and Vytautas Landsbergis of Lithuaniaissued a joint statement
concerning the dangers presented to their countries by the presence
of ex-Soviet troops. They propose linking Western economic assistance
to Russia with Russia's political and military conduct in the
Baltics, according to a Lithuanian Supreme Council press release
of 14 June. Meanwhile, Estonian Foreign Minister Jaan Manitski
told reporters on 12 June that Estonia may not be able to sign
the CSCE Final Act in July. He said the act should reflect the
withdrawal of Russian troops, suggesting that such international
support may break the deadlock in bilateral withdrawal talks
with Russia. Latvian officials also said earlier that their country
may not sign the final documents if the troop withdrawal issue
is not sufficiently internationalized. (Dzintra Bungs & Riina

former commander of the Northwestern Group of Forces (NWGF),
told a correspondent of S-M Segodnya on 6 June that Col. Vladimir
Kandalovsky has no authority from the NWGF to offer Russian military
protection of the Latvian government from possible attempts to
overthrow it (See DR of 11 June). Mironov said that the offer
should be seen as a provocation and expressed hope that the Latvian
authorities will not let this isolated act cast a shadow on Latvia's
relations with the NWGF, BNS reported on 12 June. (Dzintra Bungs)

BALTS COMMEMORATE DEPORTATIONS. In a message to the Estonian
people, Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Ruutel commemorated
the 51st anniversary of mass Soviet deportations of Baltic citizens
to Siberia, ETA reports. Ruutel called the deportation "an attempt
by an alien force to choke opposition to foreign power and an
alien ideology." A special church service was held at the Riga
Dom cathedral, and religious and secular ceremonies were held
throughout Latvia and Lithuania, where 14 June was commemorated
as a "Day of Mourning and Hope." On that day in 1941, Soviet
authorities deported an estimated 60,000 people to the East.
(Riina Kionka, Dzintra Bungs, & Saulius Girnius)

CZECHS COMMEMORATE LIDICE. On 13 June hundreds of people gathered
for ceremonies in the Czech village of Lidice, which was destroyed
by the Nazis in 1942. President Havel spoke, Prague Bishop Miroslav
Vlk celebrated Mass, and a wreath from German President Richard
von Weizsaecker was laid at the memorial, Western agencies report.
The Nazis shot to death 173 men as revenge for the assassination
of Reinhard Heidrich, and Lidice's women and children were sent
to concentration camps. (Barbara Kroulik)

RIO WRAPUP. Eastern European delegates at the Earth Summit in
Rio de Janeiro again stressed that they do not want to compete
with developing nations for funding of environmental improvements.
On 11 June Stefan Kozlowski, Poland's Minister for Environmental
Protection, said countries with transition economies in Eastern
Europe should constitute a "third group," alongside the "haves"
and "have-nots," in environmental concerns. Poland, Kozlowski
said, is participating in initiatives designed to clean up the
Baltic Sea, establish international biosphere reserves, and rehabilitate
the degraded environment in industrial centers on Poland's German
and Czechoslovak borders. On 12 June Czechoslovak Environment
Minister Josef Vavrousek quoted a $2-billion price tag for cleaning
up environmental hazards created during communist rule. Bulgarian
President Zhelev suggested that countries could be asked to make
commitments to improve the environment in exchange for cancellation
of their foreign debt. The Latvian and Estonian heads of state,
Anatolijs Gorbunovs and Arnold Ruutel, tied their countries'
environmental problems to withdrawal of ex-USSR troops, which
are causing environmental damage but do not come under local
environmental laws. Ruutel called for continued cooperation among
the Baltic littoral countries and welcomed the notion of international
environmental aid to countries like his. (Charles Trumbull &
RI staff)

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Stephen Foye & Charles Trumbull

The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute
(a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich,
Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday,
except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400
Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is
also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network.

For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional
copies, please contact:

In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201
Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202)
457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783;

or in Europe:

Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute
Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631
fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook

1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver


News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole