|...ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. - John F. Kennedy|
No. 109, 10 June 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR MOLDOVAN GOVERNMENT RESIGNS. The majority of the Moldovan government voted at a session on 8 June to hand in their resignations, Moldovan and Western agencies reported. The Ministers of Defense, Internal Affairs, National Security, and Culture decided to stay on. Opening a new session of the Parliament on 9 June, President Mircea Snegur read the statement submitted by the resigning Ministers, who contended that the governments economic reform program could not be implemented in the face of popular discontent and insufficient support by parliament. Snegur, who cancelled his planned attendance at the Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro because of the government crisis, gave himself and parliament two weeks to assemble a new government. (Vladimir Socor) NO US-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT ON NEW ARMS CUTS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and US Secretary of State James Baker failed to agree on the terms of a new strategic arms reduction treaty during two days of talks in preparation for the 16-17 June summit meeting of Presidents Yeltsin and Bush. Western agencies reported that both sides had agreed to cut their strategic nuclear arsenals to roughly 4,700 warheads, but could not agree on the mix of weapons that would be allowed. The United States wants to ban all land-based multiple-warhead missiles, and the Russians have balked at giving up all their SS-18s and SS-24s. Reuters reported that Russian journalists indicated Baker would visit Moscow on 12 June in a last attempt to forge an agreement prior to the summit. (Doug Clarke) YELTSIN NAMES RUSSIAN DEFENSE CHIEFS. Following his appearance before the Russian high command on the second of a two-day conference in Moscow, Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced the appointment of Colonel General Viktor Dubynin as chief of staff of the Russian army and first deputy defense minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 June. According to the same report, Dubynins deputy will be Colonel General Miihail Kolesnikov, while Colonel Generals Vladimir Toporov, Valerii Mironov, and Georgii Kondratev were named deputy defense ministers. Dubynins appointment was especially surprising. He had been serving as commander of the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, and his erratic and at times insulting behavior toward the Poles did not seem to mark him for future promotion. (Stephen Foye) RUSSIAN-TURKMEN DEFENSE ACCORD. The Russian defense minister visited the Turkmen capital of Ashgabat on 7 June for talks on a plan for military cooperation between the two countries that, according to Grachev, had been proposed earlier this year by Turkmen leaders, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 June. On 8 June the two sides signed an agreement whereby Turkmenistan would build its own armed forces on the basis of former Soviet units in the republic, but those forces would be controlled jointly by Russia and Turkmenistan, Interfax reported. The protocol to the agreement calls for certain air defense and air force units to remain under Moscows command. Moscow will also provide some financing and technical supply during an unspecified transition period, while Turkmenistan will insure proper living conditions and supply for the military units. (Stephen Foye) GEORGIA TO HAVE ARMY, BUT NO BLACK SEA FLEET? Tornike Papava, identified as the chief of the Georgian Defense Ministry personnel department, said on 7 June that Georgia would build an army of some 20,000 men, AFP reported (quoting Interfax). Papava added that the army would have approximately 2,000 officers who will be paid at least 3,000 rubles per month. He suggested that Georgia had made offers to some 2,000 Georgian officers still serving in other CIS states, and said that the Georgian army would be prepared to cooperate with Moscow should an external threat arise. Meanwhile, Interfax reported on 5 June that leading members of the right-wing parliamentary group Russian Unity had sent a telegram to Boris Yeltsin and the military command that condemned plans to allocate to Georgia a part of the Black Sea Fleet. The authors claimed that such a step would lead to a bloody fratricidal war in the Caucasus. (Stephen Foye) RUSSIAS PLANS FOR UKRAINE. The Kiev newspaper Vechirnii Kyiv, on 12 and 28 May, published excerpts perportedly from a classified document prepared for the Russian leadership outlining several scenarios for Russian policies towards Ukraine. In the Conclusions and Proposals, among other things, the document recommends that Moscow pursue a policy aimed at restricting Ukraines economic growth and independence. In the political arena, it proposes that Ukraine be isolated as much as possible, that its political influence and its ability to receive foreign aid be circumscribed to the maximum extent. Ukrainian politicians, it continues, should be put under international fire by creating an image of an authoritarian-nationalistic and neocommunist regime in Ukraine. (Roman Solchanyk) UKRAINE WANTS TO ATTEND G7 SUMMIT. A Ukrainian Foreign Ministry spokesman on 9 June contested Russias position as the Wests main diplomatic partner. Reiterating Ukraines position that Russia is not the sole successor state to the Soviet Union, the spokesman maintained that if Russian President Boris Yeltsin is to be invited to the forthcoming G7 summit in Munich, the same courtesy should be extended to Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk. The spokesman also questioned Russias right to negotiate further strategic arms cuts without consulting Kiev. (Roman Solchanyk) U.S. AMBASSADOR ARRIVES IN KIEV. The first U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, Roman Popadiuk, arrived in Kiev on 8 June, Radio Ukraine reported. Popadiuk, who is of Ukrainian origin, served as deputy White House press secretary before assuming his new post. Upon arriving in the Ukrainian capital, the U.S. ambassador said that he greeted the Ukrainian people and the independent state. Popadiuk presented his credentials to President Leonid Kravchuk on 9 June. (Roman Solchanyk) INDUSTRIAL LOBBY AGAINST GAIDARS RESIGNATION. The Industrial Union seems to be satisfied with the appointment of its representatives as deputy prime ministers and has stopped attacking the Russian government. A leader of the industrial lobby, Arkadii Volsky, told Interfax on 5 June that the resignation of First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar would be an unforgivable mistake, and the new government should be supported. A new deputy prime minister in charge of agriculture is also expected to be appointed soon. (Alexander Rahr) PRO-YELTSIN PARTY SET UP BY AFGHAN VETERANS. A new political group, called the Peoples Patriotic Party of Russia, was set up in Moscow on 6June on the basis of the Union of Afghan Veterans, ITAR-TASS reported. The party announced its full support for President Yeltsins reforms and criticized the absolute majority of Russias political organizations that oppose presidential policies. The head of the new party, Aleksandr Kotenev is the leader of the Union of Afghan Veterans and an advisor to the Russian government on links with various political and social organizations. At a press conference on 6 June, Kotenev rejected suggestions made by some journalists that the Peoples Patriotic Party might become an official presidential party. Various leaders of the Russian Federation have called for the establishment of a presidential party. (Vera Tolz) MOSCOW COUP PLOTTER RELEASED FROM JAIL. One of the members of the emergency committee that led the August 1991 coup attempt was released from prison pending trial, Interfax reported on 6 June. The agency quoted sources in the Russian prosecutors office as saying that Vasilii Starodubtsev, former head of the Soviet Peasants Union, was set free from Moscows Matrosskaya Tishina prison. Interfax said that fourteen other men arrested after the coup, would also ask to be released. Starodubtsev reportedly had been freed because he was the first of the accused to have finished reading the case against him. The rest are still at work on the evidence. (Vera Tolz) RUSSIAN GOLD OUTPUT FALLS. The head of Russias state gold and diamond company, Valerii Rudakov, told Izvestiya on 6 June that the federations gold output is expected to drop by 30% in 1992 and by a further 50% in 1993, Reuters reported. Rudakov said that the situation in this industry has acquired a catastrophic character. The anticipated drop in production was attributed to a decrease in state financing that made it impossible for extraction teams to start work this spring. (Keith Bush) PRICE CONTROLS EASED ON BREAD AND DAIRY PRODUCTS IN MOSCOW. Retail price controls on bread and dairy products were eased in Moscow on 6 June, Interfax and Western agencies reported. Retailers were not allowed to mark up the prices of bread by more than 25%, and a maximum profit margin of 10% was set for dairy products. Western agencies reported that most prices rose by four or five times. A Moscow official was reported as saying that the citys 1.2 million pensioners and single mothers would be given 100 rubles a month as compensation. Special distribution centers are also to be set up to supply milk to mothers with young children. (Keith Bush) LATEST FORECAST OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN RUSSIA. The head of the Russian Labor Ministry Committee on Unemployment, Fedor Prokopov, told a news conference on 8 June that the number of unemployed could rise to 4 million by the end of 1992, Western agencies reported. Prokopov gave the official tally of unemployed in Russia on 1 May as 151,000, of whom 70% were women. But he conceded that this figure was artificially low, as it did not include thousands of workers who are not working but who are listed as employed because no bankruptcy law has been passed that would force loss-making enterprises out of business. Prokopov said that the number of jobless could be swelled by privatization and by demobilization of servicemen. (Keith Bush) PRICE RISES HIT PENSIONERS ESPECIALLY HARD. Pensioners interviewed in Moscow indicated that they would continue to buy milk, but in smaller quantities, Western agencies reported on 6 June. Pensions have risen along with prices, salaries, and inflation, but many pensioners have not been receiving the full amount because of cash shortages and disarray in the social security agencies. Although monthly pensions were raised to 900 rubles in May, many pensioners receive as little as 235 rubles a month. (Sarah Helmstadter) YELTSIN URGES TANK SALES? On 8 June Boris Yeltsin told workers at the Uralvagonzavod in Nizhnyi Tagil that they should try to export their primary product, the T-72 tank, according to an ITAR-TASS report of the visit. Yeltsin reportedly said at the impromptu meeting that the factory could keep 80% of the hard currency earned from any such sales. (Stephen Foye) NO PAY FOR THE NORTHERN FLEET? In a report broadcast by Novosti from the northern city of Murmansk on 4June, a seamen was quoted as saying that he had not been paid since February of this year. He also said that a protest by seamen over the situation had been hushed up by the military leadership, and added that the crew of his ship had considered going on strike (Stephen Foye) GRACHEV MEETS WITH SOLDIERS MOTHERS. Russian Defense Minister Grachev met with activists of the movement Soldiers Mothers of Russia, which has been protesting for the last week against the noncombat deaths of their sons and the allegedly unlawful acts committed in the army. ITAR-TASS reported on 6 June that Grachev offered the group representation in the formation of the Russian Defense Ministry. By including the mothers organization, Grachev hopes to add credibility to the process. (Chris Hummel) NON-COMBAT DEATHS IN VOLGOGRAD OBLAST. The press center of the North Caucasus Military District has denied an ITAR-TASS report alleging that 714 conscript soldiers from Volgograd Oblast have died non-combat deaths since 1985. The press center claimed that the death toll for that period of time was actually 175, and that in the entire period since the end of WWII only 576 conscripts from the oblast had died non-combat deaths in the armed forces. (Stephen Foye) CONCERN ABOUT NATO PRESENCE IN BARENTS SEA. The press center of the CIS Northern Fleet complained on 4June about the high level of NATO military activity in the Barents Sea. As reported by ITAR-TASS, the statement said that within the preceding week British and Norwegian maritime patrol aircraft had flown near Russian territorial waters, and two foreign nuclear submarines had been detected. Norwegian and French warships were also operating in the Barents Sea. The press center added that the region abounds in naval test ranges and important communication lines. (Doug Clarke) UZBEK OPPOSITION ADOPTS PROGRAM. At its first congress as a registered political movement, the Uzbek Popular Front Birlik criticized the governments of the CIS and of some Western countries for choosing to support President Karimov in hopes of warding off Islamic fundamentalists, Moskovskie Novosti reported on 31 May. Birlik adopted an extensive program of political and economic reforms, including the limitation of presidential power by parliament; though it favors a secular government, it supports a social and educational role for Islam. The congress also criticized Karimov for signing the recent CIS collective security agreement (without consulting parliament), and for apparently supporting Armenia against Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. (Cassandra Cavanaugh) PATRIARCH ON CATHOLIC-ORTHODOX RELATIONS. ITAR-TASS quoted an interview with Patriarch Aleksii II in the 8 June issue of Il Messagiero. The Patriarch said that brotherly contacts between the Russian Orthodox and the Catholic Church must continue in spite of all the difficulties. He welcomed the Popes decision to postpone a visit to Russia as a wise move. (Oxana Antic) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CZECHOSLOVAKIA: ONE COUNTRY OR TWO. On 9 June, after the first round of talks between the Czech election winner, Vaclav Klaus, and his Slovak counterpart Vladimir Meciar, President Vaclav Havel said the situation in his country is very serious but it is premature to conclude the country is destined to split apart. He added everything depends on the outcome of political negotiations in coming days, Western correspondents report. Klaus told reporters the differences notably concern the future of the federal president. Klauss party (ODS) supports Vaclav Havel, but Meciar said that while he could support a Czech as head of state, he would not back Havel for another term. On 9 June Meciar released a statement saying he does not believe it possible to form a new government by 5 July, the deadline set under the law governing elections. He noted that his decision to join or not to join a coalition will be based solely on the political program of the proposed government. Klaus and Meciar will meet again on 11 June. (Peter Matuska) ...AND FROM WITHIN. Twelve deputies of the ruling Socialist party (SPS) in the national assembly have threatened to leave the party and form a new Social Democratic Party if fundamental changes are not made immediately. Jovan Cvetkovic said his group has the support of another 38 deputies from the SPS. This is the first time that the SPS has publicly revealed a split and threatens the SPSs majority voting block in the parliament. Radio Serbia carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich) OUTSIDE PRESSURE AMOUNTING AGAINST MILOSEVIC ... Over the past two weeks a coalition of political forces, the Serbian Orthodox Church, and trade unions have been pressing for Serbian President Slobodan Milosevics resignation. The moves are in direct response to the 30 May UN sanctions against Yugoslavia for its aggression in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Radio Serbia reports on 9 June that the 4-party opposition coalition Democratic Movement of Serbia (DEPOS) called for Milosevics immediate resignation and for replacing him with an interim government until multiparty elections can be held. DEPOS is giving Milosevic eight days to resign, otherwise the coalition will call a peace rally on 21 June to launch a national democratic assembly. DEPOS says Milosevics resignation would prevent the outbreak of civil war in Serbia, and replacing his regime, which has brought Serbia to the edge of abyss, is the lowest price to pay. The coalition also believes that if it were called in to control the demonstration, the army would likely side with the protesters. (Milan Andrejevich) DID MILOSEVIC SEEK TO PARTITION MACEDONIA? The 9 June Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung says that Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis told that paper that six months ago Milosevic suggested that the two countries divide Macedonia between themselves. Mitsotakis said he firmly rejected the idea and informed the EC about it. (Patrick Moore) NO US AIRBORNE INTERVENTION. Western media on 9 and 10 June quote a State Department spokesman as saying that Washington is not discussing the Bosnian presidents appeal for the US Air Force to bomb Serbian positions around Sarajevo, where fighting continues. Washington also feels that airdrops of food and medical supplies could easily fall into the wrong hands and hence would not be the most effective means of getting help to those who need it. (Patrick Moore) YUGOSLAV DIPLOMATIC PRESENCE IN BUDAPEST REDUCED. On 9 June, the Hungarian Foreign Ministry summoned the Yugoslav ambassador in Budapest and asked the Yugoslav government to reduce by two the number of its diplomats for the duration of the UN embargo against Yugoslavia. The request was made following consultations with Czechoslovakia and Poland, MTI reports. (Edith Oltay) ROMANIA WILL BREAK SOME UN SANCTIONS. Romania confirmed on 9 June that it is allowing oil shipments to reach neighboring Serbia despite UN sanctions. Deputy Transport Minister Valentin Mirescu told Western agencies that stopping oil shipments would be a catastrophe for Romania. According to Constantin Fota, the Minister of Commerce and Tourism, the losses resulting from the application of the embargo would amount to $3 billion. He said that these losses and the derogation of certain sanctions will be listed, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs will present the list to the United Nations and to European bodies and ask for compensation. (Crisula Stefanescu) HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT INVALIDATES GABCIKOVO-NAGYMAROS TREATY. On 9 June the Hungarian parliament voted to invalidate the 1977 treaty between Hungary and Czechoslovakia on the construction of the joint hydro-electric dam project, MTI reports. The Hungarian government cancelled the treaty on 25 May. Czechoslovakia refuses to recognize the cancellation and vows to continue construction. Hungary suspended construction work on the project in 1989 out of concern for environmental damage. (Edith Oltay) ROMANIA CALLS ENVIRONMENT INTOLERABLE. Environment Minister Marcian Bleahu told the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro that although Romanias ecological situation is scandalous and intolerable, it cannot simply choose between between the environment and development, because closing polluting factories and stopping cutting of forests would result in serious social problems, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. According to Bleahu, Romania is overburdened with dead rivers, degraded soil, and devastated forests. Man and the environment, he said, were the greatest victims of communism. (Crisula Stefanescu) CREDITS FOR BULGARIAS PHONE SYSTEM UPGRADE. Stefan Sofiyanski, Chairman of the Committee on Communications and Information, was quoted by Western agencies on 9 June as saying that Bulgaria will receive loans of $160 million for a complete modernization of its phone system. He said the loan has been approved by the European Investment Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the World Bank, and they had decided to release the first $50 million next month. Bids to carry out the work are expected from Siemens of Germany, Ericsson of Sweden, and AT&T. A completely new phone system is planned by the year 2006, while a cellular phone network would be in place by 1996. (Rada Nikolaev) BULGARIAN INFLATION FIGURES. The National Statistical Institute has announced that inflation in May was 11.93%, BTA reported on 8 June. The prices of foodstuffs increased by 11.68%, of nonfood items by 5.42%, and of services by 28.46%. Earlier it was reported that after a 20% increase of prices in the first half of May, in the second two weeks the increase was only 0.23%. According to PlanEcon, the average monthly inflation rate in Bulgaria between April 1991 and February 1992 has been 4.8%. (Rada Nikolaev) POLISH PREMIER HOPES FOR BROAD COALITION. Waldemar Pawlak told Western and Polish wire service reporters he hopes to form a broad-based cabinet and pledged to end the ruthless rivalry between the prime ministers office and President Lech Walesa. On 9 June he held talks aimed at forming a government with leaders of the Democratic Union (UD), the Liberal-Democratic Congress (KLD), the Polish Economic Program (PPG) and the Confederation for Independent Poland (KPN). Although the talks hit a snag when key participants disagreed over economic policy, party leaders said the reservations expressed mainly by the KPN did not mean the negotiations had failed. But KPN chairman Leszek Moczulski said chances for agreement are extremely limited, since participants remain very divided on proposed economic policies. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) VAGNORIUS CANT QUIT. On 9 June Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius repeated his request to the Lithuanian Supreme Council to accept his resignation, since a majority does not support his government. The unruly session, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, showed the indecision of the deputies. Both a secret ballot vote (59 to 12 with 3 abstentions) and an open vote (51 to 46 with 5 abstentions) failed to gain the necessary margin, so Vagnorius remains in office. Due to a boycott by deputies of the Sajudis Coalition For a Democratic Lithuania, a full quorum was not present for the secret ballot, and the necessary 65 votes could not be mustered. The open vote needed the approval of 54 deputies, the majority of the 107 registered as attending deputies. It is not clear why 8 deputies voting to accept his resignation in the secret ballot did not do so in the open vote. (Saulius Girnius) PROGRESS IN SETTING SEIMAS ELECTION DATE. On 9 June the Supreme Council agreed to hold elections to the new Lithuanian parliament, seimas, between the end of September and early November, Radio Lithuania reports. A referendum on the draft constitution would be held the same day. In case the parliament were unable to agree on one draft, the voters would be asked to choose between two drafts. The parliament was also obligated to prepare a new election law and fix a definite date for the elections by 30 June. (Saulius Girnius) MOLDOVAS DRUC TAKES ROMANIAN CITIZENSHIP. Former Moldovan prime minister Mircea Druc, president of the Christian-Democratic Popular Front in the Republic of Moldova, acquired Romanian citizenship on 4 June, Rompres reported on 8 June, quoting sources in the leadership of the Ecology Movement of Romania (MER). The MER Congress of 3-4 May nominated Mircea Druc for the presidency of Romania. (Crisula Stefanescu) CPSU DOCUMENT SLAMS FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN BALTIC. The most recent edition of the official Russian government newspaper has published a secret CPSU Central Committee document alleging a significant Western role in fostering the Baltic Popular Front movements. The document, dated 14 January 1989, names several well-known Baltic figures in the Westincluding RFE Estonian Service chief Toomas Ilves, Latvian journalist Juris Kazas, and VOA Lithuanian Service director Romas Sakadolskisfor traveling to the Baltic States, meeting with the political and cultural figures, and making media appearances. The document, sent by the CC to several relevant USSR ministries and agencies, appears in Rossiiskie vesti of 5 June (no.16, 62). (Riina Kionka) RUSSIA BRINGING IN MORE TROOPS. Russia is secretly bringing new recruits into Estonia and Latvia, according to Rahva Haal of 10 June. Last week, a Russian military ship anchored off the coast of Riga dispatched some 170 new recruits there, probably replacements for troops previously withdrawn. The ship then sailed to Paldiski and Tallinn in Estonia, dropping off about 50 recruits in each port. The action, which was not cleared with local authorities, not only violates Estonian and Latvian immigration laws and NWGF commander Mironovs orders that former Soviet soldiers adhere to local border regulations, but also further undermines currently stalled Russian-Baltic consultations over troop withdrawals. (Riina Kionka) WHATS AT BOLDERAJA? Latvias Minister of Internal Affairs Ziedonis Cevers told Diena on 8 June that the following vessels of Russias Baltic fleet are currently docked at the naval base in Bolderaja: 2 small guided-missile craft, 5 minesweepersthe sixth minesweeper has been sent to Tallinn for repairs and the seventh has been amortizedthe Latvian coast guard would like to purchase it. Cevers said that in mid-June a Varshavyanka-type submarine would be ready to depart for Iran, which has bought it. Another submarine is located there for training purposes. In addition, there are 5 Whiskey-class submarines, 7-8 small antisubmarine cutters, as well as tankers, cranes, and other boats and equipment. (Dzintra Bungs) LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TREATY DISCUSSED. Sergei Zotov, head of the Russian delegation for talks with Latvia, told 25 high-ranking Russian military, government, and parliament representatives at Moscows White House on 8 June that the Russian Supreme Soviet must not further delay in the ratification of the Latvian-Russian treaty, which was endorsed by Yeltsin on 13 January 1991. Zotov argued that once the treaty is ratified, Russia could ask the CSCE to examine the human rights aspects of certain Latvian laws, Diena reports. Russias First Deputy Foreign Minister Fedor Shelov-Kovedyaev told Interfax on 9 June that Russia had put off the ratification of the treaty last December till the problem of violations of the ethnic Russians rights is solved. Latvians believe, however, that Russia is playing up human rights in order to deflect international interest in the troop withdrawal issue from the Baltics. (Dzintra Bungs) IN ESTONIASHOULD I STAY OR SHOULD I GO? Just over 5,000 hopefuls have submitted applications for Estonian citizenship, ETA reports on 10 June. Meanwhile, the RFE/RL Estonian Service reports that a total of 2,190 people from the largely Russian-speaking northeast have moved out of Estonia in the first five months of this year. (Riina Kionka) POLISH, GERMAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES TO COOPERATE. Following talks in Warsaw between President Lech Walesa and German Minister of State, Bernd Schmidbauer, Warsaw and Bonn agreed to stop spying on each other and instead to cooperate in the fight against terrorism and drug trafficking, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn reports. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
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