|Each friend represents a world in us, a world possibly not born until they arrive, and it is only by this meeting that a new world is born. - Anaiis Nin|
No. 103, 01 June 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR RUSSIAN GENERALS DIGGING IN ON MOLDOVA? Russian President Yeltsin's proposal to withdraw the 14th Army from Moldova continued to meet with opposition from military officials. The 14th Army's commander, Maj. Gen. Yurii Netkachev, expressed "doubt that the withdrawal would be easy to accomplish [because] more than half of the units' personnel consist of local inhabitants," CIS TV reported on 28 May. The overwhelming majority of this Army's servicemen are known to come from the other former Soviet republics, primarily Russia. Maj. Gen. Nikolai Stolyarov, head of the CIS command's Committee on Personnel Issues, claimed that a withdrawal "is not realistic and not possible" owing to lack of apartments in Russia and also because "the people" (i.e. Russians) in the Dniester region "place great hopes on the army," ITAR-TASS reported on 29 May. (Vladimir Socor) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" NOT WORRIED BY WITHDRAWAL PROSPECT. Self-styled "Dniester republic president" Igor Smirnov told The Financial Times of 29 May that he expects "soldiers and officers of the 14th Army to remain in the region and join the Dniester armed forces" in the event of a withdrawal. Smirnov felt confident that "entire units" would do so. Admitting to the high financial costs of his "republic's" military operations, Smirnov claimed that the funds came "from Russian enterprises and from individuals." He also told The Times of 30 May that "volunteers from every corner of the former Soviet Union" were prepared to defend the "Dniester republic" in the event of the Army's withdrawal. Tiraspol leaders also noted that they had received "top-level assurances from the Russian Defense Ministry that there would be no withdrawal before the conflict was settled." (Vladimir Socor) MOLDOVA CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC. Interviewed by The Financial Times of 29 May, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur described Yeltsin's announcement as "a victory for common sense" but expressed apprehension that "Russian hardliners might block the withdrawal." On 30 May, Snegur told Danish TV, as cited by Moldovan media, that he hoped that Yeltsin would stick to his announced decision despite military opposition, as the 14th Army was the main obstacle to a peaceful political settlement. Should Russia not withdraw its forces, "it would have to bear the consequences arising from continuing flagrant intrusion into an independent state," Snegur said. (Vladimir Socor) GRACHEV ACCUSES ROMANIA OF DELIVERING ARMS TO MOLDOVA. Interviewed by CIS TV on 30 May, Russia's defense minister, General Pavel Grachev, confirmed recent Russian media reports which cited what they termed "available data" on Romanian deliveries of arms and armored vehicles to Moldova. Grachev said that such deliveries, while allowed under international law, were "improper and incorrect" considering the situation in Moldova. Grachev failed to mention however, the arming of the "Dniester" Russian forces since the autumn of 1991 under successive USSR, CIS, and Russian auspices. On the same day, Moldova's Defense Minister, Lt. Gen. Ion Costas, told a news conference in Chisinau that Moldova did not need arms from the outside since the arms and equipment it has inherited from ex-Soviet forces other than the 14th Army were "more than enough to handle the separatist forces." (Vladimir Socor) ROMANIA PROTESTS RUSSIAN ACCUSATIONS. A spokesman from the Foreign Affairs Ministry protested the allegations of Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev that Romania is supporting Moldova. The spokesman said that Romania firmly supports the peaceful settlement of the Moldova conflict, Rompres reported on 31 May. The statement also noted that there are no Romanian military advisers in Moldova and that no arms shipments have been made. The only deliveries that have been made--notice of which was communicated to the Russian military attache--involved trucks and pontoon bridges. (Mihai Sturdza) GRACHEV ON RUSSIAN MILITARY. In a wide-ranging interview broadcast by "Ostankino" TV on 31 May, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev again emphasized his view that, at least at present, a professional officer should head the Defense Ministry because a civilian could not handle the problems currently besetting the Russian armed forces. He also criticized Ukraine for having earlier "unilaterally" taken over the three military districts located in the republic, with all their weaponry and equipment, and stressed the importance of rapid reaction forces in the emerging Russian army. He suggested that the Russian Navy and Air Force face no major restructuring. Grachev expressed dismay over the disintegration of the Russian defense industrial sector and called for defense plants to split their production evenly between civilian and military goods. (Stephen Foye) CRITICISM OF DIVIDING BLACK SEA FLEET. Both Grachev and the commander of the joint CIS forces, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov, criticized efforts by Ukraine to take control of the Black Sea Fleet, ITAR-TASS reported on 30 May. Shaposhnikov said that Ukraine does not need a large fleet, while Grachev said that the fleet should be subordinated to the CIS joint forces. (Stephen Foye) YELTSIN REPEATS CALL FOR ABOLISHING OF CONGRESS. Russian President Boris Yeltsin emphasized during his trip to Buryatiya that he wants to abolish the Russian Congress of People's, "Vesti" reported on 29 May. He asserted that a referendum should be held not later than this fall. He maintained that since the Congress will never agree to a constitution which would lead to its own abolishment, he must appeal to the population and collect the necessary one million signatures to petition for a referendum. The chairman of the parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov, without mentioning Yeltsin by name, called appeals for the abolishment of the Congress "unconstitu-tional" and "directed against the people." (Alexander Rahr) SHAKHRAI DOES NOT BELIEVE IN SUCCESS OF MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM. Sergei Shakhrai, who recently resigned from the Russian Government, told ITAR-TASS on 25 May that he does not believe in the creation of a multi-party system in Russia and therefore will refrain from joining a party or become involved in the creation of a party. Shakhrai asserted that he is leaving the government because of disagreements with certain figures in Yeltsin's entourage. He specifically mentioned the head of the presidential administration, Yurii Petrov. (Alexander Rahr) RUSSIAN BUSINESSMEN FOUND NEW PARTY. Leading Russian industrialists met in Moscow on 30 May to found a new political party--the All-Russia League of Renewal, ITAR-TASS and "Ostankino" TV reported. The League calls itself a pragmatic, nonideological "centrist party" and has pledged itself to work out a new economic reform strategy. Its entry onto the Russian political scene is an important event. Commentators call it a party of technocrats: the founding congress was attended by directors of leading state-owned enterprises and by members of the scientific elite such as Evgenii Velikhov and leading figures from Russian local government. The League's president is Aleksandr Vladislavlev; its eminence grise, Arkadii Volsky, told a TV interviewer on 31 May that he was not taking an official post in the new party. (Elizabeth Teague) RUSSIAN ENERGY COMPLEX GETS NEW HEAD. Vladimir Lopukhin has been released from his post as Russian minister of fuel and energy, ITAR-TASS reported on 30 May. A new post of Russian deputy prime minister for fuel and energy has been created. The 54-year-old former Soviet minister for the gasoline industry, Viktor Chernomyrdin, was appointed to this position. This move by Russian President Boris Yeltsin apparently represents an attempt to appease the conservative industrial lobby in the parliament. (Alexander Rahr) LITTLE PROGRESS IN RUSSIAN-CHECHEN TALKS. The second meeting of experts of the Russian Federation and the Chechen republic on developing relations ended on 29 May with little in the way of results, the Russian media reported. The leader of the Chechen group, Zelimkhan Yandarbiev, noted that the draft treaty put forward by the Russian delegation was virtually identical with the federal treaty the Russian Federation signed with its constituent republics on 31 March and there could be no question of discussing it. On the other hand, the head of the Russian delegation, Viktor Zhigulin, maintained that the talks had laid a foundation for closing the gap between the two sides. The next meeting is scheduled for the end of June. (Ann Sheehy) UNION OF GERMANS OF FORMER USSR SETS OUT ITS GOALS. A three-day congress of the Union of Germans of the former USSR ended on 30 May with the adoption of a resolution stating that its main aim was the step-by-step restoration of German statehood, ITAR-TASS reported. The Union, which represents those Germans who wish to remain in the former USSR, decided to change its name to the Interstate Union of Russian Germans. The congress set up an economic council to coordinate the activity of German entrepreneurs, noting that the Germans must do more to help themselves since Russia was, as yet, taking few practical steps, and the German government was not "rich enough to solve their national problem." (Ann Sheehy) MONEY SUPPLY TO SOAR. Russian First Deputy Premier Egor Gaidar told CIS TV on 31 May that cash emission in July is to increase to 142 billion rubles. This compares with 89 billion rubles during the whole of 1991 and 79 billion rubles during the first quarter of 1992. Starting in August, it is planned to issue 270-280 billion rubles a month. Higher denomination banknotes of 5,000 rubles should be in general use by August. The shortage of cash has led other CIS member-nations to prepare the issue of alternative and/or parallel currencies. In a somewhat rash pre-diction that may come back to haunt him, Gaidar said that the monetary situation will stabilize by July "un-less there is some unpredictable cataclysm." (Keith Bush) MORATORIUM ON FOREIGN DEBT? Jacques Delors, president of the European Community Commission, told a news conference on 30 May that Russia has proposed a five-year moratorium on paying interest on its foreign debt, Western agen-cies reported on 31 May. Delors said that the mora-torium had been proposed by Egor Gaidar during a Kremlin meeting at which Yeltsin was present. Presumably, Gaidar was referring to Russia's 61% share of the total debt of the former USSR (thought to have amounted to about $65 billion by the end of 1991). Delors reportedly gave a noncommittal reply to this proposal. (Keith Bush) BIG REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN RUSSIAN CONSUMER PRICES. An interview with economist V. Shprygin (Ekonomika i zhizn no. 21) contains some observations on regional trade barriers that are hindering flows of goods within Russia as well as between CIS states. While projecting first-half 1992 consumer prices at 15 times that of the same period in 1991, and consumption levels 45% down, Shprygin noted the wide regional variation around these averages. He attributed the price differences to local authorities' blocking the shipment of consumer goods from their regions. He refers to inter-city price ratios (maximum to minimum) of 4:1 for meat, 5:1 for bread and 11:1 for fruit and vegetables. (Philip Hanson) ARMENIAN OPPOSITION PARTIES CALL FOR RECOGNITION OF NKR. The National Democratic Union, the Association for National Self-Determination, the Armenian Revolutionary Party (Dashnaktsyutyun) and the Hramkavar-Azatakan Liberal Democratic Party intend to submit to the Armenian parliament a draft document calling for official recognition of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, "in order to substantiate the historic military victories of the NKR self-defense forces with corresponding steps in the diplomatic sphere," ITAR-TASS reported on 27 May. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan has consistently argued that Armenia should not be the first country to recognize Karabakh's independence. (Liz Fuller) UN OBSERVER REJECTS CHARGES THAT ARMENIANS HAVE USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS. Speaking at a news conference in Erevan on 28 May, UN Karabakh observer Francesco Vendrell rejected as unfounded repeated Azerbaijan allegations that Ar-menian forces had used chemical weapons in Nagorno-Karabakh, Western agencies reported. (Liz Fuller) DRAFT CONSTITUTION PUBLISHED IN TAJIKISTAN. ITAR-TASS reported on 31 May that the official draft of Tajikistan's new constitution has been published in Russian. The Tajik-language version had already appeared during the recent political unrest in the Tajik capital. A new constitution was one of the demands of anti-government protesters. The draft declares that the president is the head of state and the National Assembly (Milli Mejlis) will be the highest legislative organ. All citizens are guaranteed equal rights regardless of national origin or religious belief. The draft is to be discussed by the newly-created Mejlis and submitted to a popular referendum. (Bess Brown) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN IMPOSES SWEEPING SANCTIONS ON YUGOSLAVIA. The UN Security Council imposed a wide range of economic and political sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in an effort to stop the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Resolution 757 was adopted on 30 May with only China and Zimbabwe abstaining. The resolution includes a ban on all trade including oil, restrictions on air traffic, a reduction of all Yugoslav diplomatic missions, the freezing of all Yugoslav assets abroad, a ban on Yugoslav athletes from international events, and suspension of cultural and S&T exchanges. The resolution demands an immediate cease-fire an end to ethnic displacements, withdrawal of Serbian and Croatian troops from Bosnia-Herze-govina, creation of a security zone around Sarajevo and its airport, and guarantees from all combatants to permit distribution of aid. Exemptions to the em-bargo were made for shipments of food and medicine, the transit of goods through Yugoslavia, and humanitarian aid relief flights. (Milan Andrejevich) REACTIONS TO UN SANCTIONS. Yugoslav foreign economics relations minister Bozo Jovanovic said the sanctions will bring some sectors of the economy to a standstill and predicted "enormous shortages." Gasoline ration cards have already been issued in Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia's promising national soccer team has expressed bitter disappointment at not being able to participate in the European Cup championships. France said it has disassociated itself from the UN ban on sporting events. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic warned that sanctions will not stop the fighting, saying that the Bosnian crisis can only end through political negotiations or "by the defeat of one side." Kosovo Albanian President-elect Ibrahim Rugova appealed for an exemption for the predominantly Albanian populated Serbian province. Kosovo declared independence in October 1991. (Milan Andrejevich) HUNGARY, CZECHOSLOVAKIA SUPPORT UN. In a statement issued on 31 May the Hungarian government declared it will fully enforce the sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council against Serbia and Montenegro, MTI reports. Warning that the crisis endangers European security and has resulted in the greatest wave of refugees since World War II, the government urges that "all possible means be taken to prevent further bloodshed." On the same day Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier told CSTK that his country will support UN sanctions as well. (Edith Oltay & Barbara Kroulik) BELGRADE PROTESTS; ELECTIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA. Radio Croatia reports on 31 May that as many as 50,000 protesters marched in Belgrade calling for an end to the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and demanded the resignation of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Students formed a kilometer-long chain of black paper to mourn the dead. Vuk Draskovic, the leader of Serbia's main opposition party, told the crowd that "Serbia wants peace and an end to war," adding that Serbia's enemies are not abroad but "right here in Belgrade." Milosevic said that the war is the "price we have to pay for supporting Serbs outside Serbia." The protesters also described local and federal elections on 31 May as a farce designed to keep the current Socialists (former communists) in power. The Serbian and Montenegrin government said that 60% of the electorate had voted; final results are expected on 3 June. All major opposition parties boycotted the elections, however, and Serbia's Council of Bishops last week denounced the Serbian government and called for the establishment of a national salvation government. (Milan Andrejevich) BOSNIA AND CROATIA UPDATE. Fighting has eased in the Bosnia capital of Sarajevo and in the Croatian port-resort of Dubrovnik. Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina describes the evening of 31 May as the quietest in the three-month war. Another cease-fire agreement has been reached by the warring parties and is to take effect at 6:00 p.m. today. Three days of heavy shelling by Serb forces ended in Dubrovnik after UN officials negotiated a truce. Fighting in several areas of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina was reported, however. Belgrade Radio reported on 29 May that the government of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina proposes a "family for family" exchange in order to carry out a mass migration of the three ethnic groups in the republic. The Bosnian Serbs explained that such a plan would enable regions of the republic to become "ethnically pure" without resorting to violence. (Milan Andrejevich) FERVOR OVER MACEDONIA. On 29 May, Interfax reported that Russia is prepared to recognize the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev sent a note to Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis saying that delaying recognition no longer makes sense and that it could lead to a deterioration of the current peaceful situation in Macedonia. Greece responded on 30 May with a stern warning that recognition would be an "unfriendly act" towards Greece. On 31 May as many as 20,000 Greek-Americans protested in Washington against the use of the name Macedonia, demanding that the US not recognize the republic unless it changes its name. (Milan Andrejevich) MACEDONIAN FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS BULGARIA. Denko Maleski, Minister of Foreign Relations of the Republic of Macedonia, paid a one-day official visit to Sofia on 30 May. His talks with his counterpart Stoyan Ganev were described by BTA as "very open, frank, and concrete," while the purpose of the visit was to "clear the ground for cloudless, friendly relations." Bulgaria recalled its position on ethnicity to be governed by self-determination for each individual. Maleski expressed hope that Macedonia will soon be recognized by the EC and that Bulgaria will be the first to establish diplomatic relations. Economic relations were also discussed and Bulgaria proposed agreements for trade, abolition of double taxation, and protection of investments. (Rada Nikolaev) EAGLEBURGER IN BULGARIA, ALBANIA. US Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger concluded his tour of Russia and Eastern Europe with a visit to Sofia on 29-30 May and a stop in Tirana on the 30th. In Bulgaria he held talks with President Zhelev, Prime Minister Dimitrov, and Foreign Minister Ganev, and opened an office of the US International Trade Service. According to BTA and a TV interview with Ganev, Bulgaria's concern over a possible expansion of the Yugoslav crisis figured prominently in the talks. The guest said US interest in investing in Eastern Europe is "unexpectedly high," but insisted that an agreement on protection of investments should be signed. BTA said various US aid options were also discussed as was taking Bulgaria off the COCOM list. Eagleburger's visit to Albania is the first by a high-ranking US official since the noncommunist government took over this spring; he pledged $10 million in food aid to Albania. (Rada Nikolaev & Charles Trumbull) IMF LOAN TO ROMANIA. National Bank Gover-nor Mugur Isarescu said that the IMF on 29 May approved the 1992 agreement with Romania intended to support Romania's reform program. IMF loans will amount to some $500 million. At the same time a $440 million stand-by loan was approved, to be repaid over five years, Romanian media report. (Mihai Sturdza) WORLD BANK LOAN TO CZECHOSLOVAKIA. The World Bank approved $246 million to modernize power generation facilities and cut pollution in northern Bohemia. The bank says air pollution, principally from coal-fired power plants, is causing severe health problems and environmental damage throughout the country. The loan will help fund a $557.5-million project that includes new equipment and training, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. (Barbara Kroulik) CZECHOSLOVAK ELECTIONS. In his regular Sunday radio address, on 31 May Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel again expressed his opposition to the division of the country, the main issue in the 5-6 June elections. Such an event, Havel said, would cause "very serious geopolitical destabilization" in all Central Europe. In a pastoral letter Roman Catholic bishops have also appealed for Slovak Catholics to reject candidates who oppose economic and political reforms and called for believers to vote for candidates who support reform of abortion laws and the return of church property. Polls show that the nationalist Movement for a Democratic Slovakia of populist Vladimir Meciar is likely to win in that republic. In the Czech lands the conservative Civic Democratic Party of Finance Minister Vaclav Klaus leads, but left-wing parties are seen to be gaining in both parts of the country, Western agencies report. (Barbara Kroulik) POLAND'S OPPOSITION: NO CONFIDENCE IN OLSZEWSKI. On 29 May 65 deputies from the Democratic Union, the Liberal-Democratic Union, and the Polish Economic Program submitted a motion to the Sejm calling for a vote of no-confidence in the Olszewski government, Western and Polish media report. The deputies said there has been a lack of government will to cooperate with parliament and the president. On 31 May President Lech Walesa said "this government must not be allowed to exist in its present form." He told reporters that he is considering submitting a formal motion calling for Olszewski's dismissal but did not exclude restructuring the present cabinet with the Confederation for Independent Poland. Asked if he would accept his former adversary Lech Kaczynski as candidate for premiership, Walesa replied: "There have been enough misfortunes in this country; I do not propose yet another." (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) WALESA AMBIVALENT ON EXPOSING AGENTS. On 29 May Walesa expressed support for a parliamentary resolution demanding exposure of former communist security service agents. He also warned, however, that the action could turn into a "great disaster for Poland" if approached in haste and said if it is used for political fights, "it will be a great victory for the former security service." Interior Minister Antoni Macierewicz assured Walesa he would make sure "nobody will be accused without reasonable grounds." He said his ministry has already been verifying the lists. Meanwhile, a group of 50 deputies who claim the resolution is illegal, appealed to Poland's Constitutional Tribunal to rule on it. By 31 May Walesa had somewhat modified his stance on the resolution, saying it was "irresponsible and ill-prepared," Western and Polish media report. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) VLIKas FORMALLY ENDS ACTIVITIES. On 30 May in Vilnius VLIKas (Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania), founded in 1943 and subsequently continuing its activities in exile, has formally ended its activities, Radio Lithuania reports. Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis, Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius, Sajudis chairman Juozas Tumelis and many leaders of Lithuanian organizations in the US thanked VLIKas for its work on behalf of Lithuanian independence. At the ceremonies the organization's last chairman, Kazys Bobelis, outlined the committee's history, Bishop Juozas Tunaitis celebrated a commemorative Mass on 31 May, and the government held a formal reception for VLIKas leaders. (Saulius Girnius) BALTIC ASSEMBLY MEETS. On 29-31 May parliamentarians from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania met in Palanga for the second gathering of the Baltic Assembly, local media report. On 31 May they formally demanded the prompt withdrawal of ex-USSR troops and border guards, while its presidium also noted that despite numerous Baltic demands in the past for the pullout of troops, the withdrawal has practically not started. They appealed to the CSCE for assistance. The presidiums of the Baltic Assembly and the Nordic Council signed a treaty outlining greater parliamentary cooperation in political, economic, and cultural areas as well as nuclear safety. The assembly also approved documents with recommendations for the regulations of the Baltic juridical bureau, greater cooperation in education, science, and communications and urging their parliaments and governments to prepare an agreement on greater economic cooperation. The next meeting of the Baltic Assembly will be in Estonia in November. (Saulius Girnius & Dzintra Bungs) BALTIC ASSEMBLY PROTESTS DOBELE INCIDENT. On 29 May the assembly officially qualified the recent actions of the Russian troops stationed near Dobele as impudent and provocative; they termed the incident a crude violation Latvia's sovereignty and demanded its investigation and punishment of the perpetrators, Baltic media reported on 30 May. (Dzintra Bungs) GRACHEV: PULLOUT TO START IN 1994? Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told Ostankino TV on 31 May that the ex-USSR troops could be pulled out from the Baltic States only after "we have withdrawn the Western Group of Forces and the Northern Group of Forces." Stressing the necessity of normal living conditions for the troops, he added: "If the Baltic countries can allocate the relevant funds and, even better, if they can build housing for servicemen in those places that we are proposing that they do--I am prepared to withdraw the forces tomorrow. As for the existing situation, the realistic timetable for the start of the withdrawal process is the end of 1994." (Dzintra Bungs) ROMANIAN MILITARY BRIEFS. Canada's Chief of Defense Staff, Gen. John De Chastelain is visiting Romania from 31 May to 3 June at the invitation of his Romanian counterpart, Gen. Dumitru Cioflina. A delegation from the NATO Defense College in Rome headed by Lt. Gen. Castelo Branco also arrived on 31 May. Romanian and foreign sources say the agenda includes talks on Romanian-NATO cooperation, including military training. De Chastelain and Branco will address students at the Academy of Higher Military Studies and visit several military institutions. (Mihai Sturdza) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. Troyanek or Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.