|Принципы всегда осуществляются медленно, но люди всегда торопятся. - О. Бальзак|
No. 102, 29 May 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN SUGGESTS WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN ARMY FROM MOLDOVA. Russian President Boris Yeltsin reassured an audience in Barnaul, Siberia on 27 May, in connection with the situation in Moldova, "not to worry that there will be a war. We are going to withdraw the 14th Army to Russian territory and will not let Russia be dragged into war," Moscow media reported. Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu promptly welcomed Yeltsin's remark, noting that the intention to withdraw was not linked to political conditions, Moldovapres reported. Moldovan officials nevertheless cautioned that Moscow had failed to keep previous pledges of noninterference and that it was not Yeltsin, but Russia's Ministry of Defense that had instigated the 14th Army's involvement, The Washington Post and The Financial Times reported (Vladimir Socor) GRACHEV QUALIFIES YELTSIN'S REMARK. Receiving Moldova's permanent representative in Moscow on 27 May after repeated refusals, Russia's Defense Minister, General Pavel Grachev, declared that the 14th Army "may be withdrawn following a special bilateral agreement, and only after the conflict in the area has been defused," Moldovapres reported on 27 and 28 May. The statement suggests an effort to make any Russian withdrawal contingent on political conditions. Further differing with Yeltsin who has admitted to the involvement of the 14th Army in the fighting in Moldova (see Daily Report, 27 May), Grachev "categorically denied that the 14th Army was implicated in the conflict." (Vladimir Socor) RUSSIAN GENERAL STAFF OFFICIAL SUGGESTS 14TH ARMY AS "PEACEKEEPING FORCE." General Nikolai Stolyarov, head of the Russian General Staff's personnel department, told an assembly of 14th Army officers in Tiraspol that the army "could and must" become the "UN blue helmets" of the Dniester and play the role of a peacekeeping force, Reuters reported (citing Russian TV of 27 May). This proposal conflicts with Yeltsin's since a peacekeeping role would presuppose and legitimize a perpetuation of the 14th Army's presence in Moldova, rather than its withdrawal. The 14th Army's officer corps, which openly supports the "Dniester" Russian forces, has repeatedly argued that it should play just such a role. Moldova, Ukraine and Romania have all previously expressed opposition to this proposal. (Vladimir Socor) MOLDOVAN PARLIAMENT APPEALS TO THE WORLD. In an appeal to the world's parliaments on 27 May, the Moldovan parliament decried "the opposition organized by pro-imperial and neo-bolshevik forces against our people's aspirations for freedom and democracy." Russia's "occupation troops" and detachments of Russian Cossacks and "mercenaries" sent to Moldova are "torpedoing all our efforts to peacefully resolve an artificially created conflict." Reiterating Moldova's commitment to observing international commitments on civil and political rights for all its citizens, the Moldovan parliament called on the world's parliaments to monitor the situation in Moldova and ask their national governments to support Moldova's demands for the withdrawal of Russian troops and Cossacks. (Vladimir Socor) BLACK SEA FLEET UPDATE. The recent decision to exclude the Black Sea Fleet from the CIS strategic forces has apparently not done much to move the negotiations between Russia and Ukraine along. ITAR-TASS on 28 May, quoting the press center of the Ukrainian parliament, reported that Vasilii Durdinets and Yurii Yarov, the heads of the Ukrainian and Russian delegations for the fleet talks, held an informal meeting that day. On 29 May Radio Moscow announced that the next formal round, to be held in Dagomys, Russia, had been postponed. The chief of staff of the fleet noted that the recent Ukrainian move to allow only Ukrainian conscripts in the fleet violated the agreed moratorium on unilateral actions. The talks with Georgia over its share of the fleet seemed to be going much more smoothly. ITAR-TASS on 28 May quoted the chief of the Navy's press service as saying that a session in Sevastopol on 26 May had been "extremely constructive and full of good will." (Doug Clarke) UKRAINE, RUSSIA DIFFER ON STRATEGIC TROOPS. An Izvestiya article of 28 May indicated that Russia and Ukraine had been unable to resolve their differences over the strategic forces stationed in Ukraine during the recent meeting of the CIS Council of Defense Ministers. Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister, Lt. Gen. Ivan Bizhan was quoted as saying that while the strategic forces could remain under Moscow's operational command, Ukraine demanded "administrative" control of these troops. This would mean that they should form part of the Ukrainian armed forces, take the Ukrainian oath, and receive only Ukrainian conscripts in the future. The Russians argued that such a dual status raised the question of whose orders the strategic units would ultimately follow, a matter that was "bound to raise serious concern both here and in the international community." (Doug Clarke) UKRAINIAN ECONOMICS MINISTER SAYS CIS HAS NO ECONOMIC PROSPECTS. Ukrainian Economics Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Volodymyr Lanovy was quoted by "Novosti" on 29 May as saying that "just as was the case with the former Union, the CIS has no future on the economic level." Lanovy was invited for talks to Moscow by his Russian counterpart Egor Gaidar. The young reformist Ukrainian minister, who is often compared to Gaidar, did not disclose when Ukraine will introduce its new national currency, the "hryvnya," but said that it would continue to use the ruble for inter-republican trade "so as not to disrupt trade." (Bohdan Nahaylo) RUSSIAN POLITICIANS TRADE INSULTS. Egor Ligachev, once the second most powerful man in the Soviet leadership, lashed out on 27 May at former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, calling him "a coward and a traitor" who betrayed the Communist Party and sold the USSR out to the West. Ligachev's remarks were reported by Reuters on 27 May. Meanwhile, in an interview published in the 8 June issue of Forbes, Gorbachev aimed his fire at Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Admitting that he himself had made tactical errors, Gorbachev said Yeltsin was making an even more serious mistake in pushing reform too fast. Yeltsin, Gorbachev said, was no democrat but a "political cowboy." For his part, Yeltsin he complained in an interview published in Komsomolskaya pravda on 27 May that Gorbachev had pledged not to get involved in domestic politics. (Elizabeth Teague) MANDATORY HEALTH CHECK FOR RUSSIAN PRESIDENT? Yeltsin also came under fire from the hardline wing of the Russian political spectrum. Writing in Sovetskaya Rossiya on 28 May, the neocommunist parliamentarian Svetlana Goryacheva accused him of serving the interests only of the International Monetary Fund and the bourgeoisie. Fellow Yeltsin critic, the parliamentarian Vladimir Isakov, was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 28 May as calling for the law to be amended to provide for an obligatory annual health check for the Russian President. Earlier this month, Isakov accused Yeltsin of being drunk at a CIS summit meeting in Tashkent. (Elizabeth Teague) RUSSIAN INDEPENDENCE DAY: 12 JUNE. The Russian Supreme Soviet voted, on 28 May, to declare 12 June as Russian Independence Day, ITAR-TASS reported. This date was chosen to commemorate 12 June 1990 when Russia declared its sovereignty during the first session of the Russian Congress of People's Deputies, and the Russian presidential elections held exactly one year later when Boris Yeltsin became the first president of the Russia Federation. (Carla Thorson) VIKTOR GRISHIN DIES. Viktor Grishin, a long-time member of the former CPSU Central Committee Politburo, has died in Moscow at the age of 77, Reuters reported on 26 May. Grishin had also been first secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee for 18 years. He was dropped from the leadership at the end of 1985. Moskovskaya pravda reported on 26 May that Grishin collapsed on the previous day, while visiting a social security office in Moscow to discuss his pension. (Vera Tolz) BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION WANTS TRIBUNAL ON COMMUNISM. As reported on 28 May by BelTA-TASS, the opposition faction in the Belarusian parliament and several democratic political parties have issued a statement "to the nations victimized by communist terror," calling for an international tribunal to pass judgement on communist crimes against humanity. The statement said that it intends to give the names of people for which there is evidence of heinous crimes to such a tribunal. The Party of Communists of Belarus was registered this month after the Supreme Court struck down an earlier lower court decision to refuse to register the party. With 15,000 members, it claims to be the largest political party in Belarus. (Kathy Mihalisko) TURKISH PRIME MINISTER OPENS FRONTIER BRIDGE. On 28 May Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel and Nakhichevan parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev opened a Turkish-built bridge over the river Araks, linking Azerbaijan's Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic with Turkey, Western media reported. Interim Azerbaijani President Isa Gambarov also attended the ceremony. The first vehicles to cross the bridge were Turkish trucks carrying relief supplies. The International Red Cross arranged a 36 hour cease-fire to coincide with the ceremony and to allow for collecting the bodies of those killed during the recent fighting. (Liz Fuller) AZERBAIJAN ADOPTS EMERGENCY SECURITY MEASURES. The Azerbaijan Defense Ministry issued a statement on 28 May ordering all irregular armed formations to disband and relinquish their weapons and banning demonstrations, ITAR-TASS reported. It also provided for censorship of the press. Similar measures announced two weeks ago precipitated the ouster of Ayaz Mutalibov following his comeback attempt on 13 May. (Liz Fuller) SPLIT IN UKRAINIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH DIVIDES HIERARCHY. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC) has split over the issue of seeking canonical independence (autocephaly) from the Moscow Patriarchate, Radio Ukraine reported. It was formerly a sub-division of the Russian Orthodox Church and bitterly hostile to the then outlawed Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholic Churches. Ironically, the split occurred after the head of the UOC Metropolitan Filaret, a former "hardliner" who has been accused of being a KGB agent, took up the standard of autocephaly. He then failed to persuade a recent assembly of Russian Orthodox bishops to agree to independence for the UOC but refused to resign. A majority of the UOC's bishops now oppose Filaret and on 27 May held a synod in Kharkiv at which they elected Metropolitan Volodymyr (Sabodan) of Rostov and Novocherkassk to replace Filaret. (Bohdan Nahaylo) UKRAINIAN ORTHODOX PRIESTS REJECT MOSCOW'S AUTHORITY. Meanwhile, the supporters of independence for the Ukraine Orthodox Church have formed a Committee in Defense of the Canonical Rights of the UOC and on 26-27 May held a conference in Kiev. According to Radio Ukraine, it was attended by 474 priests and over 1,500 of the faithful. Among other things, the participants sent a letter to Universal Orthodox Patriarch Bartholemew in which they protested the Moscow Patriarchate's "interference" in the "internal affairs" of the Ukrainian church. More importantly, they declared that now that Ukraine was an independent state, the transfer of the canonical jurisdiction over the Kiev Metropolitanate in 1686 from the Patriarchate of Constantinople to the Moscow Patriarchate was no longer valid. (Bohdan Nahaylo) SHELTERS FOR MOSCOW HOMELESS. The Moscow city authorities plan soon to open a shelter housing 50 homeless people and to open two more such shelters by 1 July, Interfax reported on 22 May. Lodging will be free and the homeless will receive one free meal; medical care will also be provided. The service will be paid for out of the 1% income tax that the city has been extracting since the beginning of this year; the city authorities plan to raise this tax to 2% in the near future in order to subsidise medical services in the Russian capital. (Elizabeth Teague) NOVOCHERKASSK ANNIVERSARY. Radio Moscow noted on 23 May that 1-2 June will see the 30th anniversary of the bloodiest workers' protest in post-Stalin Russia. In June 1962, Novocherkassk was occupied for three days by workers protesting against food price rises and reduced pay rates; the authorities used tanks and troops to disperse the demonstrators. Twenty-four people were killed. The Russian parliament has reportedly given the Federation's Procurator General two weeks to review the case and make proposals for rehabilitating those found guilty in 1962 of instigating the protest, paying compensation to their families, and apportioning blame to those who crushed the protest, many of whom, the radio noted, are still alive. (Elizabeth Teague) CIS NAVY SHIP ATTACKED IN PHILIPPINES. The CIS Navy press center revealed that the large landing ship "Vilkov" was attacked by a small, unidentified vessel while passing through the Luzon Strait on 24 May. According to the ITAR-TASS account of 26 May, the attackers took the "Vilkov" under fire with automatic rifles and then fled when the CIS ship returned "warning shots" from a small-caliber gun. There was no damage or injury aboard the "Vilkov," and the report speculated that the attack might have come from pirates known to operate in the area who could have mistaken the naval vessel for a tanker. (Doug CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina reports on 28 May that surface-to-surface missiles were fired on Sarajevo, in the heaviest barrage since the war began. Bosnia's government announced on 28 May that fighting has directly affected 3 million of the republic's 4.4 million people and that 5,190 people have either been killed or are missing, 18,400 have been wounded, and 57 hospitals and clinics have either been destroyed or damaged. Austrian TV footage suggests that Sarajevo is in near total ruin. Meanwhile Yugoslavia has requested an international investigation to determine responsibility for what it calls a massacre of Sarajevo civilians on 27 May that left 16 dead and 110 injured. Bosnian officials blame Serb militia for launching the mortar attack, but Serbs deny wrongdoing. In response to the vicious attack, Muslim representatives in Lisbon walked out of EC talks. (Milan Andrejevich) INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS HIT YUGOSLAVIA. A State Department spokesman said on 28 May that the US wants the UN to impose a comprehensive sanctions package against Yugoslavia, including an oil embargo. The head of Serbia's largest oil producer, however, said that Serbia will increase its domestic crude oil production if an embargo is imposed. On 27 May the EC agreed on a variety of trade sanctions, but stopped short of an oil embargo. Reports say the embargo could cost Yugoslavia as much as $140 million a month in lost revenue and that if the UN imposes similar sanctions the figure could rise to $300 million. Lord Carrington, chair-man of the EC-mediated talks, told reporters on 28 May that there has been some indications that Serbia is moving in the right direction as a result of threatened sanctions. On 28 May German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel demanded that Yugoslavia be excluded from the UN, calling the situation a "shameful stain on Europe." (Milan Andrejevich) ADDED HEADACHES FOR SERBIA'S SOCIALISTS. Serbia's main opposition parties are boycotting the 31 May local and federal elections, complaining that too little time was allowed for preelection campaigning and that no access to the state-run TV was afforded them. Kosovo Albanian parties have ignored a 26 May invitation by Serbia's government to meet in Belgrade to discuss the future status of the predominantly ethnic Albanian province. Elections there on 24 May overwhelmingly gave support to political parties that declared Kosovo independent. Serbia's government has said the elections in Kosovo were illegal; on 28 May it told a CSCE delegation in Belgrade that the Albanians have brought the situation to the brink of conflict. (Milan Andrejevich) SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH ASSAILS SERBIAN LEADERS. Radio Croatia and Western media report on 28 May that Serbia's Orthodox church hierarchy has indirectly called for the resignation of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. An 8-page bishops' memorandum states that Serbia's leaders have "not fullfilled a single essential promise" to the people. The memorandum added that the Church is openly distancing itself from the Serbian government, the republic's constitution--which the church says has not been approved by the people--and from the elections scheduled for 31 May, "which inspire no confidence." The Church called for the creation of a "government of national unity and salvation." A New York Times report on 29 May says that Belgrade TV's coverage of the bishops' memorandum did not mention its criticism of the government. (Milan Andrejevich) OLSZEWSKI ADAMANT. On 27 May Polish Prime Minister Jan Olszewski said his government will not resign, Western and Polish media report. Referring to Lech Walesa's statement in which the president withdrew his support for Olszewski's cabinet, the premier told reporters the government must stay because there is nothing to replace it at the moment. Emphasizing that Walesa's letter included "a negative assessment of the government" but not a demand for its resignation, Olszewski said the decision was now in the hands of the Sejm. A coalition of Polish opposition parties says it would ask for a vote of no confidence in Olszewski's government during the Sejm session next week. Liberal-Democratic Congress leader Donald Tusk said "the collapse of the state administration is obvious to everybody." Chairman of the Democratic Union, former Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki, told newsmen the coalition will try to find new partners for a future government before the Sejm's session. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) IMPASSE ON RESIGNATION BY VAGNORIUS CONTINUES. On 28 May Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius submitted his resignation to the parliament in a speech broadcast live by Radio Lithuania. He explained that the "procommunist bloc" in the parliament was preventing him from carrying out his duties. The session was boycotted by the recently formed Sajudis Coalition for a Democratic Lithuania, containing the Joint Sajudis, Conciliation, and National factions and some independent deputies. The parliament postponed the vote on accepting the resignation until its next meeting on 2 June. (Saulius Girnius) MAJOR IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA . . . British Prime Minister John Major met Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel in Prague on 27 May. They discussed the political situation in Czechoslovakia and signed a joint declaration pressing for closer ties between the European Community and the new democracies of Eastern Europe, and for efforts to develop a crisis mechanism of the CSCE process. Major also told a press conference that the declaration confirmed that the 1938 Munich Agreement is null and void and apologized for Britain's role in permitting the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Later in Bratislava, Major talked with Slovak Premier Jan Carnogursky and parliament chairman Frantisek Miklosko. Major said that a unified Czechoslovakia may find it easier to join the EC than would a separate Slovakia. These comments drew criticism from the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia as intervention in next month's elections. (Barbara Kroulik) . . . AND HUNGARY. Arriving in Budapest on 28 May for the last leg of his three-country tour, Major held talks with his Hungarian counterpart Jozsef Antall, MTI reports. In a joint statement, the two leaders expressed their wish to strengthen the role of the CSCE in crisis prevention and resolution. They stated that European freedom and security should be ensured by creating a comprehensive security system that interlinks the CSCE, NATO, the Western European Union, and the Council of Europe. Major welcomed Hungary's association agreement with the EC, saying that it paves the way for full membership. He pledged to promote British investment in Hungary and to help the country's transition to a market economy. (Edith Oltay) EAGLEBURGER IN ROMANIA. On 28 May Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger and Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase signed an agreement aimed at stimulating US investment in Romania. Eagleburger said he hopes this will inaugurate a phase of increasingly closer economic and political relations. The agreement includes mutual protection for investments and against confiscation of assets. Eagleburger, who is chief coordinator of US economic assistance to Eastern Europe and the CIS, also met President Ion Iliescu and Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan, local media said. Eagleburger continues his visit by flying to Bulgaria. (Mihai Sturdza) ERIN IN ROMANIA TOO. Lt. Gen. Viktor Erin, Minister of Interior of the Russian Federation, on a visit in Romania at the invitation of his Romanian counterpart Victor Babiuc, was also received by Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan. The two ministers told the press that their talks were aimed at strengthening political and economic cooperation, as well as coordinating professional problems such as the rise in crime and "protecting public opinion." Erin said that the trans-Dniester situation is independent Moldova's problem and should be solved by peaceful, political means, local media said. (Mihai Sturdza) ESTONIA JOINS IMF. Estonia formally joined the International Monetary Fund on 26 May, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports. Bank of Estonia president Siim Kallas signed the fund's articles of agreement in Washington that day. (Riina Kionka) SEJM APPROVES RESOLUTION ON SECRET POLICE AGENTS. On 28 May voting 186-15 with 32 abstentions, the Sejm approved to make public the names of alleged former communist security police agents still holding public office. The resolution was proposed by Janusz Korwin-Mikke, leader of the Union for Real Politics, Western and Polish media report. The decision obliges Interior Minister Antoni Macierewicz to release a list of thousands of alleged agents and collaborators, which will take place in stages over the next six months. According to press reports, the list of alleged collaborators between 1945-1990 includes about 60 parliamentarians. Later, four parliamentary caucuses led by the Democratic Union said the resolution was illegal. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT ON PRESIDENT AND MEDIA. Government spokeswoman Judit Juhasz told reporters on 27 May that the government rejects as "unfounded" reports appearing in the domestic and foreign media that it is conducting an offensive against President Arpad Goncz or the Hungarian media. Juhasz said that the government kept to the letter of the law when it initiated the dismissal of the president of Hungarian radio, and does not seek Goncz's resignation. Goncz has recently refused to comply with Prime Minister Jozsef Antall's request to dismiss radio President Csaba Gombar. Antall asked the Constitutional Court to determine whether Goncz violated the law by refusing his request. This was reported by MTI. (Edith Oltay) SOFIA CAR BOMB SEEN AS ATTACK ON PRESS FREEDOM. A bomb exploded in the early morning of 27 May under the car of Petyo Blaskov, president of the 168 Hours press group that publishes the mass circulation daily 24 chasa and several other left-leaning dailies. Blaskov, the Union of Bulgarian Journalists, the Bulgarian Democratic Center, and others, quoted by BTA, claimed that this was an attack on the freedom of press. The Ministry of Internal Affairs said it is investigating the case and has not excluded the possibility that the explosion was staged since the car, a large Mercedes, was insured for 2,000,000 leva, a sum far exceeding its value. (Rada Nikolaev) BULGARIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH SPLIT. As part of the efforts to rid the Orthodox Church of its communist dominated past, several bishops have formed a new Holy Synod, which was legally registered by the Directorate on Religions on 26 May. On the 27th the press also reported that the prominent dissident priest Hristofor Sabev had been consecrated as a bishop. BTA quoted the old Synod as protesting the decision as state interference in Church affairs, but the move was supported in a statement by 59 prominent personalities, including many BSP members. In a TV broadcast on 27 May, representatives of the old and the new ruling bodies discussed the situation. (Rada Nikolaev) TROOP WITHDRAWAL TALKS. On 28 May Aleksandras Abisala, head of the Lithuanian delegation on Russian troop withdrawal, said the talks in Moscow on 26-27 May were disappointing, Radio Lithuania reports. Russia still refuses to set a timetable and is trying to bring in new recruits. Abisala noted that Lithuania presented a claim of $150 billion for damages caused by the Soviet army since 1940. Latvian Deputy Minister of Defense Dainis Turlajs described his country's sessions in Moscow to Radio Riga as still another effort by Russia to dictate its terms on troop pullout. Russia proposed to withdraw the troops gradually and complete the process in 1999. Latvia said that the withdrawal must be completed by September 1993 and that troops must leave Riga by this fall. It was agreed that before another meeting is held, Russia would work out a detailed timetable. (Saulius Girnius & Dzintra Bungs) LATVIAN-RUSSIAN STANDOFF. On 28 May men from the Latvian Home Guard and police set up checkpoints on roads in the vicinity of Dobele, responding to a decision of the city council to increase road patrols to prevent crime and monitor the expected transfer of new Russian recruits to the ex-USSR military base nearby. Military vehicles refused to stop for inspection, and on 28 May armed soldiers were sent to monitor the checkpoints. Dobele city officials told the base command that such behavior is unacceptable and demanded the soldiers return to base. Radio Riga reports on 29 May that traffic inspections in and around Dobele are continuing normally. (Dzintra Bungs) SWEDES VISIT NAVAL BASE, ESTONIANS NOT ALLOWED. On 27 May Lars Grundberg, the Swedish ambassador to Estonia, told military authorities at the former Soviet naval base at Paldiski that Sweden is concerned over the base's nuclear reactors, located directly on the shore of the Baltic Sea. According to BNS and ETA the next day, Grundberg and Swedish military attachИ Col. Ove Sundkvist were hosted by the base commander. Earlier this week, Russia formally turned down a request by Estonian Foreign Minister Jaan Manitsky to visit the base, saying such a visit would be inappropriate. (Riina Kionka) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. Troyanek or Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
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