To get rid of an enemy, one must love him. - Leo Tolstoy
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 100, 26 May 1992


Court begins a review of whether Russian President Yeltsins edict
banning the CPSU in the wake of the failed coup of August 1991
accorded with the Russian constitution. Sergei Shakhraithe Yeltsin
legal adviser who drafted the edict and who will represent Yeltsin
at the hearingsshowed a Moscow news conference on 25May a document
dated May 1975 according to which the KGB had, on the orders
of the CPSU Central Committee, supplied arms to the Damascus-based
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine for the purpose
of carrying out acts of sabotage and terrorism against Israelis
and Americans in third countries. Shakhrai was quoted by Western
agencies as saying he intends to turn the court hearing into
a second Nuremberg trial. (Elizabeth Teague)

Sergei Shakhrai told journalists in Moscow that the Russian president
has now accepted his recently-tendered resignation as chief legal
affairs adviser, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow and Interfax
reported on 25May. Shakhrai cited differences with Yeltsin on
reforms and the composition of the presidential staff as reasons
for his resignation. He said, however, that he had no plans to
join the opposition, and he would also represent Yeltsin at the
26May session of the Constitutional Court as a lawyer, but not
as an official. (Vera Tolz)

GRACHEV ON NUCLEAR ARMS. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev
told journalists on 25May that it was out of the question that
any former Soviet strategic nuclear weapons would remain in Kazakhstan.
According to Radio Rossii, he said that all these weapons would
be removed to Russia. Grachev added that while all strategic
nuclear forces were presently under CIS joint command, Russia
would establish its own nuclear forces once the reductions mandated
by the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) had been carried
out. (Doug Clarke)

that will participate in the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)
treaty told NATO on 25May how they had agreed to split up the
weapons quotas of the former USSR at the recent Tashkent summit.
As reported by Western agencies, Russia will be allowed to keep
just under 50% of the tanks and artillery once allocated to the
Soviet Union, and nearly 70% of the combat aircraft and 60% of
the combat helicopters. When the quotas in all five weapons categories
covered by the treaty are added together, Russias share is 54%,
Ukraine will have 27%, and Belarus 12%. The remainder is divided
between Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Moldova. (Doug Clarke)

MILITARY NEWS FROM BELARUS. Belarusian radio reported on 24May
that the START protocol, signed the previous day in Lisbon, is
expected to be ratified by the Belarusian parliament during its
autumn session. Parliament is also due at that time to examine
the question of signing the 1968 nuclear nonproliferation treaty.
BelTA-TASS reported on 25May that 47-year-old scientist Alyaksandr
Tushinsky has been chosen for the post of first deputy defense
minister of Belarus. Tushinsky was quoted as saying that defense
industry structures must be put onto a qualitatively new basis,
taking into account the formation of the Belarus armed forces.
(Kathy Mihalisko)

cooperation and mutual aid was signed in Moscow on 25May by the
presidents of Russia and Kazakhstan, ITAR-TASS reported. Under
the terms of the treaty, the two countries agreed to form a common
military area with joint use of military installations and a
common economic area. Both recognize the inviolability of each
others borders. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev has said
that it was the terms of this treaty, along with agreement on
common defense signed at the Tashkent summit, that convinced
him to agree to give up Kazakhstans nuclear missiles. (Bess Brown)

leaders, including some of Boris Yeltsins top aides, set up a
new political movement called the Union for Democracy and Reforms,
ITAR-TASS reported on 25May. The founders include: the first
deputy chairman of the Russian parliament, Sergei Filatov; the
parliaments deputy chairman Vladimir Shumeiko; and deputy prime
ministers Aleksandr Shokhin and Mikhail Poltoranin. A declaration
issued by its leaders noted that the movement is directed toward
consolidating the constructive and responsible section of Russian
society. Like similar organizations (e.g., the Movement for Democratic
Reforms set up in 1991, or the Reforma group set up earlier this
month), the new movement seeks to rally the center ground in
support of Yeltsins move to the market. (Jean Riollot/Vera Tolz/Elizabeth

Rossii quoted Argumenty i fakty as saying Mikhail Gorbachev and
former member of the CPSU CC Politburo, Dzasokhov, would probably
run for election to the Russian parliament. There are currently
25 vacancies in the parliament. (Dzasokhov is actively involved
in attempts to revive a Communist movement in Russia). Radio
Rossii also quoted an article in the weekly, Rossiya, established
by the Presidium of the Russian parliament, as saying Gorbachev
was yearning for political revenge. Expressing hostility towards
Gorbachev, the article seems to have been prompted by the former
Soviet presidents recent trips to Japan and the United States.
(Vera Tolz)

the Russian parliament approved a decree on Russias entry into
the IMF and World Bank, (Izvestiya, 25May). Izvestiya noted that
the former USSR could be receiving $4.5-5 billion a year in World
Bank credits, with about half going to Russia. This is consistent
with earlier reports in the Western press (The Wall Street Journal,
28 April, The International Herald Tribune, 29 April). (Philip

not scheduled to appear in circulation until 1 July, the National
Bank of Belarus has already begun making payments in the Belarusian
ruble, according to Novosti on 25May. Its early introduction
was due to the severe shortage of ordinary ruble notes. Between
10% and 15% of Belarusian salaries will be paid out in the new
banknotes, which will be exchangeable into ordinary rubles at
the rate of 1:10. In related news, IMF representatives met in
Minsk on 25May with deputy prime minister Mikhail Myasnikovich,
according to BelTA-TASS. RUSSIAS CASH SHORTAGE. The Moscow evening
news, on 25May, commented on the worsening shortages of ruble
notes and coins. In revolutionary situations, the commentator
observed, People storm the banks. So far [it is only] accounts
clerks [who] are storming the main entrance of the Russian Central
Bank. Arrears in wage and benefit payments (nearly all paid in
cash), according to the report, now total 2 trillion rubles.
One cause of this was said to be increased cash hoarding by the
population. This is probably at the expense of additions to savings
bank deposits, though experience in Czechoslovakia suggests it
is possible for household saving to rise when price liberalization
cuts real incomes. (Philip Hanson)

workers have suspended a planned 24-hour nationwide strike that
was to have taken place on 26May, ITAR-TASS reported on 25May.
The agency said the Russian government has pledged to address
the drivers demands within one or two weeks. These demands include
not only higher wages but also modernization of vehicles to improve
safety. (Elizabeth Teague)

YELTSIN RAISES MINIMUM WAGE. The minimum monthly wage will rise
in Russia from 600 to 900 rubles on 1 June, RadioMayak reported
on 23May. Under an edict signed by Yeltsin, the monthly stipends
of graduate students will go up to 900 rubles while undergraduates
will get 700 rubles; the allocation for single mothers will rise
to between 400 and 500 rubles a month while couples will qualify
for a one-time payment of 2,700 rubles on the birth of each child.
(Elizabeth Teague)

a one-day visit to Kiev by Czechoslovak Prime Minister Marian
Calfa, Ukraine and Czechoslovakia initialed a treaty in which,
among other things, both sides pledged not to raise any territorial
claims against the other, Radio Ukraine and CSTK reported. During
a meeting with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, Calfa presented
him with an invitation from President Vaclav Havel to visit Czechoslovakia.
Kravchuk, according to Ukrinform-TASS, told Calfa that his visit
had a great significance because relations between Ukraine and
Czechoslovakia have not yet developed as much as they could.
(Bohdan Nahaylo and Barbara Kroulik)

Marian Calfa confirmed at a press conference in Kiev on 25May
that Ukraine is interested in closer cooperation with the Visegrad
Triangle, consisting of Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland, CSTK
reported. Last week, Ukraines Prime Minister Vitold Fokin visited
Hungary (with which Ukraine already has signed several agreements)
and hinted at a press conference that it was not excluded that
Ukraine might eventually be able to join the Triangle, RFE/RLs
Budapest correspondent reported on 22May. Fokin commented that,
A table with four legs was more stable than one with only three.
On 18May, President Kravchuk also signed a treaty on good-neighborly
relations and cooperation between Ukraine and Poland. (Bohdan

with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 25May, Turkish Prime
Minister Suleyman Demirel called for the convening of a new Karabakh
peace conference under the auspices of the CSCE. Turkish Foreign
Minister Hikmet Cetin told reporters that the conference would
probably begin on 28May but the venue had not been chosen, and
that representatives of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic would attend but not actively participate. The prospects
for a solution of the conflict appear remote, however, in that
NKR parliament deputy Levon Melik-Shakhnazaryan told ITAR-TASS
on 25May that the parliament would never again acknowledge Azerbaijans
jurisdiction. (Liz Fuller)

MOLDOVA APPEALS TO UN. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur cabled
UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali on 23May that Moldovas independence
and territorial integrity are being endangered by the Russian
14th Armys brutal use of force...This constitutes an armed aggression
by the Russian Federation against the Republic of Moldova, an
undeclared war for whose consequences the Russian government
bears full responsibility. Citing Moldovas initiatives for a
peaceful resolution of the conflict and the Russian leaderships
failure to reply, Snegur noted that unless Russia withdraws its
army, Moldova reserves the right to submit the issue to the UN
Security Council. (Vladimir Socor)

RUSSIA IGNORES MOLDOVAN MESSAGES. Since the latest escalation
(which began on 18May) of the military-supported Russian insurgency
in Moldova, Snegur and the Moldovan Parliament Presidium have
cabled four messages to Yeltsin and to the Russian Supreme Soviet
Presidium, calling for an end to support for the insurgency by
the Russian Federation and the withdrawal of Russias 14th Army.
As on previous occasions, the messages have gone unanswered.
Moreover, Moldovas Presidential Office told the RFE/RL Research
Institute that Yeltsin has consistently been unavailable to Snegur
by telephone. Russias Foreign Ministry has failed to answer a
protest note from Moldovas Foreign Ministry. Russias Defense
Ministry for its part claims, in the face of all evidence to
the contrary, that the 14th Army is neutral. (Vladimir Socor)

UKRAINE RESPONDS. Snegur's message of 19May to the heads of CIS
member states, soliciting political support for Moldova, has
only been answered by the Ukrainian president. As cited by Moldovapres
on 24May, Kravchuk wrote Snegur that Ukraine firmly condemns
any military aggression and regards as unacceptable any involvement
in the conflict by a third party. Expressing support for Moldovas
independence and sovereignty, Kravchuk called for a political
settlement based on the principles worked out by the Moldovan,
Romanian, Russian, and Ukrainian Foreign Ministers in April.
Kravchuks last point is significant since those principles favor
Moldova, while Russia has yet to abide by them and the Russian
Foreign Ministry has since backtracked from them. (Vladimir Socor)


BOSNIAN UPDATE. Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina reports on 25May that
Bosnian Serb officials and militia have agreed to lift a blockade
of Sarajevo airport to allow the landing of aircraft carrying
international humanitarian aid. A Bosnian interior ministry statement,
however, warned that the Serbs are planning to hijack the convoy,
but that its leaders are planning to place the blame on renegade
Serb terrorists. Heavy fighting was reported in only a few towns
in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Belgrade papers say Muslim and Croat forces
are fighting in western Herzegovina over several former federal
military arms factories. Radio Serbia reports on 25May that the
Belgrade staff of the Sarajevo daily Oslobodjenje and Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina
were forcibly evicted from their offices by the Bosnia Serb news
agency SRNA. In Lisbon slow progress was reported in the EC-mediated
talks. Muslim, Serb, and Croat leaders refused to negotiate directly,
but did meet separately with head mediator Josť Cutilheiro and
showed some willingness to discuss the proposed reorganization
of the republic into separate national units. (Milan Andrejevich)

FEDERAL TROOP WITHDRAWAL HALTED. Radio Croatia reports on 25May
that the federal army withdrawal from three barracks in Sarajevo
has been halted. Bosnian officials said the soldiers are in violation
of an agreement that calls for the federal army to leave behind
half their weapons and equipment. One barracks had been cleared,
and federal army and Bosnian officials are meeting to resolve
the dispute. In a related matter, Vuk Obradovic, Yugoslavias
youngest general, has resigned, citing moral reasons. In earlyMay
he had promised the parents of soldiers stationed in Bosnia that
they would be returned home by 19May. Obradovic is widely regarded
as the instigator of the early retirements of 68generals since
February. (Milan Andrejevich)

KOSOVO ELECTION A SUCCESS. On 25May the chairman of the Kosovo
election commission told reporters that the parliamentary and
presidential election in Kosovo was a success: 90% of the eligible
voters cast ballots and the elections passed without violence.
Provisional results from 21 of the 29 municipalities show nearly
99% voted for writer Ibrahim Rugova, who ran unopposed for president
of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. Rugovas party, the
Democratic Alliance (DSK), has apparently won at least 80 of
the 83 contests so far decided for seats in the 130-member parliament.
Serbia has said the elections are illegal, but did little to
prevent the balloting. The elections were monitored by numerous
international observers from Europe and the US. (Milan Andrejevich)

BALTIC TROOP TALKS RESUME. Another round of talks on withdrawal
of ex-USSR troopsapparently, according to Radio Riga, including
all three Baltic States and Russiais underway in Moscow. Latvian
Deputy Defense Minister Dainis Turlajs told BNS on 25May that
the talks are needed to iron out differences on drawing up a
timetable for the withdrawal that the Russian and Latvian groups
of experts could not resolve in their meetings. The Latvian delegation
is being led by Minister of State Janis Dinevics. Lithuanian
parliament deputy chairman Ceslovas Stankevicius, who is heading
his countrys delegation, said that Lithuania will continue to
demand the departure of the Russian troops this year and suitable
compensation for the damages the army had caused over more than
50years, Radio Lithuania reports. (Dzintra Bungs & Saulius Girnius)

Talavs Jundzis told the press that during the meeting with his
Estonian and Lithuanian counterparts in Riga on 22May the three
ministers and other Baltic officials plan to cooperate in the
guarding of borders and work out joint systems of antiaircraft
defense. The participants also discussed the formulation of a
common Baltic foreign policy. Jundzis also said that the there
could be a joint approach to the withdrawal of ex-USSR troops
from the Baltic States, Diena reported on 22May. (Dzintra Bungs)

ESTONIANS SEIZE TWO BASES. Estonias Border Defense Forces over
the weekend seized two bases belonging to the former Soviet military.
The Valga base was taken over early on 24May after former Soviet
military officials had offered to sell Estonia the property.
The second base, a facility near Tallinn, had been sold to a
joint stock company. The actions come after the Estonian government
on 22May reiterated the terms of an agreement last autumn with
Soviet Defense Minister Evgenii Shaposhnikov that withdrawing
troops will leave most property and equipment to Estonia. The
Estonian government on 25May issued another statement saying
such sales are illegal without official authorization. (Riina

MIRONOV THREATENS LATVIA. Valerii Mironov, commander of the Northwestern
Group of Forces, told the press in Riga on 21May that he could
not rule out the possibility of Dniester-type conflict from erupting
in the Baltic region. He claimed that the military training facility
in Rigas Ciekurkalns district, taken over by Latvian authorities
on 20May, was actually the property of Russia and that the army
was only using that property. Mironov also protested to Latvias
Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs, who explained that
such problems stem from the fact that no procedures for such
takeovers have yet been agreed upon. Mironov agreed with Gorbunovss
proposal for a special commission to deal with these matters,
Diena reported on 21May. (Dzintra Bungs)

for the first leg of a tour of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary,
Prime Minister John Major expressed his countrys commitment to
bringing the three countries of the Triangle into the European
Community when they are ready. According to Western media, he
said that the target date for EC membership should be the end
of the century. Britain takes over the rotating presidency of
the EC in July. (Louisa Vinton)

HERZOG IN WARSAW. President Chaim Herzog began a four-day official
visit to Polandthe first ever by an Israeli head of stateon 25May.
In welcoming remarks, President Walesa said that our past should
unite rather than divide us and expressed his determination to
fight prejudices and stereotypes. Herzog stressed that Jews and
Poles had both suffered greatly during the Nazi occupation and
expressed tribute to the Poles who had risked their lives to
save Jews. The Israeli president also met with Prime Minister
Olszewski and visited memorials to murdered Jews in Warsaw. Questioned
by Western reporters, both Walesa and Olszewski argued that anti-Semitism
was a marginal phenomenon in Poland. (Louisa Vinton)

GANEV TO GREECE. On 26May Bulgarian foreign minister Stoyan Ganev,
accompanied by government officials, experts, and businessmen,
begins a two-day visit to Greece. He will hold talks with Greek
Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis in Athens, but he will
also go to Thessaloniki for discussions with Panayotis Hadzinoklau,
minister for Greek Macedonia and Thrace, who visited Sofia last
month. The situation in the former Yugoslavia, notably the newly
independent Republic of Macedonia, as well as bilateral business
and environmental issues are on the agenda. (Kjell Engelbrekt)

EAGLEBURGER TO BUCHAREST. A press release from the US Embassy
in Bucharest sent to Rompres on 25May announces that a US government
delegation headed by Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger,
coordinator for aid to the Eastern countries, will arrive in
Bucharest on 28May to discuss political reforms and the US assistance
programs to Romania. (Crisula Stefanescu)

Deputy Prime Minister Nikola Vasilev, responsible for trade union
relations, on 25May had informal talks with the chairmen of the
Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and the Podkrepa and CITUB trade
unions regarding a new social partnership arrangement. According
to BTA, the idea is to revive the previous Tripartite Committee
but in a new form. It has been suggested that the revived committee
should include a National Council on Social Partnership, whose
decisionswhen taken by consensuswould be binding on the government.
(Kjell Engelbrekt)

Vaclav Havel opened the 45th World Newspaper Congress in Prague
on 25May, calling freedom of the press the soul of humanity.
Some 500 delegates from publications in 50 countries will discuss
issues facing the press. Nelson Mandela, president of the African
National Congress, will be the guest of honor on 26May. The congress
is sponsored by the Paris-based International Federation of Newspaper
Publishers, foreign agencies report. (Barbara Kroulik)

President Lech Walesa charged on 25May that eleventh-hour demands
from the Polish government for revisions to new Russian-Polish
agreements had threatened to make a fiasco of his recent state
visit to Moscow. By the presidents account, Prime Minister Jan
Olszewski dispatched a coded instruction to Walesa just two hours
before his meeting with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, demanding
the deletion of one item of the agreement on the financial aspects
of the withdrawal of former Soviet troops. The governments irresponsibility
could have led to a complete breakdown in the [Polish-Russian]
talks, Walesas office charged. The prime minister countered immediately
with a statement insisting that Walesa and Foreign Minister Krzysztof
Skubiszewski had known of the governments reservations well before
the presidents departure for Moscow. This clash reflects a larger
battle between Walesa and the ailing government over the presidents
right to a say in foreign policy, military, and security matters.
(Louisa Vinton)

NASTASE SPEAKS OUT. On 25May Rompres quoted Foreign Minister
Adrian Nastase as complaining that all European countries are
unfortunately not judged by the same criteria and that Romania
should assert with all its might that it belongs to Central Europe.
Referring to relations with Hungary, he said improvement depends
on Hungarys acceding to a very clear statement in a bilateral
treaty, specifying that it has no territorial claims on Romania.
In another statement after his return from Lisbon, where he attended
the conference on aid to the CIS and met with the foreign ministers
of Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine, Nastase said that Russia is
seeking politically to control the situation in Transdniester.
He warned against possible double-dealing by some parties involved
in the conflict and affirmed that it is absolutely necessary
that the Russian 14th Army withdrew immediately so that the political
process could go on. (Crisula Stefanescu)

LANDSBERGIS WONT CHANGE COURSE. On 26May Lithuanian Supreme Council
Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis, in a speech broadcast live by
Radio Lithuania, clearly affirmed that he is not going to change
his policies after the referendum vote. He accused the left-wing
deputies of planning a creeping coup to seize all control in
Lithuania and directly attacked the Lithuanian Democratic Labor
Party. He called for a three-month freeze on replacing high officials
in parliament and government and the holding of elections to
a new parliament on 23August. The speech is likely to further
inflame the already heated situation in the parliament. (Saulius

Jozsef Antall will ask the Constitutional Court to determine
whether President Arpad Goncz violated the law by refusing to
meet Antalls request to dismiss the president of Hungarian radio,
MTI reported on 25May. On the same day, the leaders of the parliamentary
groups of the three coalition parties initiated the adoption
of a statement by parliament declaring that Gonczs refusal to
dismiss the radio president was unconstitutional and could endanger
[the functioning of] parliamentary democracy. The opposition
parties, on the other hand, argued that the parliament has no
right to issue a statement condemning the president, since under
the constitution only the Constitutional Court may initiate proceedings
against him. (Edith Oltay)

Party remains in good financial shape, despite a massive drop
in its membership, because it continues to live off the old fat,
ECP First Secretary Enn-Arno Sillari told Postimees on 25May.
Sillari praised the partys smart bookkeeping for its current
success: Despite the fact that we got back only 2.6% of our assets
after nationalization, weve been able to sell off this and that,
and live from it. Postimees interviewed Sillari after the RFE/RL
Estonian Service broadcast a report last week on a visit by Sillari
and other leftist political leaders to Sweden in search of political
and financial support.(Riina Kionka)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull

The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute
(a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich,
Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs
Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday,
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