|The burnt child shuns the fire until the next day. - Mark Twain|
No. 95, 19 May 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR NEW AZERBAIJANI PRESIDENT ELECTED. Thousands of Azerbaijanis demonstrated on 18 May outside the parliament building in Baku. Meanwhile, a special parliament session accepted the resignation of acting President and parliament Chairman Yagub Mamedov "on health grounds," ITAR-TASS reported. (Mamedov had asserted last week that he would not under any circumstances resign as acting president.) The parliament elected the 35-year-old orientalist and Azerbaijani Popular Front activist Iskander Gambarov as acting president and parliament chair-man. (Alternative candidates proposed were Geidar Aliev and National Independence Party chairman Etibar Mamedov.) The parliament further voted almost unanimously to cede its powers to the 50-person National Council, which was renamed the National Mejlis, AzerINFORM reported. (Liz Fuller) CASUALTIES OF THE AZERBAIJANI COUP. Western agencies reported on 18 May that Azerbaijan's Deputy Security Minister Rafik Sadykhov had been hospitalized in Baku after shooting himself in the head. Sadykhov had reportedly had special responsibility for Nagorno-Karabakh and had attempted suicide just before a planned meeting with Azerbaijan's new defense minister. Postfactum reported on 18 May that ousted President Mutalibov had been hospitalized in Moscow with an unspecified illness. ITAR-TASS quoted an Azerbaijani representative in Moscow as denying any knowledge of the whereabouts of Mutalibov, whom the Azerbaijani Popular Front reportedly intends to put on trial. (Liz Fuller) TURKEY WARNS ARMENIA OVER FIGHTING IN NAKHICHEVAN. On 18 May Armenian forces launched an artillery attack against the village of Sadarak in north-west Nakhichevan, seizing three strategic hills and killing up to 11 people, Turkish and Azerbaijani media reported. Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Erdal Inonu broke off a visit to Istanbul on receipt of the news and returned to Ankara where he met with top military officials; he subsequently told journalists that Turkey, which is a signatory to the 1921 treaty guaranteeing the integrity of Nakhichevan's frontiers, would make every attempt to stop the attacks by peaceful means, and that he had warned Armenian Foreign Minister Raffi Hovanissian by telephone that continued Armenian aggression would create "serious consequences, unacceptable to Turkey." (Liz Fuller) LACHIN CAPTURED--BUT BY WHOM? The town of Lachin, strategically located between the western border of Nagorno-Karabakh and the Armenian-Azerbaijani frontier, was captured on 18 May, thus securing a land corridor from Armenia to Karabakh, an Azerbaijani Defense Ministry spokesman told Western agencies. Russian and Armenian media have claimed that the forces who took Lachin were Kurds fighting for the reestablishment of their autonomous region abolished in 1929, but a spokesman for the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic told ITAR-TASS that Armenian forces from Karabakh "had been forced" to take Lachin to break the Azerbaijani-imposed blockade of Karabakh which had led to starvation among the population. An RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow quoted an Azerbaijani military official as claiming that an unspecified number of Kurds were fighting alongside Nagorno-Karabakh self-defense forces at Lachin. (Liz Fuller) KYRGYZSTAN SIGNED BUT TURKMENISTAN DID NOT SIGN COLLECTIVE SECURITY AGREEMENT. Radio Moscow and Interfax reported on 18 May that Kyrgyzstan's signature on the CIS collective security agreement on 15 May has been overlooked in many media reports on the Tashkent summit. The first deputy chairman of Kyrgyzstan's State Defense Committee was so concerned about the omission that he exhibited a copy of the document to reporters to prove that Kyrgyz Vice-President Feliks Kulov had indeed signed in the name of Kyrgyzstan. Also, contrary to many press accounts, Turkmenistan apparently did not sign the agreement. (Bess Brown) BURBULIS PROPOSES RUSSIAN-MUSLIM CONFEDERATION. Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has said that those CIS states which did sign the new collective security agreement in Tashkent, could in future form a closer confederation of states. The agreement was signed by Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Burbulis was a member of the Russian delegation at the summit in Tashkent, and his comments were reported by the Sueddeutsche Zeitung on 18 May. (Alexander Rahr) GRACHEV NAMED RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER? Both "Vesti" and ITAR-TASS reported on 18 May that Army General Pavel Grachev has been named to the post of Russian Defense Minister by Boris Yeltsin. The report remains unconfirmed but, if accurate, would be something of a surprise. By a presidential order issued on 7 May, Grachev was granted temporarily the administrative command of the Russian Defense Ministry, but was not appointed Defense Minister. His temporary status was to have lasted one month. (Stephen Foye) CHIEF OF STAFF SAYS AGREEMENT REACHED ON CFE. Col. Gen. Viktor Samsonov, the chief of staff of the CIS Armed Forces, told RIA on 18 May that an agreement on weapons quotas to meet the terms of the 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty had been reached at the recent Tashkent CIS summit. Before this treaty can be implemented, the successor states to the USSR must agree how to apportion the USSR's allocations. The Interfax 15 May summary of the Tashkent meeting indicated that the CIS heads of states had tasked their prime ministers and foreign ministers to "finalize" this document by 29 May. (Doug Clarke) SHAPOSHNIKOV ON STRATEGIC NUCLEAR ARMS. The CIS Commander in Chief, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov, has said that he is preparing an appeal to the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine regarding strategic nuclear arms. Interfax on 18 May reported that Shaposhnikov had recently met with officers from the Long-Range aviation regiment in Uzin, Ukraine--following Ukraine's announcement that it was taking over all Long-Range Aviation units in the republic. Apparently frustrated by this move, he was said to believe that there were only two options: abide by the CIS agreements on strategic forces, or declare them void and accept four new nuclear powers. Shaposhnikov said he was going to invite the CIS defense ministers to a 26 May Moscow meeting to discuss the nuclear issue. (Doug Clarke) KHASBULATOV: RUSSIA HAS NO CLAIMS ON UKRAINE. Russian parliamentary Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov told a Moscow briefing on 18 May that "Russia will press no territorial claims against the fraternal Ukrainian people," adding, in reference to the forthcoming referendum in Crimea, that Russia will do everything in its power to find a conflict-free solution to the Crimean problem, according to ITAR-TASS. In Crimea itself there were growing signs that leaders are backing away from confrontation. Quoting Ukrainian sources, Reuters reported on 18 May that the Presidium of the Crimean parliament favors rescinding the proclamation of independence of 5 May, as demanded last week by Kiev, and has called for the referendum to concern itself with approving the Crimean constitution. (Kathy Mihalisko) COMMUNISTS CONTINUE CAMPAIGN AGAINST YELTSIN. At meetings held on 16-17 May, the executive committee of the Russian Party of Communists, decided to continue the collection of signatures on a petition, demanding a referendum to oust the Russian president. The party also called for a political strike under the slogan "No to Yeltsin-Gaidar Government," ITAR-TASS reported on 18 May. Meanwhile, another communist organization, the All-Union Committee of Communists, met over the weekend and called for the convocation of the 29th Congress of the CPSU within two months, the agency reported the same day. According to ITAR-TASS, a leader of the Russian Party of Communists, Anatolii Kryuchkov, criticized the all-Union committee, saying it was a small organization which had no right to speak in the name of all communists of the former Soviet Union. (Vera Tolz) GAIDAR SAYS "THINGS ARE ALREADY BETTER." Interviewed on Russian TV on 18 May, Yeltsin's economics supremo Egor Gaidar was asked "when will things get better?" After a moment's thought he replied that, in a certain sense, things were already better for the Russian population. They had weathered the winter which, pessimists had predicted, would see riots and mass starvation. Now, Gaidar said, there are goods in the shops and, even though prices are high, people are no longer terrified by the prospect that tomorrow they will have nothing to eat. (Elizabeth Teague) RUSSIAN DOCTORS SUSPEND STRIKE; TEACHERS CONTINUE. Following talks between the Russian government and the trade union of medical workers, as a result of which the government offered to increase wages for health service workers and hospitals, medical personnel throughout Russia were reported by "Ostankino" TV on 16 May to have returned to a normal working schedule. However, the union stressed that it was only suspending the strike, which would be resumed in August if the government did not fulfill its promises to medical staff. Meanwhile, Radio Mayak reported on 17 May that teachers in many parts of Russia were continuing their protest action in demand of higher pay. Teachers in St. Petersburg, Tyumen, Tatarstan, Kazan and many other Russian cities were reported to be on strike. (Elizabeth Teague) RUSSIA OIL AND GAS PRICES RAISED. Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on 18 May that sets new wholesale limit price for oil and gas, ITAR-TASS reported. Punitive tax rates will be applied to those producers who charge prices above the decreed upper limits. The price increase was originally set for 1 April, but was delayed because of protests from CIS partners and from the agricultural sector. The upper limit wholesale price for oil rises from 350 rubles to 2,200 rubles a ton, or about one-seventh of the world price at current rates of exchange. The price of regular gasoline at the pump is expected to rise from about 1.20 rubles to about 7.80 rubles a liter. Russian Economics Minister Andrei Nechaev was quoted by Rossiiskaya gazeta on 25 April as estimating that the fuel price increase will boost overall consumer prices by about 150%. (Keith Bush) NAZARBAEV ARRIVES IN US. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev arrived in Washington on the evening of 18 May for a five-day official visit to the United States. On his way to Washington, Nazarbaev gave a press conference in Moscow at which he said that Kazakhstan would sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state, ITAR-TASS and Western correspondents reported on 18 May. Nazarbaev said that the CIS defense agreement signed in Tashkent on 15 May provided the guarantees that Kazakhstan sought for its security. He said he was even willing to consider allowing Russia to base its nuclear missiles in Kazakhstan, because Kazakhstan now regards Russia as a political and military ally. (Bess Brown) KAZAKH-CHEVRON AGREEMENT SIGNED. Shortly after arriving in Washington, Nazarbaev signed the agreement with Chevron Corporation to develop the Tengiz and Korolev oil fields over the next forty years, Western agencies reported. The Tengiz field holds an estimated 25 billion barrels of oil, of which 6-9 billion are economically recoverable. Each side is to invest some $10 billion in the project. Sales revenues are to be shared equally, but Chevron is expected to end up with about 20% of the income after royalties and taxes are paid to Kazakhstan. The joint venture is scheduled to start next year, but full production is not expected for at least a decade. (Keith Bush) TURKMENISTAN ADOPTS NEW CONSTI-TUTION. Turkmenistan's Supreme Soviet adopted a new constitution on 18 May and scheduled a presidential election on 21 June, Turkmenpress and Russian agencies reported. Under the new constitution, Turkmenistan's legislature will be renamed "Mejlis," the Turkmen and Persian word for assembly. Political pluralism is guaranteed and legislative, executive, and judicial powers are strictly defined. It also guarantees private ownership of land and other property. Turkmenistan is the first Central Asian state to adopt a post-independence constitution. (Bess Brown) ROMANIAN PRESIDENT IN MOLDOVA. Romanian President Ion Iliescu is paying his first official visit to Moldova today and tomorrow. Pressed by Romanian journalists in Chisinau to comment on the reunification of Moldova with Romania, Iliescu held fast to his established position that reunification was "not topical" and would only materialize at an unspecified future time. He called instead for the consolidation of Moldovan statehood. (Vladimir Socor) MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT LINKS MOLDOVAN, UKRAINIAN RESISTANCE AGAINST "THE EMPIRE." At the same, joint press conference, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur vowed that "we will not give up the left bank of the Dniester to anybody," particularly "not to those who also want to get the Crimea and also create here [on the Dniester] an outpost against Ukraine." Recalling that "Dniester republic" president Igor Smirnov and other "Dniester" leaders had only arrived in Moldova a few years ago from Russia, Snegur said that they were not entitled to form artificial states within existing independent states. (Vladimir Socor) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ANOTHER BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE SHATTERED. On 18 May, heavy fighting was reported in Bihac, Mostar, Tuzla, eastern Herzegovina, in many areas near the river Drina along the Serbian border and northeastern Bosnia near the Croatian border. In Sarajevo a Red Cross convoy was attacked; one representative was killed and three were injured. Nonetheless, yet another cease-fire agreement was signed that day by the warring parties at UNPROFOR headquarters in Sarajevo. The agreement, to take effect immediately, would allow for withdrawal of the federal army from Sarajevo. Radio Sarajevo quoted Bosnian Presidency member Fikret Abdic as saying that the gunfire and shelling were simply coinci-dental and expressing confidence that this cease-fire will definitely be observed. On the international front, the UN said it is sending relief convoys of food and medicine to areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev appealed to the warring parties to stop the fighting and suggested that a security zone be set up around Sarajevo. Kozyrev is currently in Belgrade and will continue on his peace mission to Sarajevo. (Milan Andrejevich) FEDERAL FORCES WITHDRAWAL ON SCHEDULE. Radio Serbia reports on 18 May that all units of the Yugoslav federal air force have com-pleted their withdrawal from Bosnia-Herzegovina. The air force evacuated all personnel, weapons, and technical equipment and left behind nothing of value. The federal army is expected to complete its withdrawal of all personnel who are citizens of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by the end of the day on the 19th. The withdrawal of federal forces stationed in Sarajevo will not meet the Yugoslav State Presidency's deadline set on 4 May, however. Military officials say that 80% of the 60,000 troops in Bosnia will be affected. (Milan Andrejevich) POLISH DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Jan Parys resigned on 18 May. Parys had accused unnamed politicians of trying to draw the army into antidemocratic intrigues, but a special parliamentary investigation commission found no evidence and recommended Parys's dismissal. President Walesa also questioned Parys's competence. Parys said he could not stay in the job since the commission's findings effectively subordinated his ministry to the president's National Security Office. Prime Minister Jan Olszewski named Parys's deputy, Romuald Szeremietiew, acting defense minister. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) PRESSURE ON POLISH PREMIER TO RESIGN. On 17 May, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, leader of Poland's Center Agreement Party (PC), called for a new government. He said the present cabinet's chances of survival were minimal. According to PAP, Kaczynski called Olszewski "a major disappoint-ment." Olszewski's government has failed to propose any major new reform legislation and has yet to win Sejm approval for its deficit budget proposal. The cabinet has also been in conflict with President Walesa. Olszewski's position was further shaken after the collapse last month of lengthy talks to strengthen his government with the participation of proreform opposition groups. Two small parties have deserted his coalition since then and three ministers have resigned. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) KRAVCHUK IN POLAND. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk arrived in Poland on 18 May for a two-day visit expected to put relations between the two neighboring countries on a new footing. As reported by Ukrinform-TASS, Kravchuk told Polish President Lech Walesa that the time has come to put aside yesterday's stereotypes and strive for fruitful relations in this time of dynamic changes. The two signed a basic agreement on good neighborly relations, friendship, and cooperation. A number of other agreements on specific fields of cooperation were signed on 18 May in Warsaw as well. Polish Prime Minister Jan Olszewski said Warsaw is ready to assist Ukraine implement economic reform, especially by providing help in training specialists and the introduction of a Ukrainian currency. (Kathy Mihalisko & Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) ALBANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN BULGARIA. During an official visit to Bulgaria, Albanian Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi on 18 May met with Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev and Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev. Serreqi told reporters there is "no coincidence" in selecting Bulgaria for his first trip abroad and said the two countries face similar problems. According to BTA Serreqi also praised Bulgaria's new regional diplomacy, though he expressed serious concern about stability in the Balkans, specifically in connection with the upcoming elections in Kosovo. (Kjell Engelbrekt) CZECHS, SLOVAKS BEGIN BIDDING FOR PRIVATE COMPANIES. On 18 May Czechoslovakia embarked on another wave of its voucher privatization project. About 8.5 million people who had registered to buy shares in about 1,500 companies can bid on a company's stock. Post offices will accept and register bids by 8 June; they will inform the bidders of the outcome by the end of June. More than one half of all the participants have already opted to entrust their vouchers to some 480 funds which will do the bidding for them and later manage the shares. Rounds have been devised to establish the market price of shares of companies worth some 300 billion koruny ($10 billion), Western agencies report. (Peter Matuska) ANTALL ON THE MEDIA. Speaking at the annual assembly of the International Press Institute (IPI) in Budapest, Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall rejected charges by IPI director Peter Gallinger that his government is seeking to gain control of the media. Gallinger warned in his opening speech that "those who want to see more governmental influence . . . [in the media] are a threat to Hungary's prestige." Antall stressed that the press is free in Hungary: he said he regards the media as the "watchdog of freedom." In the current parliamentary debate on a draft law on the media, the government is accusing the media of antigovernment bias while journalists complain that the government is trying to curb press freedom. This was reported by MTI and Western news agencies. (Edith Oltay) JOURNALIST SPEAKS OUT ABOUT RUSSIAN MINORITIES. Lidia Grafovka, a prominent Russian journalist for Literaturnaya Gazeta, told the IPI on 18 May that Russian-speakers in the Baltic and Central Asian states face hostility and threats in regions where they have spent most of their lives. Grafovka said many Russians in the Baltic States would like to go to Russia but housing and food shortages make it difficult. She described Russians living in Central Asia as "a special kind of people--energetic and full of the entrepreneurial spirit." RFE/RL's correspondent in Budapest reported Grafovka's remarks. (Riina Kionka) BALTS TO GET OWN TELEPHONE CODES. The Baltic States will achieve telephonic independence as early as next autumn. BNS reported on 18 May that the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has agreed in principle that the telephone area codes of 370, 371 and 372 will be assigned to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, respectively. These codes, which currently belong to the eastern part of Germany, will be available as early as September. The Baltic States now use the telephone code of "7" used by the former Soviet Union. (Riina Kionka) LEGAL AND ILLEGAL HUNGARIAN TOURISM. Hungarian citizens made 3.5 million trips abroad in the first four months of 1992, a 10% increase over the same period last year, MTI reported on 18 May. The number of trips to Romania rose by over 50% and that to the southern Slav states more than doubled. The number of foreign visitors reached 7.5 million, a 3% increase over the first four months of 1991. During the past weekend Hungarian border guards turned back 9,000 foreigners, 8,200 of them Romanian citizens, for not meeting the necessary entry requirements, and apprehended 106 persons who had entered the country illegally. An additional 100 illegal aliens were returned to Hungary by Austrian and Czechoslovak authorities. (Alfred Reisch) CZECHOSLOVAK INFLATION HELD TO 10%. On 18 May federal Finance Minister Vaclav Klaus said although a 12% inflation rate had been predicted for 1992, in fact it probably will not exceed 10% by the end of the year. He called this "a great success, comparable with Western Europe." He added that if this trend continues, there will be "no need for defending wage controls." Speaking of unemployment, which in March affected 502,562 people in Czechoslovakia (195,162 in the Czech and 307,400 in the Slovak Republic), Klaus noted that last year 250,000 jobs were created in the Czech Republic and 40,000 in the Slovak Republic, CSTK reports. (Peter Matuska) BULGARIA SEEKS REIMBURSEMENT FOR LIBYA SANCTIONS. On 18 May Bulgaria's envoy to the United Nations, Svetoslav Baev, sent a letter to Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali requesting compensation for losses suffered by Bulgaria as a result of upholding sanctions against Libya during the Gulf War. According to an RFE/RL correspondent, Baev said he will submit a detailed list of the damages soon. Among other things, Bulgaria cut all its flights to Libya and two carriers operating on domestic routes were withdrawn. (Kjell Engelbrekt) LATVIAN PASSPORTS. Antons Baltacis, head of the visa department of Latvia's Ministry of Internal Affairs, told the press on 13 May that the first 10,000 Latvian passports are expected to arrive in Riga on 27 May. He explained that passports, printed in Germany, are dark blue for citizens of the Republic of Latvia, light blue for sailors, green for diplomats, and brown for stateless residents. The first to receive passports will be members and staff of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers. Ordinary residents will be eligible once they have registered with the local authorities, Diena reported on 13 May. (Dzintra Bungs) SHIFTING ROMANIAN POLITICAL SPECTRUM. In the run-up to the elections, local media are reporting a variety of political splintering and realignments. The Democratic NSF party is preparing to rally for its presidential candidate, incumbent Ion Iliescu. Marian Munteanu, a student leader during the 1990 crackdown on the opposition, has denied allegations from the pro-Iliescu daily Dimineata that his Movement for Romania has connections to the prewar ultraright. Domokos Geza is expected to resign from the leadership of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania and Tokacs Szabo will represent the party at strategy sessions with its allies from the opposition Democratic Convention (DC). Following the departure of Radu Campeanu, leader of the National Liberal Party, from the DC coalition, on 17 May a number of little-known political groups created the New DC. Prominent liberals, however, joined the Young Wing Liberals to form a (pro-DC) Liberal Alliance on 12 May. (Mihai Sturdza) ESTONIA: IS RUSSIA USSR'S SUCCESSOR? On 18 May the Estonian delegation to the CSCE asked the Russian delegation for clarification of the extent of juridical continuity from the Soviet Union to the Russian Federation. In a prepared statement to the CSCE's Committee of Senior Officials in Helsinki, delegation chief Toivo Klaar asked whether the Russian Federation is to be considered a full successor state of the USSR, and if not, what legal responsibilities to the international community it had formally assumed. The Russian delegation did not immediately respond. The query came in connection with stalled troop withdrawal negotiations. The RFE/RL Estonian Service carried the story that day. (Riina Kionka) CIS UNIT VOWS TO RESIST WITH ARMS. Radio Lithuania reported on 18 May that the National Defense Ministry announced that the commander of an ex-Soviet paratroop unit in Marijampole had informed the Lithuanian military command that motor vehicles, under armed guard, would be on the move in the republic. He warned that if arms were used against these vehicles retaliatory mea-sures would be taken. On 15 May Lithuanian soldiers stopped a column of Russian military vehi-cles by firing shots into the tires. (Saulius Girnius) KLIMAITIS ARRESTED. On 18 May police arrested Algis Klimaitis, former Sajudis representative to the European Parliament in Strasbourg, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. The arrest followed accusations in Lietuvos aidas that Klimaitis had been a KGB agent and spied against Lithuania. Although he denied the charges, he nevertheless resigned from the presidium of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party. Klimaitis's arrest was prompted by information that he was planning to return to Germany. The Lithuanian parliament presidium has not granted him Lithuanian citizenship but he holds a Lithuanian passport issued in 1982 by the Lithuanian delegation to the Vatican. (Saulius Girnius) SWEDISH MUSIC PRIZES FOR BALTIC LEADERS. On 18 May Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis flew to Stockholm, where he, as well as the Estonian and Latvian Ministers of Culture, Mart Kubo and Raimonds Pauls, was awarded a prize for supporting national music culture. The prizes, in the amount of one million Swedish kronor, are awarded by the Swedish Music Academy; they were handed out by King Carl Gustaf XVI, Radio Lithuania reports. On 19 May Landsbergis will hold talks with leading Swedish officials and political leaders. (Saulius Girnius) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. 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