|When in doubt, tell the truth. - Mark Twain|
No. 89, 11 May 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR FOREIGN MINISTERS MEET IN ADVANCE OF CIS SUMMIT. The foreign ministers or deputy foreign ministers of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan met in Tashkent on 10May to prepare for the CIS summit meeting in Tashkent on 15May, ITAR-TASS reported. They decided on a provisional agenda of 16 items for the meeting of heads of state. These include military issues, measures to be taken if a state introduces its own currency, the division of the former USSR State Bank's assets, and therights of deported peoples and national minorities. The agenda for the simultaneous meeting of CIS heads of government was also discussed. (Ann Sheehy) KOZYREV THINKS COMMONWEALTH WILL SURVIVE. There has been widespread speculation that the Tashkent summit will see the end of the Commonwealth, but Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told ITAR-TASS on 10May that rumors of its demise were, "to put it mildly, exaggerated," and that the Tashkent summit was "fated to succeed." Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, who is under pressure from Ukrainian political parties to take Ukraine out of the Commonwealth, said in a recent Italian newspaper interview, that he did not see that Ukraine would be better off without the Commonwealth. (Ann Sheehy) CRIMEAN QUESTION. The Crimean parliamentary chairman, Nikolai Bagrov, was quoted by Radio Rossii on 9May as saying that the peninsula should not be the source of conflict between Ukraine and Russia, but rather serve as a unifying factor. Bagrov made the comments in an interview with the Kharkov Novosti agency and a Japanese newspaper. The Crimean parliament, said Bagrov, will do everything to ensure that Crimea plays a stabilizing role. At the same time, he maintained that it will act on the will of the Crimean people. (Roman Solchanyk) BLACK SEA FLEET NUCLEAR-FREE. ITAR-TASS on 9May carried a statement from the CIS Joint Armed Forces Command announcing that there were no nuclear weapons aboard the ships or submarines of the Black Sea Fleet. This could complicate the current negotiations between Russia and Ukraine over the future of the fleet, since Ukraine has only recognized ships with nuclear weapons as "strategic" forces that would not be included in the Ukrainian Navy. (Doug Clarke) US AND CIS TO HOLD SUB TALKS. Vice Admiral Valerii Aleksin, the Chief Navigator of the CIS Navy, told ITAR-TASS on 9May that the question of submarines of one side operating in the training areas of the other would be on the agenda of the annual meeting of Russian and American naval experts, to be held in Moscow at the end ofMay. Aleksin revealed that there had been ten collisions between Soviet/CIS and foreign submarines over the past 25 years--nine involving American boats. (Doug Clarke) PROCUREMENT POLICY, KOKOSHIN ROLE IN NEW RUSSIAN MOD? The promotion of Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Pavel Grachev to Army General and his appointment on 7May as acting Russian Defense Minister raised questions about the role envisioned for Russia's other First Deputy Defense Minister, Andrei Kokoshin. According to an ITAR-TASS report on 8May, Grachev told a meeting of military leaders attended by Supreme Soviet Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov that one of his [Grachev's] primary tasks was to coordinate efforts with the military industrial complex in developing advanced high accuracy weapons based on "new principles." He said that Kokoshin would be tasked with overseeing this cooperative process in the new Russian Defense Ministry. (Stephen Foye) APPOINTMENTS IN BELARUSIAN MOD. Postfactum reported on 8May that two days earlier, on 6May, the former Belarusian Military District was liquidated, while on 7May Belarusian Defense Minister Pavel Kozlovsky was promoted to Colonel General and seven of his nine deputies were appointed. The report listed among the newly appointed deputies former Belarusian Military District commander Colonel General Anatolii Kostenko and former acting Belarusian Defense Minister Colonel General Petr Chaus. The report added that Chaus is the only ethnic Belarusian of the seven deputies, and that nearly all the rest are Russians. Kostenko is believed to be Ukrainian. (Stephen Foye) YELTSIN REORGANIZES PRESIDENTIAL STAFF. Russian President Yeltsin on 8May issued an edict appointing Gennadii Burbulis state secretary attached to (pri) the president of the Russian Federation. The position of state secretary of the RF, which Burbulis and 10 other Yeltsin aides previously held, is being abolished, Interfax reported; instead, 5 presidential advisors will be appointed (who may hold no other post). (Sergei Shakhrai resigned as state secretary last week, saying he would retain only his parliamentary seat.) The reshuffle is being interpreted by some in Moscow as a move to create "a new Politburo" which will make key policy decisions to be implemented by junior government ministers. (Julia Wishnevsky and Elizabeth Teague) PRESIDENTIAL SECRETARIAT STREAMLINED. Also on 8May, Interfax reported, Yeltsin named Viktor Ilyushin, who until now has headed the presidential secretariat, to a new post as his first assistant. Valerii Semenchenko has been named to head the presidential office in Ilyushin's place. The office is to be streamlined and its staff cut; a number of commissions and working groups that used to be attached to it are being transferred to the government. (Elizabeth Teague) VICTORY DAY IN MOSCOW. The Russians celebrated the 47th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany on 7-9May, with concerts, fireworks, and other festivities. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, being an Afghan war veteran, attended almost all of the events. On 8May, Yeltsin delivered a speech commemorating the victory and also addressed a crowd in Gorky Park the following day, saying that the Victory Day would always be the greatest Russia holiday. One the most colorful events was the "Victory of Peace" parade on 9May, which included a military orchestra composed of the four allied powers, German and Italian forces, as well as Nazi concentration camp survivors dressed in their striped camp robes. (Julia Wishnevsky) PROTESTS CENSORED BY RUSSIAN TV. Russian TV's reporting of the opposition to Yeltsin is all too reminiscent of the way Soviet TV used to report on Yeltsin's opposition to Gorbachev, the latest example: Victory Day (9May). All newscasts reported on a rally in support of the coup leaders outside a Moscow prison; they briefly mentioned Yeltsin's visit to Gorky Park but showed him only with fans who said they would endure any hardship for the Russian president. No mention was made of the fact that Yeltsin was heckled or that Moscow police chief Arkadii Murashov was attacked. In just the same way, Soviet TV halted live reporting of the 1May 1990 Red Square military parade so that viewers would not see anti-Gorbachev demonstrators. (JuliaWishnevsky) CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO REVIEW COMMUNIST PARTY BAN. At its next meeting, on 26May, Russia's Constitutional Court will consider whether or not Yeltsin's post-coup edicts, banning the activities of the CPSU and the Russian Communist Party on Russian territory and confiscating the party's property, infringed the constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 7May. (Elizabeth Teague) NEW PARTY BEING FORMED IN RUSSIA. The organizing committee for the creation of the "AllRussian Union of Renewal" met in Moscow on 6May, Inter-fax reported. It contains members of the Russian parliament, directors of industrial enterprises, and businessmen. The new party plans to hold its constituent conference at the end ofMay. Details are few but what evidence there is suggests that this is the latest in a series of so far unsuccessful attempts to create a bloc of "right-of-center" interests. The leading role being played by Aleksandr Vladislavlev, first vice president of Russia's influential employers' association, the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, suggests thatthis may prove a force to be watched. (Elizabeth Teague) WAGE-PRICE RACE IN RUSSIA. Trud of 9May predicts that by the end of 1992 the average wage in Russian industry will be 7-10,000 rubles a month, compared with 3,464 in March. The paper goes on to argue that consumer prices will nonetheless have outpaced wages by that time, reaching a level 33 times that of 1990 [probably average 1990]. That implies roughly a doubling of the March 1992 price-level by December, which would be bad news for the Russian government and the IMF. Meanwhile a report by "Vesti" on 10May noted that, at present, the position is different: recent wage rises have brought back shortages at existing prices in Moscow. (Philip Hanson) "EXPLOSIVE SITUATION" IN OIL-PRODUCING TYUMEN. The trilateral commission set up earlier this year (consisting of representatives of the Russian government, employers, and unions) is sending a delegation to the oil-producing Tyumen region of Siberia. The delegation will try to defuse the "explosive situation" said to have arisen there because of a shortage of cash to pay workers' wages; Tyumen residents are threatening to strike on 20May. Pre-strike situations have also been declared to protest over cash shortages in the Kemerovo and Chelyabinsk regions, Interfax reported on 8May. (Elizabeth Teague) ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI FORCES IN BATTLE FOR SHUSHA. The ink had scarcely dried on the agreement signed on 8May to end the Karabakh conflict when Armenian forces within Karabakh (not represented at the Tehran talks) launched a major offensive against the Azerbaijani town of Shusha. The town was taken on 9May after heavy overnight fighting, Western agencies reported. A counter-offensive by Azerbaijan on 10May failed to retake Shusha. Having stated on 8May that he did not blame the Armenian government for the renewed onslaught, on 10May acting Azerbaijani President Yagub Mamedov termed Armenia's signing of the Tehran agreement "an act of bad faith," according to The Los Angeles Times. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan argued in a statement quoted on Central TV on 9May that the situation in Karabakh is beyond the control of either Armenia or Azerbaijan, and that any international mediation attempt that fails to include representatives of "the legitimate government of Karabakh" is doomed to failure. (LizFuller) TURKEY, ARMENIA CALL FOR UN INTERVENTION IN KARABAKH. On 9May Iranexpressed concern over renewed fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh and called upon Armenia and Azerbaijan to abide by the peace agreement, Western agencies reported. According to Tehran Radio, the leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan asked for Iran's help in ending the fighting. On 9May Turkey requested that the UN Security Council take "urgent measures" to stop the fighting in Karabakh, and on 10May, Armenia appealed for an emergency session of the UN Security Council to debate the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces to Nagorno-Karabakh. (LizFuller) CEASE-FIRE REPORTED IN NAKHICHEVAN. On9May, Radio Erevan expressed concern that detachments subordinate to the Azerbaijan Popular Front which refuse to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the Nakhichevan authorities were engaged in military operations against Armenians in Nakhichevan, and that Turkey might intervene militarily in the fighting under the terms of the 1921 Turkish-Russian Treaty. On 10May the Anatolian News Agency quoted Nakhichevan parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev as stating that a cease-fire had been reached thanks to the efforts of Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel. (Liz Fuller) NEW DEFENSE MINISTER APPOINTED IN GEORGIA. The notoriously unreliable informal militia commander, Tengiz Kitovani, who has repeatedly spread erroneous and misleading information concerning the political situation in Georgia, has been appointed Defense Minister, replacing Lieutenant General Levan Sharashenidze, Radio Tbilisi reported on 8May. (Liz Fuller) TALKS RESUME IN DUSHANBE. On 11May, talks between the Tajik government and opposition leaders on creating a coalition government have resumed after having been broken off on 10May, Reuters reported. The opposition had withdrawn from the talks after several people were killed in a crowd trying to enter the national security committee building (formerly, the KGB) where President Rakhman Nabiev was reported to have taken refuge. Strains were appearing in the anti-government coalition as representatives of the Islamic Party pressed a demand for Nabiev's resignation; other coalition members seemed inclined to have him remain in office. Western and Russian media reported that officials in both the Kulyab and Leninabad Oblasts were trying to distance their regions from events in Dushanbe, and Leninabad was even considering joining Uzbekistan. (Bess Brown) ASHGABAT SUMMIT RESULTS IN AGREEMENTS.The summit of leaders of the Central Asian countries (except Tajikistan), Iran, Turkey and Pakistan that was held in Ashgabat on 9-10May, resulted in an agreement to jointly construct a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Western Europe, Western and domestic agencies reported on 11May. Coordinating committees were established to plan road and rail connections, including the construction of a rail line from China to Turkey. Participants in the summit also signed statements calling for political, economic and cultural cooperation and the reduction of trade barriers between their countries. (BessBrown) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE YUGOSLAV MILITARY PURGE. Yugoslav area and Western media report on 8 May that the Serb-dominated State Presidency of the new Yugoslav state announced the immediate retirement of 38 high-ranking generals and admirals making room for a high command whom Western diplomats say are more loyal to Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic. The resignation of acting federal defense minister and chief of the general staff Col. Gen. Blagoje Adzic was accepted and Col. Gen. Milutin Kukanjac, commander of the 2nd Military District in Sarajevo, was relieved of duty. Both men had opposed the rapid pullout of federal forces from Bosnia-Herzegovina. The purge is seen by Western diplomats as Milosevic's latest move to facilitate his negotiating position regarding the EC, CSCE and US which are threatening to isolate the newly established Federal Republic of Yugoslavia if it does not immediately withdraw the federal army from Bosnia-Herzegovina. (Milan Andrejevich) NEW FEDERAL ARMY COMMANDERS. New appointments in the Yugoslav armed forces include Col. Gen. Zivota Panic, acting chief of general staff, to chief of general staff and Gen. Ratko Mladic, commander of the Knin corps in southwestern Croatia, as commander of 2nd Military District. Radio Serbia reports the new federal defense minister will be a civilian. Bosnian Defense Minister Jerko Doko told Radio Sarajevo that he does not favor such changes during negotiations over the army's withdrawal from the republic but added he feels confident that cooperation will soon be established between the Bosnians and Gen. Panic. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic minimized the significance of the changes, saying negotiations "will be difficult regardless of what has taken place at the top in Belgrade." (Milan Andrejevich) BOSNIA UPDATE. Bosnian officials say Serbs are preparing for a final offensive aimed on overrunning Sarajevo. Heavy fighting was also reported over the weekend in Mostar, Doboj, and Bosanski Brod. Radio Sarajevo also reports that Bosnian security troops clashed with Croat forces from western Herzegovina near Bosnia's main industrial city of Zenica. This is the first known armed conflict between units of Bosnia's predominantly Muslim territorial defense force, and Herzegovinian Croat forces who have not recognized the joint command of the republic's territorial defense system. Radio Croatia reported on 8 May that Serbian forces shelled the shrine at Medjugorje causing considerable damage. UNPROFOR representatives stationed in Medjugorje as well as about 60 pilgrims from Italy and the US witnessed the attack. On 10 May, Bosnian officials and the federal army reached further agreement on the army's pullout from 10 barracks, and the lifting of blockades on roadways, rail lines and the Sarajevo airport, Radio Sarajevo reports. (Milan Andrejevich) GREECE WILL ASSIST MACEDONIA. Politika reports on 9 May that Greece has pledged economic and defense assistance to the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia under one condition: that it change its name. The daily quotes Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis as saying that the EC's promised recognition of Macedonia under a new name would stabilize the Balkan region. Greece argues that using a name other than Macedonia would help assure that the republic has no territorial pretensions on the northern Greek province of the same name. Macedonia has repeatedly rejected the Greek demands, but says it is ready to sign an agreement with Greece on the inviolability of borders. (Milan Andrejevich) WALESA DEMANDS MORE EXECUTIVE POWERS FROM SEJM. On 8 May President Lech Walesa asked for stronger executive powers, saying the relationship between himself, government and parliament is like the "Bermuda Triangle." In a 25-minute speech to the Sejm, he said the government's inability to handle urgent issues is killing hope among Poles and causing Western creditors to lose faith in the country. Walesa urged the deputies to start working on an interim "small constitution" that would clearly state the powers of the president, the government, and the parliament. He also urged a system of legislation that would speed up the passage of economic reforms. Later, Walesa told newsmen he expects parliament to act on his proposals within one month or he will turn to the public to rally support for himself. Western and Polish media carried the story. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) RUMORS OF POSSIBLE RESIGNATIONS IN POLAND. On 9 May Polish officials denied a report broadcast on the TV program "Panorama" that the government intends to resign. The program quoted unofficial sources as saying that Prime Minister Jan Olszewski had met Parliament Speaker Wieslaw Chrzanowski to discuss resigning. The sources indicated that the premier might be replaced by Chrzanowski himself. Later, Chrzanowski told PAP that "as a politician I support the government of Prime Minister Jan Olszewski," adding he was not conducting any meetings involved in changing the government. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS LEAVE POLISH COALITION. The Party of Christian Democrats has decided to withdraw support for the Olszewski government, Polish media report. The party press office says this does not signify that it is joining another coalition nor that it is undertaking activity aimed against the government. The decision to withdraw support for the government was influenced by Olszewski's absence during the president's speech in parliament, which the party views as an event of great significance. Since the party has only four deputies in the Sejm, its withdrawal from the government coalition is more symbolic than practical. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) ROMANIA'S EX-KING URGES RETURN TO MONARCHY. Some 4,000 demonstrators rallied on 10 May in Bucharest for the return of the monarchy. One day earlier TV broadcast a call from Switzerland by ex-king Michael saying that the return to constitutional monarchy is the only way to break finally with communism, reinforce democracy as a symbol of national and social reconciliation, and rebuild a free and wealthy Romania reintegrated in Europe. According to local and foreign media, the unprecedented broadcast was mixed with emotional scenes showing tens of thousands Romanians welcoming the king during his Eastertime visit. On 10 May the main opposition and independent dailies also voiced support for the return of the monarchy. (Mihai Sturdza) BULGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER ASKED TO RESIGN. In a row over continued arms export to countries blacklisted by COCOM, primarily Libya and Iraq, Bulgarian prime minister Filip Dimitrov has asked Defense Minister Dimitar Ludzhev to step down, Reuters reported on 8 May. Ludzhev, heading the parliamentary committee on arms trade, has repeatedly been criticized for granting export licenses to anti-Western states. This week Dimitrov is expected to announce several other cabinet changes. (Kjell Engelbrekt) HAVEL QUESTIONS SOME OF MECIAR'S VIEWS. In his weekly radio address the Czechoslovak president calls some of the ideas of Vladimir Meciar, head of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS) and Slovakia's , are "dangerous." Although Havel did not say which of Meciar's views he differs with, Meciar has said that following adoption of a declaration of sovereignty, Slovakia would adopt a new constitution and then hold a referendum on whether to stay in the federation. Havel said he got a picture of Meciar's views after a lengthy conversation in Prague last week. The HZDS is Slovakia's strongest political party. (Barbara Kroulik) HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER SEEKS OUSTER OF RADIO CHIEF. Jozsef Antall has initiated proceedings for the immediate dismissal of Csaba Gombar, the chief of Hungarian Radio, MTI reported on 8 May. Explaining his decision in a formal request to President Arpad Goncz, Antall said that Gombar is incompetent and pointed out that parliament's cultural committee also recommended Gombar's ouster. In the past few months Antall has sought to remove both Gombar and Elemer Hankiss, president of Hungarian TV, on grounds of incompetence. The opposition parties have, however, resisted Antall's move and accused him of trying to gain control over radio and TV by placing his own appointees in leading positions. (Edith Oltay) HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENTARY BY-ELECTION INVALID. A by-election held in the southeastern town of Bekecsaba on 10 May has been declared invalid, MTI reports. According to preliminary figures, only 14,113 out of 51,308 registered voters went to the polls--a 27.5% turnout far short of the required 50% plus one vote. The ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum's candidate, Minister of International Economic Relations Bela Kadar, got the most votes (3,250), followed by the candidates of the Alliance of Free Democrats, Socialist Party, Alliance of Young Democrats, and Smallholders' Party; the two independent candidates finished last. In the 1990 two-round general election, Bekescsaba registered a 69% and 45% turnout, respectively. (Alfred Reisch) VOTERS REJECT CEPAITIS. On 9 May voters in the Marijampole parliament electoral district voted whether to reinstate Virgilijus Cepaitis as their deputy, Radio Lithuania reports. The parliament had suspended him as a deputy after the Lithuanian Supreme Court ruled that he had cooperated with the KGB. To regain his seat Cepaitis had to gain the support of the majority of all eligible voters, but only 12.7% participated in the vote, the majority of them voting against him. (Saulius Girnius) ESTONIAN VISAS AT EASTERN FRONT. On 1 July immigration authorities will begin issuing visas to visitors entering Estonia from the Eastern border. A Border Authority official told BNS on 9 May that immigration authorities will issue visas, but border guards will physically check visitors' documents. Estonia has required visas of visitors entering from all other borders since last fall. (Riina Kionka) SLOVAKIA ON HUNGARIAN PULLOUT FROM DAM PROJECT. Slovak Forest and Water Management Minister Viliam Oberhauser on 9 May rejected Hungary's withdrawal from the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam project. He said that Hungary cannot legally rescind the 1977 agreement. He also said the action makes Hungary appear as an unreliable partner and hopes that Hungarian officials will reconsider. The Czechoslovak side has maintained that it cannot afford to dismantle the huge, nearly-completed project and that it needs the hydroelectric power, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. (Barbara Kroulik) KOZLODUY NOT TO BE SHUT DOWN. According to a Reuters report on 8 May, the Bulgarian government has decided not to close down the problem-ridden Kozloduy nuclear power plant, but rather to improve its safety. Government spokeswoman Nadezhda Mihailova said the decision was in line with advice by the National Energy Committee, which had argued that Bulgaria could not afford the alternative--the purchase of power or energy resources from abroad. Some 40% of the country's energy needs are covered by the plant, although constant technical problems cause frequent stops. (Kjell Engelbrekt) VISEGRAD THREE MILITARY MEETING. The defense ministers of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland held a one-day meeting with the participation of French Defense Minister Pierre Joxe on 9 May in Merin, Czechoslovakia, MTI reports. Joxe wanted to inform himself about the Visegrad Three's ideas on overall European security. Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur said Hungary would like to become a member of the WEU upon receiving associate membership status in the EC. (Alfred Reisch) BURBULIS: NATO TO HELP WITH TROOP PULLOUT. After meeting with NATO Undersecretary Amadeo de Franchis on 8 May in Brussels, Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis said that NATO has promised to help Russia with the withdrawal of troops from the Baltic States, Western agencies report. Burbulis said that the troops would be transferred soon to Russia, but provided no details. (Dzintra Bungs) RUSSIA ACCUSES BALTICS OF DISREGARD FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. At a time when the West is increasingly urging Russia to withdraw the ex-USSR troops in the Baltic States in a timely fashion, Moscow is responding with accusations that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are discriminating against the Russian minorities there. Russian Foreign Ministry press spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky made these remarks to the press in Moscow on 8 May, after Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev had handed an official memorandum to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg on 7 May. The accusations were dismissed by Baltic representatives in Strasbourg as "hopelessly one-sided" and "an obvious political ploy," Western agencies reported on 8 May. (Dzintra Bungs) LITHUANIAN PARTY CONGRESS. On 9-10 May the Brotherhood for the Defense of Independence-January 13 held a congress in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. Former political prisoner Jadvyga Bieliauskiene was elected chairman. The congress passed resolutions, among others, calling for a referendum on the president to be held on 6 June and urging priests in rural areas to explain in their sermons the political situation and the need for a president. (Saulius Girnius) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. 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