|There is always one moment in childhood when the door opens and lets the future in. - Graham Greene|
No. 86, 06 May 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR STATE OF EMERGENCY IN DUSHANBE. On 5 May, four people were reported killed on both sides of the confrontation between pro- and anti-government forces, and the latter seized control of the Dushanbe TV center, according to domestic media and Western correspondents in Dushanbe. Tajik President Rakhman Nabiev declared a state of emergency and a curfew was instituted, both of which seem to have been largely ignored by the opposing sides. Reports from Dushanbe indicated, however, that Nabiev and the opposition were continuing to hold talks in an attempt to find a solution to the conflict. The opposition is demanding that Nabiev resign and a new parliament be elected. (Bess Brown) CENTRAL ASIAN LEADERS TO MEET IN TURKMENISTAN. The leaders of the five Central Asian states are to meet on 9-10 May with Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani and Pakistani Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif in Ashkhabad, Western and domestic media reported on 4 May. The summit, according to its organizer, Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov, will discuss coordination of major economic projects in order to help solve common regional problems. Niyazov reportedly denied that it was aimed against any country, but Iranian commentators expressed hope that it would stop what Iran sees as US meddling in the region. (Bess Brown) CRIMEA MOVES TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE. On 5 May, the Crimean parliament took another step toward full independence from Ukraine by adopting an act of independence (samostoyatelnost) pending a Crimean referendum, according to Radio Ukraine and reports from Moscow. Radio Ukraine reported that the Republican Movement of Crimea (RDK), which favors secession from Ukraine, had proposed that lawmakers proclaim Crimea's full independence (nezavisimost). The Crimean deputies also decided to approach the president of Ukraine and its parliament with a proposal to conclude a bilateral treaty between the two states. The independence proclamation will be put to a referendum vote scheduled for 2 August. Western agencies report that President Leonid Kravchuk, who is in Washington, rejected the Crimean move as unconstitutional. (Roman Solchanyk) UKRAINE AND TURKEY BACK NUCLEAR-FREE BLACK SEA. Speaking at Ankara airport before his departure for the United States, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk characterized his two days of talks with Turkish leaders as "very positive and constructive." Kravchuk said that both Turkey and Ukraine favored the withdrawal of all nuclear weapons from the Black Sea, according to ITAR-TASS on 5 May. The two sides also discussed the return of Crimean Tatars to their Crimean peninsula homeland, an issue which, Kravchuk asserted should be resolved at the intergovernmental level. In addition, Turkey and Ukraine agreed to "do everything possible" to restore stability in Nagorno-Karabakh. (Kathy Mihalisko) KRAVCHUK IN UNITED STATES. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk arrived in the United States on 5 May where he is to hold talks with President George Bush and senior US officials, Western agencies reported. Kravchuk was met by Secretary of State James Baker upon arrival in Washington. The Ukrainian president is scheduled to address both houses of Congress, visit the US Chamber of Commerce, and hold talks with business leaders. An unnamed senior US official is quoted as saying that previously the administration had not placed sufficient emphasis on its relations with Ukraine. The main item on the agenda is the fate of Ukraine's nuclear arsenal. (Roman Solchanyk) LAST TACTICAL NUKES OUT OF UKRAINE. A train carrying the last shipment of tactical nuclear weapons once located in Ukraine arrived in Russia the morning of 6 May, according to ITAR-TASS. The agency quoted CIS Lt. Gen. Sergei Zelentsov as saying that the withdrawal had been completed 25 days ahead of schedule. Some former Soviet tactical nuclear weapons might still be in Belarus, as officials in that republic had earlier indicated that the weapons transfer would be completed by 1 June. (Doug Clarke) YELTSIN TO SIGN ARMY DECREE? According to Sergei Filatov, deputy chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Boris Yeltsin is planning on 7 May to sign a decree on the creation of a Russian army and Russian Defense Ministry. Filatov's remarks, reported by Radio Rossii on 5 May, were made during a visit to the former Soviet Western Group of Forces, stationed in Germany. (Stephen Foye) BURBULIS CRITICIZES UNITED STATES. During his trip to India, Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has criticized US pressure on Russia to halt a planned sale of booster rocket engines to India, indicating that the United States should be careful not to play the role of "a rule-maker on a global scale without taking into account the interests of its partners," ITAR-TASS reported on 5 May. The United States, fearing that the rocket engine sale will enable India to launch larger rockets, has also pressed India to refrain from making a deal with Russia. The disagreement over the Russian-Indian rocket sale seems to be the first international conflict between the United States and the new democratic Russia. (Alexander Rahr) FILATOV CHALLENGES YELTSIN ON REFERENDUM. Sergei Filatov, first deputy chairman of the Russian parliament, questioned the need to hold a referendum on the entire constitution as proposed by Russian President Yeltsin. He told ITAR-TASS on 5 May that a referendum should be held only on the basic principles of the constitution, such as private property and the question of whether Russia should be a parliamentary or presidential republic. Filatov rejected Yeltsin's demand for the abolition of the Congress of People's Deputies, saying that before his trip to Northern Russia, Yeltsin firmly believed that the Congress should continue to exist. He added that the Congress should adopt the new constitution. (Alexander Rahr) POLITICAL PARTIES DON'T SUPPORT YELTSIN ON CONGRESS. Several Russian political parties have also expressed opposition to Yeltsin's recent call for a referendum on the Congress and a new Russian constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 May. The parties were especially critical of Yeltsin for stating during the Congress that he was against the idea of disbanding the body and then subsequently changing his mind. They also called Yeltsin's proposal on the Congress unconstitutional. Those parties that condemned Yeltsin's political "flip-flop" included the opposition bloc, "Russian Unity," and the People's Party of Free Russia, headed by Vice President Rutskoi. (Vera Tolz) RUBLE CONVERTIBILITY SOON . . . Konstantin Kagalovsky, the Russian government adviser in charge of relations with international financial institutions, told a Moscow news conference on 5 May of plans to make the ruble fully convertible by August this year. Although the accounts by Western agencies differ, the consensus on Kagalovsky's remarks seems to be that a single floating exchange rate will be introduced on 1 July and that, after one month of floating, the exchange rate will be pegged within a 15% range. Varying dates for ruble convertibility have been suggested in recent weeks by Gaidar, Nechaev, and other leading officials. (Keith Bush) . . . BUT AT WHAT RATE? Kagalovsky referred to a rate of about 80 rubles = $1 as "reasonable," but conceded it was hard to predict the rate at which the ruble could be supported. Michael Emerson, the EC representative in Moscow, said in late April that a rate of 30-35 rubles had looked feasible two months earlier (Izvestiya, 25 April). Indeed that rate had been mentioned by the Minister for Privatization, Anatolii Chubais, in February (Reuters, 7 February). The problem is to control domestic inflation so that some rate is sustainable. Another problem is foreign investment: at what exchange rate do asset purchases by foreign firms look too much like give-aways to be politically acceptable? (Philip Hanson) KUMYK-LAK TENSION IN DAGESTAN. Thousands of Kumyks and Laks, many of them armed, are confronting each other in Karaman-Tyube, a locality a dozen kilometers north of Makhachkala, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 May. So far the militia have managed to prevent a serious clash between them. The Kumyks are demanding the annulment of a decree establishing a new area of Lak settlement on land which they claim is age-old Kumyk territory. The Laks are demanding that the Kumyks vacate the land they have arbitrarily occupied. The territory was allocated for Lak settlement when the Dagestan parliament decided to restore to the Chechen the Akin raion where Laks had been forcibly settled after the Chechen were deported in 1944. (Ann Sheehy) BONN READY TO ASSIST KAZAKHSTAN GERMANS. Kazakh Prime Minister Sergei Tereshchenko, who is visiting Germany, told ITAR-TASS in Bonn on 5 May that in his talks with German officials, both sides had expressed their interest in the 900,000 Germans in Kazakhstan remaining where they are. Tereshchenko said that a joint German-Kazakhstan commission would be set up to deal with the problem, and a statement from the German Foreign Ministry said that the Bonn government had promised Kazakhstan assistance in its efforts to persuade the Germans to remain. The same day it was stated that the Bonn government was allocating DM 100 million this year towards the restoration of the Volga German Republic. (Ann Sheehy) RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT GETTING TOUGH WITH WORKERS . . . Summarizing an article in the weekly Kommersant, Radio Rossii on 5 May discussed the apparent calmness with which the Russian government is reacting the present wave of strikes. The protests are so far confined to the nonproductive sector of the economy (medical personnel, teachers, and busdrivers) since the government took the precaution of raising wages for industrial workers prior to January's price liberalization. But, Kommersant noted, the government does not expect industrial harmony to last forever and is therefore planning soon to begin enforcing the law on strikes adopted in 1990. This law obliges work collectives to observe long and complicated procedures prior to striking; if these procedures are ignored, harsh penalties will ensue, including criminal prosecution of ringleaders. (Elizabeth Teague) . . . AND UNIONS? The Russian government is also preparing, Kommersant reported, to adopt a particularly tough attitude toward the official Russian Trade Union Federation (the FNPR) and the militant Moscow Federation, which it sees as the most likely instigators of worker protest. The government is threatening to confiscate property given to the unions by the state in the past, and to strip the official unions of their responsibility for the administration of social welfare benefits. (Such a step has already been taken by the government in Kyrgyzstan; Trud, 15 April 1992). This is a serious threat since it is because the official unions distribute benefits that they have managed to retain their membership in the postcommunist period. (Elizabeth Teague) DAY OF THE PRESS IN RUSSIA. 5 May has traditionally been celebrated in Moscow as the Day of the Press. (On 5 May 1912, Lenin founded the newspaper Pravda.) This year, the Russian Ministry for Information and Mass Media failed to make any special announcement, but "Vesti" and Radio Rossii noted the occasion. Pravda on 5 May published a front-page interview with Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, who was quoted as calling Pravda "an historic newspaper which has done a lot of good." In the interview, Rutskoi criticized earlier attempts by the Russian Ministry for Information to close down Pravda. (Vera Tolz) SUICIDES INCREASING AMONG DISABLED, ELDERLY. Noting that 6 May is Invalids Day worldwide, Central TV's "Novosti" reported that the suicide rate among disabled and elderly persons in Russia is "rising sharply." No precise figures were given, however. (Elizabeth Teague) ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI LEADERS MEET IN TEHRAN. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan and acting Azerbaijani President Yagub Mamedov meet today in Tehran for three days of talks aimed at resolving the Karabakh crisis, Azerbaijan's Turan news agency reported on 5 May. A CSCE representative will also participate; it is not clear whether Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev will attend. (Liz Fuller) PREPARATIONS FOR CSCE MINSK SUMMIT ON NAGORNO-KARABAKH. Meanwhile CSCE official Mario Rafaelli met in Moscow on 5 May with Kozyrev and in Erevan with Armenian Foreign Minister Raffi Hovannisian, ITAR-TASS reported. Rafaelli expressed optimism that a cease-fire and a mutually acceptable political solution to the Karabakh crisis could be worked out between Armenia and Azerbaijan. ITAR-TASS also quoted a representative of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic as stating that Karabakh's participation in the Minsk peace conference depends on the composition and status of the delegation representing the local population. (Liz Fuller) "DNIESTER" FORCES BLOW UP MAJOR BRIDGE. The "Dniester" forces on 5 May blew up the highway bridge over the Dniester at Gura Bicului, east of Chisinau, Moldovapres reported. This is the third bridge over the Dniester blown up by the "Dniester republic" forces since March in their attempts to cut off the left bank of the river, which they claim, from the right bank. (Vladimir Socor) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SHAKY NEW CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA. Radio Sarajevo reports early on 6 May that a new cease-fire agreement reached the day before by members of Bosnia's Presidency and the federal army appears now to be holding in Sarajevo. After the signing of the agreement, heavy fighting had been reported in the war-torn capital and other areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina. On 5 May the EC condemned both the federal army and the Muslim-Croat defense forces for the escalation of fighting, saying the former has violated the "basic rules of democracy," and blaming the latter for Sunday's attack on a UN-EC escorted federal army convoy withdrawing from the capital. The statement came as 15 of the EC's 25 monitors withdrew from Sarajevo for security reasons. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic again called for foreign military intervention. Yugoslav Vice President Branko Kostic described Izetbegovic's request as the move of an "irresponsible, sick, and ambitious man," according to Belgrade radio. Meanwhile, Bosnia's Muslim-Croat militia gave federal troops until midnight tonight to withdraw from Sarajevo. (Milan Andrejevich) UPDATE ON YUGOSLAV ARMY WITHDRAWAL. On 5 May the Yugoslav Presidency issued more details of its decision to withdraw those members of the federal army from Bosnia-Herzegovina who are citizens of the recently created Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. According to Belgrade radio, the Presidency called on the leaders of the republic's three national parties to make the decision on taking over the part of the federal forces made up of residents of the republic. The Presidency added that there are no longer grounds for it to decide on military questions in Bosnia-Herzegovina; it said the army's withdrawal will be carried out in a "planned and organized way." (Milan Andrejevich) BOSNIA APPEALS TO TURKEY, DEMIREL RESPONDS. On 5 May Turkish foreign minister Hikmet Cetin sent a letter to the UN Security Council asking that action be taken to protect the territorial integrity and independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Radio Sarajevo on the same day carried a TRT report that during his current visit in Ankara Bosnian Deputy Prime Minister Muhamed Cengic appealed to Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel for military assistance. Demirel told a meeting of True Path Party members on 5 May that Turkey's policy in assisting Bosnia-Herzegovina will only be through political means and by providing humanitarian aid. In an interview with the Slovenian weekly Mladina late in April, however, Vehbija Karic, a commander of the Bosnian territorial defense and former Yugoslav army colonel, was quoted as saying that Turkey has offered Bosnia $5 billion [sic] in aid to be used however they wish, presumably not excluding purchase of military materiel. There has been no Turkish confirmation of Karic's claim. (Milan Andrejevich) TUDJMAN FAVORS CONFEDERAL BOSNIA. Croatia's President Franjo Tudjman told reporters on 4 May that Bosnia-Herzegovina cannot survive as an independent state unless relations among Muslims, Serbs, and Croats are settled both on the basis of complete equality and in terms of territorial reorganization. Tudjman said the latter can only be achieved "if a cantonization on confederal foundations is accomplished." Cantonization is also advocated by Bosnia's Serbs, while Muslims favor a unitary state. Vjesnik carried the report on 5 May. (Milan Andrejevich) AUTONOMY FOR VOJVODINA HUNGARIANS. According to a 5 May Radio Budapest report, Andras Agoston, president of the Hungarian Democratic Community of Vojvodina, told a committee of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg that survival of entire ethnic groups is being endangered in the territories of (former) Yugoslavia. This is the first time Agoston has spoken out on this issue in an international forum. He said that Hungarians in Vojvodina would like to have autonomy similar to that sought by Serbs in Croatia. Agoston told the committee that to date about 20,000 Hungarians have had to flee their homeland and their homes have been taken over by Serbs. (Judith Pataki) BULGARIA JOINS COUNCIL OF EUROPE. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe voted unanimously on 5 May to grant Bulgaria full membership, making it its 27th member and the fourth East European country to join. The formal admission will take place at a ceremony of the Council's Committee of Ministers on 7 May, RFE/RL and Bulgarian Radio report. BTA notes that after the invitation to join was received from Strasbourg, the National Assembly, in its first session after Easter holidays, ratified the Council of Europe statutes and other European documents. (Rada Nikolaev) TRILATERAL CONFERENCE. Upon his arrival in Prague on 5 May Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky said that the talks between the foreign ministers of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland and those of Britain, Holland, and Portugal in the presence of EC Commission Vice Chairman Frans Andriessen will be the first substantial exchanges of views between the "Visegrad Three" states and the EC leadership, Radio Budapest reported on 5 May. After the meeting Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier said that Czechoslovakia's goal is to integrate the three countries in the European Community by 1999. Dienstbier said a Czechoslovak-Hungarian agreement has been approved by both governments. The ministers discussed documents to be assessed at the Prague summit on the three countries' relations with international organizations, border contacts, and legislative cooperation. They also discussed ratification and implementation of EC Association Accords signed in December. Today (6 May) Polish and Czechoslovak Presidents Lech Walesa and Vaclav Havel and Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall will discuss coordination of their foreign policies, CSTK reports. (Barbara Kroulik & Alfred Reisch) WERE POLISH PARLIAMENTARIANS "SCREENED?" Andrzej Milczanowski, the former chief of the State Protection Office, denied that any of the three prime ministers he served under (Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Jan Krzysztof Bielecki and Jan Olszewski) ever told him to screen any parliamentary candidates. Milczanowski assured PAP on 5 May that no such request was ever issued by the four internal ministers who served them: Czeslaw Kiszczak, Krzysztof Kozlowski, Henryk Majewski and Antoni Macierewicz. He admitted, however, that he did some checking on his own "of individual persons or groups, particularly those who would be participating in the decision making process on the state level." (Roman Stefanowski) MOLDOVAN NAMED AS ROMANIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE. On 4 May a congress of the Romanian Ecologist Movement (REM) named Mircea Druc as its candidate for the presidential elections. Druc, a former prime minister of Moldova, now leads Moldova's opposition Popular Christian and Democratic Front, which strongly advocates union with Romania. Druc said on 5 May in Bucharest that he is a committed ecologist and will consider his candidacy with party leaders, local media report. It is not clear that Romanian laws permit foreign citizens to run in elections. REM, the country's main ecological party, is included in the governmental coalition. (Mihai Sturdza) CZECHS APPROVE BILL TO NAME FORMER AGENTS. The Czech government approved a bill to publicize the names of people alleged to have been agents of the former secret police (StB) between 1948 and 1989. The bill must still be passed by the Czech parliament before it can become law. Passage could lead to the publication of some 90,000 names. The bill also proposed prison sentences for those who reveal classified lists of alleged collaborators without authorization. Czech Premier Petr Pithart told CSTK he did not vote for the bill. (Barbara Kroulik) RUSSIAN EMBASSY IN RIGA? After visiting Vilnius on 4 May, a high ranking Russian delegation headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Fedor Shelov-Kovedyaev arrived in Riga on 5 May, Radio Riga reports. The delegation met with Prime Minister Godmanis and other leading Latvian officials to discuss Latvian-Russian relations, withdrawal of ex-Soviet troops from Latvia, and the reestablishment of a Russian embassy in Riga. The Russians expressed concern about Latvian legislation on citizenship and the use of Latvian as state language. Godmanis emphasized that Russia must honor its economic commitments to Latvia and should endorse the Latvian-Russian treaty of 13 January 1991. (Dzintra Bungs) ROMANIAN FINANCIAL NEWS. National Bank governor Mugur Isarescu said on 4 May that the deficit of the current accounts to be financed this year stands at between $1.1-1.5 billion, not including the $800 million needed for a hard-currency reserve fund. Because of unsatisfactory procedures, only $10 million of the $180-million loan received last year could be spent on medical assistance. In the meantime, the dollar exchange rate jumped to some 420 lei on the free market (the bank rate is 216 lei). Isarescu did not exclude a further sharp rise and said that the authorities cannot control it, local media report. (Mihai Sturdza) HUNGARIAN COMPENSATION BONDS AS PENSIONS. Radio Budapest reports that on 5 May the Hungarian Parliament approved a law that allows people over 65 and disabled persons to convert their compensation bonds into annuities. The monthly yield will depend not only on the age but also the sex of the claimant; life expectancy of females is greater than that of males. For example, a 65-year-old man could turn his 100,000-forint voucher into a monthly annuity of 667 forint but a woman of the same age would receive only 531 forint. (Judith Pataki) AIDS IN LITHUANIA. On 5 May Saulius Caplinskas, director of the AIDS Prevention Center in Vilnius, told a news conference that Lithuania now has 12 people infected with the HIV virus, Radio Lithuania reports. The latest victim, a 25-year old alcoholic from Vilnius, had been a frequent blood donor, and there is a possibility that others may have been infected by his blood. News of the latest victim has severely decreased blood donations in Lithuania. An initiative group is forming an AIDS Foundation to support victims. (Saulius Girnius) POLISH OMBUDSMAN AGAINST MEDICAL ETHICS CODE. Tadeusz Zielinski, the recently appointed Citizens Rights' Spokesman, told PAP on 5 May that he will take all possible legal measures to prevent the violation of currently binding laws. The law, said Zielinski, should have precedence over professional rules. He was referring to the ethical code adopted by the Council of Physicians last December that went into effect on 4 May. The code forbids the performing of abortions, still permitted under the Polish law. Doctors who violate the new ethics code can be brought before a professional panel and deprived of their license to practice medicine. An antiabortion bill was blocked in the Sejm in May 1991, pending new legislation proposals. (Roman Stefanowski) BULGARIAN JEWS CELEBRATE 500th ANNIVERSARY. On 5 May celebrations were held in Sofia to welcome the "Fire of Hope" lit in Toledo, Spain, and transported by young athletes along seven routes that will join in Jerusalem. The "Sepharad-92" event marks the 500th anniversary of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their settlement in Bulgaria, one of seven countries to receive them. A message from President Zhelyu Zhelev was quoted by BTA praising Spain's King Juan Carlos for correcting a historic injustice. Zhelev mentioned that Bulgaria had rescued 49,000 Jews and expressed sorrow for those 11,363 whom it did not succeed in saving. Medals were presented to Zhelev and others by Israel Benun, vice president of the World Maccabean Union. (Rada Nikolaev) VAGNORIUS SPEAKS TO PARLIAMENT. On 5 May the Lithuanian prime minister spoke to the parliament session, broadcast live over Radio Lithuania. Vagnorius called for the dismissal of energy minister Leonas Asmantas and said that he would like to have only one deputy, who would be in charge of privatization. A facetious suggestion that Deputy Prime Minister Zigmas Vaisvila could become communications and information science minister was greeted with laughter, and Vaisvila subsequently sent a telegram affirming that he has no desire for the post. Vagnorius repeated his appeal that elections to a new parliament be held in the fall. (Saulius Girnius) TURLAJS: RUSSIA WANTS TO DICTATE TERMS. Latvia's Deputy Minister of Defense Dainis Turlajs told Diena on 4 May that the Russian Federation is trying to dictate the conditions for the ex-Soviet troop withdrawal from Latvia. At the meeting of experts in Moscow 27-29 April Turlajs was given to understand that if Latvia does not comply with Russian demands, Moscow might try to provoke unrest in Latvia that would necessitate the use of ex-Soviet troops to protect the rights of Russians living there. Turlajs also said that Russia does not appear to be interested in having foreign observers monitoring the troop pullout process. He added that so far Russia has insisted that the ex-Soviet bases in Latvia and military industries should remain essentially under Russian control, a position that Latvia finds unacceptable. (Dzintra Bungs) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. Troyanek or Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
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